click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Geography of Hungary

Hungary is a landlocked country in East-Central Europe with a land area of 93,030 square km. It measures about 250 km from north, it has 2,106 km of boundaries, shared with Austria to the west, Serbia and Slovenia to the south and southwest, Romania to the southeast, Ukraine to the northeast, Slovakia to the north. Hungary's modern borders were first established after World War I when, by the terms of the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, it lost more than 71% of what had been the Kingdom of Hungary, 58.5% of its population, 32% of the Hungarians. The country secured some boundary revisions from 1938 to 1941: In 1938 the First Vienna Award gave back territory from Czechoslovakia, in 1939 Hungary occupied Carpatho-Ukraine. In 1940 the Second Vienna Award gave back Northern Transylvania and Hungary occupied the Bácska and Muraköz regions during the Invasion of Yugoslavia. However, Hungary lost these territories again with its defeat in World War II. After World War II, the Trianon boundaries were restored with a small revision that benefited Czechoslovakia.

Most of the country has an elevation of less than 200 m. Although Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains, those reaching heights of 300 m or more cover less than 2% of the country; the highest point in the country is Kékes in the Mátra Mountains northeast of Budapest. The lowest spot is 77.6 m above sea level, located in the south near Szeged. The major rivers in the country are the Tisza; the Danube is navigable within Hungary for 418 kilometers. The Tisza River is navigable for 444 km in the country. Less important rivers include the Drava along the Croatian border, the Rába, the Szamos, the Sió, the Ipoly along the Slovakian border. Hungary has three major lakes. Lake Balaton, the largest, is 78 km long and from 3 to 14 km wide, with an area of 600 square km. Hungarians refer to it as the Hungarian Sea, it is an important recreation area. Its shallow waters offer good summer swimming, in winter its frozen surface provides excellent opportunities for winter sports. Smaller bodies of water are Lake Velence in Fejér County and Lake Fertő, the artificial Lake Tisza.

Hungary has three major geographic regions: the Great Alföld, lying east of the Danube River. The country's best natural resource is fertile land. About 70% of the country's total territory is suitable for agriculture. Hungary lacks extensive domestic sources of energy and raw materials needed for industrial development. Main articles: Little Hungarian Plain, Great Alföld; the Little Alföld or Little Hungarian Plain is a plain of 8,000 km2 in northwestern Hungary, southwestern Slovakia and eastern Austria, along the lower course of the Rába River, with high quality fertile soils. The Transdanubia region lies in the western part of the country, bounded by the Danube River, the Drava River, the remainder of the country's border with Slovenia and Croatia, it lies west of the course of the Danube. It contains Lake Balaton; the region consists of rolling hills. Transdanubia is an agricultural area, with flourishing crops and viticulture. Mineral deposits and oil are found in Zala county close to the border of Croatia.

The Great Alföld contains the basin of its branches. It encompasses more than half of the country's territory. Bordered by mountains on all sides, it has a variety of terrains, including regions of fertile soil, sandy areas and swampy areas. Hungarians have inhabited the Great Plain for at least a millennium. Here is found the puszta, a long, uncultivated expanse, with which much Hungarian folklore is associated. In earlier centuries, the Great Plain was unsuitable for farming because of frequent flooding. Instead, it was the home of massive herds of horses. In the last half of the 19th century, the government sponsored programs to control the riverways and expedite inland drainage in the Great Plain. With the danger of recurrent flooding eliminated, much of the land was placed under cultivation, herding ceased to be a major contributor to the area's economy. Main articles: Alpokalja, Transdanubian Mountains, North Hungarian Mountains. Although the majority of the country has an elevation lesser than 300 m, Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains.

They can be classified to four geographic regions, from west to east: Alpokalja, Transdanubian Mountains and North Hungarian Mountains. Alpokalja is located along the Austrian border; the Transdanubian Mountains stretch from the west part of Lake Balaton to the Danube Bend near Budapest, where it meets the North Hungarian Mountains. Its tallest peak is the 757 m high Pilis. Mecsek is the southernmost Hungarian mountain range, located north from Pécs - Its highest point is the Zengő with 682 metres; the North Hungarian Mountains lie north of Budapest and run in a northeasterly direction south of the border with Slovakia. The higher ridges, which are forested, have rich coal and iron deposits. Minerals are a major resource of the area and have long been

