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Geography of Italy

Italy is located in southern Europe and comprises the long, boot-shaped Italian Peninsula, the southern side of Alps, the large plain of the Po Valley and some islands including Sicily and Sardinia. Corsica, although belonging to the Italian geographical region, has been a part of France since 1769. Italy is part of the Northern Hemisphere, its total area is 301,340 km2, of which 294,140 km2 is land and 7,200 km2 is water. It lies between latitudes 35° and 48° N, longitudes 6° and 19° E. Italy borders Switzerland, France and Slovenia. San Marino and Vatican city are enclaves; the total border length is 1,836.4 km. Including islands, Italy has a coastline of 7,600 km on the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ligurian Sea, Sea of Sardinia and Strait of Sicily. 40% of the Italian territory is mountainous, with the Alps as the northern boundary and the Apennine Mountains forming the backbone of the peninsula and extending for 1,350 km. In between the two lies a large plain in the valley of the Po, the largest river in Italy, which flows 652 km eastward from the Cottian Alps to the Adriatic.

The Po Valley is the largest plain in Italy, with 46,000 km2, it represents over 70% of the total plain area in the country. The Alpine mountain range is linked with the Apennines with the Colle di Cadibona pass in the Ligurian Alps. Worldwide-known mountains in Italy are Monte Cervino, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso in the West Alps, Bernina and Dolomites along the eastern side of the Alps; the highest peak in Italy is Mont Blanc, at 4,810 meters above sea level. Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin. Most of the small islands and archipelagos in the south, like Capraia, Ischia, Eolie and Pantelleria are volcanic islands. There are active volcanoes: Etna, in Sicily, the largest active volcano in Europe. Most of Italy's rivers drain either into the Adriatic Sea or into the Tyrrhenian, though the waters from some border municipalities drain into the Black Sea through the basin of the Drava, a tributary of the Danube, the waters from the Lago di Lei in Lombardy drain into the North Sea through the basin of the Rhine.

Territorial sea: 12 nmi Continental shelf: 200-metre depth or to the depth of exploitation Exclusive Economic Zone: 541,915 km2 In the north of the country are a number of subalpine moraine-dammed lakes, the largest of, Garda. Other well known of these subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore, whose most northerly section is part of Switzerland, Orta, Iseo, Idro. Other notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bracciano, Vico and Lesina in Gargano and Omodeo in Sardinia. Italy includes several islands; the largest are Sicily 25,708 km2 and Sardinia 24,090 km2. The third largest island is the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. Northernmost point — Testa Gemella Occidentale/Westliches Zwillingsköpfl, South Tyrol at 47°5′N 12°11′E Southernmost point — Punta Pesce Spada, Sicily at 35°29′N 12°36′E.

Christina Aguilera discography

American singer Christina Aguilera has released eight studio albums, one extended play, six compilation albums, one soundtrack album, 42 singles, 10 promotional singles. To date, Aguilera has sold over 75 million records. In the United States alone, she has sold 18.3 million albums as of 2019, with 14.5 million units certified in the country. With such achievements, Billboard recognized Aguilera as the 20th best-selling artist of the 2000s. In the United Kingdom, Aguilera has sold over 6.1 million singles. Aguilera made her musical debut in 1998 with a cover of "Reflection", the theme song for Disney's Mulan. Aguilera signed a multi-album contract with RCA Records and released her self-titled debut album in 1999, it debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart and produced the singles "Genie in a Bottle", "What a Girl Wants", "I Turn to You" and "Come On Over Baby". The lead single, "Genie in a Bottle", became a commercial success, peaking the top spot of the US Billboard Hot 100 for five weeks and became the biggest hit of the summer of 1999.

Christina Aguilera has sold over 14 million copies worldwide. Aguilera's two next studio albums, Mi Reflejo and My Kind of Christmas, were both released in 2000. In 2001, she recorded two singles: "Nobody Wants to Be Lonely" with Ricky Martin from the latter's Sound Loaded, "Lady Marmalade" with Mýa, Lil' Kim and Pink for Moulin Rouge! The latter was an international hit, peaking at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 for five consecutive weeks, becoming the most successful airplay-only single in history. Aguilera's fourth studio album, was intended to reflect her "real" personality, it debuted at number two on the Billboard 200 chart and spawned the successful singles "Dirrty", "Beautiful", "Fighter", "Can't Hold Us Down" and "The Voice Within". Stripped had sold over 10 million copies worldwide. Aguilera's fifth studio album, Back to Basics, is a dual disc album and was inspired by 1930s and 1940s jazz and soul, it yielded the international top-ten hits "Ain't No Other Man", "Hurt" and "Candyman".