Iraq al-Manshiyya

Iraq al-Manshiyya was a Palestinian Arab village located 32 km northeast of Gaza City. The village contained a shrine for Shaykh Ahmad al-Arayni, it was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The village was located 32 km north-east of Gaza, in an area of rolling hills, where the coastal plain and the foothills of the Hebron mountains merged, it was on the south side of the highway between al-Faluja to the north-west, Bayt Jibrin to the east. It was located at the foot of Tell Maqam Shaykh Ahmad al-Arayni known as Tel Erani, it has been speculated. Remains from the Early Bronze Age and Iron Age have been excavated at Tel Erani, a Byzantine era burial site has been found south-west of the Tell. A khan was established in 717 H. by al-Malik Jukandar during the reign of the Mamluk sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun. This is according to inscriptions on either side of the entrance to the Maqam Shaykh Ahmad al-Arayni, at the summit of the tell. However, both Mayer and Sharon thought that the inscription text was not in situ, with Sharon suggesting that it came from a khan, As-Sukkariya, located 5 km south of the Maqam.

Iraq al-Manshiyya, like the rest of Palestine, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, in the census of 1596 it appeared under the name Iraq Hatim, located in the nahiya of Gaza, part of Gaza Sanjak. It had a population of 11 Muslim households, they paid a fixed tax rate of 25% on a number of crops, including wheat, barley, as well as goats and beehives. In 1838, Edward Robinson noted the village, located SW of part of the Gaza district. In 1863, Victor Guérin visited the village, described a white domed waly on the top of the tell, north of the village; the village itself had around 300 inhabitants, but Guérin assumed it had been larger. Around two wells were columns of gray-white marble. An Ottoman village list from about 1870 counted 114 houses and a population of 303, though the population count included men only. In the late Ottoman Period a railway station was established near the village, this station was destroyed in World War I. In 1883, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described it as a village built of adobe bricks and surrounded by arable land.

The village had a radial plan, with its smaller streets branching out from the intersection of two perpendicular main streets. Three wells supplied the village with water for domestic use; as the village grew, it expanded towards the northeast in the direction of the large mound, called Tall al-Shaykh Ahmad al- Urayni. At the summit, some 32 m. high, was the religious shrine for Shaykh Ahmad al-´Urayni. The shrine consisted of a roofless walled enclosure made of reused stone blocks; the doorway was located in the middle of the north wall. Above the doorway was a marble lintel, while on each side of the door were the above-mentioned inscriptions. Opposite, on the south wall, was a deep concave mihrab; the villagers worked in agriculture. In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, ‘Eraq el-Manshiya had a population of 1,132 Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census to 1347, still all Muslims, in 299 houses; the kibbutz Gat was established in 1941 on lands that the Jewish National Fund acquired from the village.

In the 1945 statistics the population of al-Manshiyya was counted with that of Gat. Of this, Arabs used 53 dunams for plantations and irrigable land, 13,449 for cereals, while they had 35 dunams as built-up land. Goats and sheep supplied; the villagers dyed their rugs in al-Faluja, where they went for medical treatment and other services. Iraq al-Manshiyya was in the territory allotted to the Arab state under the 1947 UN Partition Plan. However, it was captured by Israel's Alexandroni Brigade in October 1948 from Egyptian forces in Operation Yoav; the Egyptian Army controlled. After Egypt and Israel negotiated an armistice agreement, the Israeli Defense Forces intimidated the inhabitants to flee. Following the war the area was incorporated into the State of Israel, after which kibbutz Gat took over additional lands after the expulsion of the villagers. In 1954 Kiryat Gat was established on village land, in 1956 Sde Moshe was established on village land east of the village site. According to the Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi, the structures on the village land in 1992 are: "A forest of eucalyptus has been planted on the site, two signs, each in both Hebrew and English, identify it as "Margolin Peace Forest."