As of November 2013, Back to Basics has sold over 5 million units. Aguilera's first greatest hits album, Keeps Gettin' Better: A Decade of Hits, was released in 2008 and featured one single, "Keeps Gettin' Better". "Keeps Gettin' Better" became her biggest debut on the Billboard Hot 100, entering the chart at number seven in 2008. Aguilera's sixth and seventh studio albums and Lotus, both struggled to match the chart impact and sales of her previous albums. From 2011 to 2013, Aguilera appeared on tracks including "Moves like Jagger", "Feel This Moment" and "Say Something", all of which are top-ten hits worldwide. With "Moves like Jagger" topping the US Billboard Hot 100 in 2011, Aguilera became the fourth female artist to top the chart in three consecutive decades, her eight studio album Liberation was released on June 15, 2018. List of Christina Aguilera concert tours List of songs recorded by Christina Aguilera Christina Aguilera videography Davis, Clive; the Soundtrack of My Life. Simon & Schuster.

Pp. 496–497. ISBN 9781476714806. Official website Christina Aguilera at AllMusic Christina Aguilera discography at Discogs

Leaping Michaels

In the game of bridge, Leaping Michaels is a conventional overcall in 4♣ or 4♦ made in defense to opposing 2-level or 3-level preemptive openings. Leaping Michaels shows a strong two-suited hand, less suitable for a takeout double and is game forcing. Described as an overcall by some of a weak two-bid of a major, others expand its application to all weak preempts at the 2 or 3-level in both the majors and minors. Holding such two-suited hands and using Leaping Michaels, opponent's opening preempts between 2♦ and 3♠ inclusive are overcalled in accordance with the following table: After – 4♣, a bid of 4♦ asks for the major; the bids 4♥ and 4♠ are to play. Following – 4♦ the bid of 4♥ is played as pass-or-correct; some partnerships prefer to interchange the meanings of the 4♣ and 4♦ bids following a 3♣ preempt so that 4♣ denotes diamonds and an undisclosed major. This has the advantage; the 4♥/4♠ responses can be played as natural. Leaping Michaels can be utilised after natural two-level preempts, but after conventional preempts such as Muiderberg.

After a Multi 2 diamonds preempt, Leaping Michaels can be utilised to good effect: – 4♣: Clubs and an undisclosed major – 4♦: Diamonds and an undisclosed major Michaels cuebid

C. A. Robins

Charles Armington Robins was an American physician and the 22nd Governor of Idaho. Born in Iowa at Defiance in Shelby County, at age four Robins moved west with his family to Colorado, settling at La Junta in Otero County, he graduated in 1907 from William Jewell College in Liberty and taught high school in Missouri, Colorado and Mississippi. He entered medical school in 1913 at Rush Medical College of the University of Chicago, working various night jobs to put himself through, earned his M. D. in 1917. During World War I, Robins entered the Medical Corps of the U. S. Army in August 1918 as a first lieutenant, he ended his military service on December 16, 1918. Given free transportation by the Great Northern Railway to look at two towns that needed physicians, he left Chicago the following week, he arrived in St. Maries, Idaho on Christmas Eve and chose it over Three Forks and stayed for 28 years, until elected governor. For a generation, Robins delivered nearly every baby in Benewah County. Robins was a member of the state senate for four terms, from 1939 to 1947.

He ran for governor in 1946, was the first in Idaho to be elected to a four-year term. He handily defeated the incumbent, Arnold Williams, who had gained the office when his predecessor, Charles Gossett, resigned so as to be appointed by Williams to a vacant seat in the U. S. Senate. Williams was elected as lieutenant governor in 1944, became governor in late 1945; the new four-year term disallowed self-succession until 1958, so Robins and his Republican successor in 1950, Len Jordan, served single four-year terms and retired from office. The state constitution was amended, after receiving voter approval in the 1956 general election. Robins was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1948 while in office as governor, he ran for the U. S. Senate in 1950, but was defeated in the primary by Herman Welker. After he left the governor's office in 1951, Robins moved his residence from St. Maries to Lewiston and became the medical director of the north Idaho district of the Medical Service Bureau, known today as Regence Blue Shield.