Only traces of the village streets remain, along with scattered cactuses. Part of the surrounding land is cultivated by Israeli farmers."The shrine stood until at least 1946, when it was inspected by the Antiquities Department. During the 1950s it was described as being in ruinous condition, Petersen, inspecting it in 1994, found no inscriptions or standing structures. List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus Welcome To'Iraq al-Manshiyya Iraq al-Manshiyya, Survey of Western Palestine, Map 20: IAA, Wikimedia commons'Iraq al-Manshiyya from the Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center The Nakba and Kiryat Gat, by Henry Norr, The Electronic Intifada, 23 July 2008 Tracing All That Remains of Iraq al-Manshiyya, video, y

Arno Almqvist

Arno Axel Almqvist was a Finnish colonel and modern pentathlete. Almqvist started his military career at Hamina Cadet School in Finland and joined the Mikhailovskaya Artillery Military Academy in St. Petersburg. During the First World War he served as a captain at the Kronstadt naval fortress. Almqvist was arrested by the Bolsheviks and spent five months in the dungeons of Kronstadt. At the Finnish Civil War Almqvist fought for the White Guards as a commander of an artillery battery. In May 1918, Almqvist was named as the commander of Suomenlinna coastal artillery regiment. From September 1923 to November 1924 he was the commander of Finnish Coastal Artillery. After his resignation Almqvist worked as a prison warden. Arno Almqvist died on Mikkeli bombings on March 1940, he was working for the Finnish army as a voluntary civilian. Almqvist competed for Russia in the modern pentathlon at the 1912 Summer Olympics and finished 20th place. Arno Almqvist at the International Olympic Committee

Francesco Trevisani

Francesco Trevisani was an Italian painter, active in the period called either early Rococo or late Baroque. Born in Capodistria, Istria, he was the son of Antonio Trevisani, an architect, by whom he was instructed in the first rudiments of design, he studied in Venice under Antonio Zanchi. He moved to Rome, where he remained until his death, in 1746, his brother, Angelo Trevisani remained a prominent painter in Venice. In Rome, he was supported by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, he was influenced by Carlo Maratta, as it is manifest in his masterpiece, the frescoes in San Silvestro in Capite. In this commission, he worked alongside Ludovico Gimignani. In Rome, he was favored with the patronage of Cardinal Chigi. Chigi employed him in several considerable works, recommended him to the protection of Pope Clement XI, who not only commissioned him to paint one of the prophets in San Giovanni Laterano, but engaged him to decorate the cupola of the cathedral in Urbino. There he represented, in fresco, allegories of the four Quarters of the World, in which he displayed much invention and ingenuity.

He was employed by the Duke of Modena, in copying the works of Correggio and Parmigianino, painted in Brunswick, Munich and Vienna. He shows Maratta's influence in the cartoons for baptismal chapel in St. Peter's Basilica, in the oval with Prophet Baruch in San Giovanni in Laterano, in the Death of St. Joseph in Sant'Ignazio. Trevisani painted scenes from the Life of the Blessed Lucy of Narni in the church of Narni, he painted the huge canvas for the main altar of the Basilica of the Mafra National Palace in Portugal. He became a member of the Academy of Arcadia in 1712. Among his pupils were Francesco Civalli of Perugia, Cav. Lodovico Mazzanti, Giovanni Batista Bruglii. Trevisani died in Rome in 1746. Martyrdom of St Andrew, Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, Rome Stigmata of St Francis, Santissime Stimmate di San Francesco, Rome Frescos at Santa Chiara chapel, San Silvestro in Capite, Rome Prophet Baruch, San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome Altar of the Ecstasy of Saint Francis at the Santissime Stimmate di San Francesco Suicide of Lucretia Banquet of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony, Palazzo Spada, Rome Portrait of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, Bowes Museum, England The Raising of Lazarus Saint Mark Saint Matthew Madonna and Child Peter Baptizing the Centurion Cornelius Death of Alexander the Great, Musée des beaux-arts de Pau, France Maria Clementina Apelles Painting Campaspe Apollo and Daphne Diana and Endymion Latona and the Frogs Works at Palazzo Corsini, Rome: Martyrdom of St Lawrence Martyrdom of St Lucia Mary Magdalene Andrea Adami da Bolsa Di Federico, F.

R.. Francesco Trevisani: Eighteenth-Century Painter in Rome. Washington DC. Review of Francesco Trevisani: Eighteenth-Century Painter in Rome. Francis H. Dowley; the Art Bulletin pp. 146–151. Bryan, Michael. Walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London. P. 585. CS1 maint: location Media related to Francesco Trevisani at Wikimedia Commons

Southampton F.C.

Southampton Football Club is a professional association football club based in Southampton, England, which plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. Their home ground since 2001 has been St Mary's Stadium, before; the club has been nicknamed "The Saints" since its inception in 1885 due to its history as a church football team, founded as St. Mary's Church of England Young Men's Association, play in red and white shirts. Southampton has a long-standing rivalry with Portsmouth due to its proximity and both cities' respective maritime history. Matches between the two sides are known as the South Coast derby. Southampton were founded at St. Mary's Church, on 21 November 1885 by members of the St. Mary's Church of England Young Men's Association. St. Mary's Y. M. A. as they were referred to in the local press, played most of their early games on The Common where games were interrupted by pedestrians insistent on exercising their right to roam. More important matches, such as cup games, were played either at the County Cricket Ground in Northlands Road or the Antelope Cricket Ground in St Mary's Road.

The club was known as St. Mary's Young Men's Association F. C. and became St. Mary's F. C. in 1887–88, before adopting the name Southampton St. Mary's when the club joined the Southern League in 1894. For the start of their League career, Saints signed several new players on professional contracts, including Charles Baker, Alf Littlehales and Lachie Thomson from Stoke and Fred Hollands from Millwall. After winning the Southern League title in 1896–97, the club became a limited company and was renamed Southampton F. C. Southampton won the Southern League championship for three years running between 1897 and 1899 and again in 1901, 1903 and 1904. During this time, they moved to a newly built £10,000 stadium called The Dell, to the northwest of the city centre in 1898. Although they would spend the next 103 years there, the future was far from certain in those early days and the club had to rent the premises first before they could afford to buy the stadium in the early part of the 20th century.

The club reached the first of their four FA Cup Finals in 1900. On that day, they went down 4–0 to Bury and two years they would suffer a similar fate at the hands of Sheffield United as they were beaten 2–1 in a replay of the 1902 final. Reaching those finals gave Southampton recognition internationally: in 1909, an Athletic Bilbao representative who played for Atlético Madrid traveled to Southampton and purchased 50 Saints shirts, which were shared between Athletic Bilbao and Atletico Madrid; this early Southampton popularity is the reason why both Spanish club colours became red and white, as they are nowadays. After World War I, Saints joined the newly formed Football League Third Division in 1920 which split into South and North sections a year later; the 1921–22 season ended in triumph with promotion and marked the beginning of a 31-year stay in the Second Division. The 1922–23 season was a unique "Even Season" – 14 wins, 14 draws and 14 defeats for 42 points, or one point per game. Goals for and against statistics were equal and the team finished in mid-table.

In 1925 and 1927, they reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup, losing 2–0 and 2–1 to Sheffield United and Arsenal respectively. Saints were forced to switch home matches to the ground of their local rivals Portsmouth at Fratton Park during World War II when a bomb landed on The Dell pitch in November 1940, leaving an 18-foot crater which damaged an underground culvert and flooded the pitch. Promotion was narrowly missed in 1947–48 when they finished in third place, a feat repeated the following season whilst in 1949–50 they were to be denied promotion by 0.06 of a goal, missing out on second place to Sheffield United. In the 1948–49 and 1949–50 seasons, Charlie Wayman rattled in 56 goals. Relegation in 1953 sent Saints sliding back into Division 3, it took until 1960 for Saints to regain Second Division status with Derek Reeves plundering 39 of the champions' 106 league goals. On 27 April 1963 a crowd of 68,000 at Villa Park saw them lose 1–0 to Manchester United in the FA Cup semi-final. In 1966, when Ted Bates' team were promoted to the First Division as runners-up, with Martin Chivers scoring 30 of Saints' 85 league goals.

For the following campaign Ron Davies arrived to score 43 goals in his first season. Saints stayed among the elite for eight years, with the highest finishing position being seventh place in 1968–69 and again in 1970–71; these finishes were high enough for them to qualify for the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1969–70 and its successor, the UEFA Cup in 1971–72, when they went out in the first round to Athletic Bilbao. In December 1973, Bates stood down to be replaced by his assistant Lawrie McMenemy; the Saints were one of the first victims of the new three-down relegation system in 1974. Under McMenemy's management, Saints started to rebuild in the Second Division, capturing players such as Peter Osgood, Jim McCalliog, Jim Steele and Peter Rodrigues and in 1976, Southampton reached the FA Cup Final, playing Manchester United at Wembley, beat much-fancied United 1–0 with a goal from Bobby Stokes; the following season, they played in Europe again in the Cup Winners' Cup, reaching Round 3 where they lost 2–3 on aggregate to Anderlecht.

In 1977–78, captained by Alan Ball, Saints finished runners-up in the Second Division and returned to the First Division. They finished comfortably in 14th place in their first season back in the top flight; the following season

Success Academy Charter Schools

Success Academy Charter Schools Harlem Success Academy, is a charter school operator in New York City. Eva Moskowitz, a former city council member for the Upper East Side, is its founder and CEO. According to the New York Post, Success Academy had 17,700 applicants for 3,288 available seats, which resulted in a wait list of more than 14,000 families for the 2018-2019 school year, it has 47 schools in 17,000 students. Two documentary films, The Lottery and Waiting for "Superman", record the intense desire of parents to enroll their children in Success Academy and charter schools like Success Academy. Eva Moskowitz opened the first Success Academy charter Harlem Success Academy, in 2006 with 157 students chosen by lottery, she subsequently opened more schools in Harlem, schools in other New York City neighborhoods. The charter schools are funded by philanthropic donations. In February 2014, New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio revoked a number of approved charter school co-locations, which are publicly funded but run, including those for three Success Academy schools.

The decision was reversed in April after New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo stepped into the controversy. The city ended up finding space for three Success Academy schools. Hedge fund managers Joel Greenblatt and John Petry were founders who helped to recruit Moskowitz as CEO. John Paulson donated $8.5 million to Success Academy in July 2015 to help open middle schools in Brooklyn and Manhattan. The Success Academy Education Institute was formed in Summer 2016, to distribute the network's curriculum and teacher training resources online to educators across the country. In 2014, New York City charter schools won the right to provide pre-kindergarten, Success Academy opened its first pre-kindergarten in fall 2015. In 2015, New York City issued a mandatory contract granting its Department of Education oversight over all pre-kindergarten providers. Success Academy did not sign the contract, citing that the city does not have authority to regulate its charter schools. In June 2016, Success Academy canceled its pre-kindergarten program and filed a suit in the State Supreme Court.

The appeals court ruled in favor of Success Academy in June 2017, stating that the city could not regulate a charter school's pre-kindergarten programs, while awarding $720K in back payments to Success. Success Academy gives four weeks of training to teachers in the summer and regular weekly training in the school year. Principals in the charter network spend most of their time coaching teachers; the State University of New York's Board of Trustees has voted to approve regulations that allow Success Academy to certify its own teachers. As measured by standardized test scores, the students at Success Academy outscore contemporaries in both urban public schools and wealthy suburban schools in the New York City area. In New York City, 47% percent of public school students passed state reading tests, 43% passed math tests. At Success schools, corresponding percentages were 91% and 98%; these scores come from a student group made up of 95% children of color, with families having a median income of $32,000.

No new students above the fourth grade are accepted at Success. The schools emphasize testing, including giving prizes to students, publicly ranking how well each student does on the practice tests; as of October 2017, Stanford's Center for Research on Education Outcomes found that Harlem Success Academy students received 137 extra days of learning in reading and 239 additional days of learning in math. Success has 47 schools with 17,000 students from kindergarten through high school; the Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens In 2014, an assistant teacher made a video recording of a colleague publicly scolding a student who failed to answer a question and tearing up the student's paper. Education experts stated that the teacher's behavior was discouraged learning. A 2015 article in The New York Times reported that discipline, social pressure, positive reinforcement, suspension are applied to students, as teachers are rewarded for better behavior and performance. Former teachers claimed that they quit because they disagreed with Success' punitive approach to students.

Some parents of special-needs students at Success Academy schools have complained of overly strict disciplinary policies which have resulted in high rates of suspension and attempts to pressure the parents to transfer their special-needs children out of the schools. State records and interviews with two dozen parents indicate that the schools failed at times to adhere to federal and state laws in disciplining special-education students. Statistics gathered by the New York State Education Department show much higher rates of suspension at most Success Academy schools than at public schools. School spokesmen have denied improper treatment of any student, founder Eva Moskowitz has defended school practices as promoting "order and civility in the classroom"; the selection method for admission has come under fire for an "abdication of responsibility" to educate all children within a geographic area. Moskowitz responds by noting that traditional neighborhood schools can "institutionalize housing segregation, making a child’s zip code his educational destiny" while charter schools are tools for "social justice" by allowing parents to choose schools beyond geographic constraints.

In May 2019, the U. S. Department of Education found Success Academy Charter School had released identifiable information about a student's discipline records to the press. In 2012, Harlem Success Academy Charter School 1 became the first city charter school to be awarded a National Blue Ribbon. Harlem Success Academy Charter School 3 was awarded a National Bl