He married Marguerite Sherman Granberry on July 8, 1919, in Mississippi. He married Patricia Simpson of St. Maries, one of his nurses, in November 1939 and they had three daughters: Patricia and Rebecca, he was a member of the American Legion, the American Medical Association, Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, Nu Sigma Nu professional fraternity, Freemasons. Robins died at age 85 in Lewiston on September 20, 1970, is interred at Lewis Clark Memorial Gardens in Lewiston. C. A. Robins at Find a Grave National Governors Association: biography Political Graveyard – C. A. Robins Ancestry. Com The Nicholas Robbins Family - Charles A. Robins Idaho Genealogy Trails


The Armed Forces of the Liberation of Angola or FALA was the armed wing of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, a prominent political faction during the Angolan Civil War. After their training in China in 1965, the first military cadres returned to Angola, settled in the eastern part of the country and began the mobilization and recruitment of guerrillas. In this way, the first embryonic contingent of FALA was formed; the number of guerrillas increased with the growing number of UNITA members among the population, thus permitting effective military training. This enabled them to begin the mission of liberating the country from the claws of Portuguese colonialism, as proved by the attacks of 4 and 25 December 1966 on Kassamba and Teixeira de Sousa respectively; the first military regions were established along with their respective independent zones and operational fronts like Quembo and the northern zone. The Second Congress of UNITA was held in 1969; this included the expansion of the guerrilla war to the central and northern parts of the country and the formation of compact guerrilla contingents for all fronts and military regions existing at the time.

The Black Panther contingent was formed, under the command of Major Samuimbila. The first Chief of Staff, Samuel Piedoso Chingunji, better known by his war name, Kapessi Kafundanga, was appointed. FALA became effective, causing the enemy to suffer many defeats, expanding the guerrilla zones and consolidating the liberated areas—a force that the Portuguese colonialists could not ignore. On 14 June 1974, a ceasefire was signed with the Portuguese government. There being little possibility of a peaceful solution to the Angolan problem, UNITA played a role as a moderator in order to avoid an armed confrontation, triggered on the one hand by the Soviet Union in support of the MPLA and on the other hand by the United States of America, supporting the National Liberation Front of Angola; the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, through the Cubans, violated the Alvor agreement, opting for the seizure of power through the use of arms. During the civil war, FALA abandoned the towns not only to reorganize itself, but to oppose the minority regime of Luanda through guerrilla warfare.

In May 1976, owing to the turmoil, the Conference of Cuanza was held, resulting in the Cuanza Manifesto. The latter laid down a programme for FALA for the remobilization of the soldiers and cadres, which at that stage were traumatized by the aggressive Soviet war machine. Territorial organization of the army that included fronts and independent military regions now took place; the first politico-military cadres––among them that of Major Jose´ Jeremias Bandua who died in Cunene––were trained. Compact guerrilla units were formed: Venceremos, Estamos a Voltar, Dragões da morte and Faísca negra. By 1977, people were joining UNITA in large numbers and the number of guerrillas increased considerably. In March of the same year, at Benda in the Huambo Province, the movement’s Fourth Congress was held and outlined further objectives for FALA, such as the formation of the first trained and motivated battalions, among which the battalions of Sam Nujomo and Kazambuela stood out; the disciplinary code of FALA was established.

The military regions were restructured and the guerrilla regions expanded. Training camps were established in the same year on all fronts as well as in the politico-military cadres in Military Region 11. Territorial divisions were designated, thus forming northern and western fronts. In 1979, the first semi-regular battalions were formed, such as Samuimbila, Siule Siule and 333. In 1980, the expansion of semi-regular battalions gave new vigour to the armed struggle, leading to the defeat of new territories and the consolidation of those, conquered. More specialists in anti-aircraft artillery, intelligence, special commandos, communications and medical care were trained. In 1981 the first brigades such as the 12th, 21st, 53rd, 34th and 45th were formed and other battalions were maintained as independent units. In 1982 the Fifth Congress was held, which drew up a new strategy for FALA, including the formation of military columns and compact guerrilla units at the level of all politico-military fronts.

Angolan Armed Forces People's Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola

Interfor Corporation

Interfor Corporation are one of the largest lumber producers in the world. The company's sawmilling operations have a combined manufacturing capacity of over 3 billion board feet of lumber with sales to North America, Asia-Pacific and Europe. Interfor is based in Vancouver, BC and employs 3400 people. In May 2014, Interfor opened its corporate office for the USA south-east region at Peachtree City, Georgia. Primary Industry: 113311-Logging Total Sales in 2013: $1,105.2 million Corporate Headquarters: Bentall Tower Four, 3500-1055 Dunsmuir St. Vancouver BC V7X 1H7 1930s Began with a sawmill in Whonnock, BC. 1963 Incorporated as Yorkston Lumber Co. 1963 Name changed to Whonnock Lumber Co. 1967 Converted to a public company. 1967 Name changed to Whonnock Industries. 1979 Sauder Industries acquired a controlling interest in Interfor. 1988 Name changed to International Forest Products Ltd. 1995 Buy Weldwood Operation 1996 Close Bay Lumber Operation 2000 Sell Flavelle Mill 2001 Buy Primex Mills 2001 Close Fraser Mill 2002 Close MacDonald Operation/Open Sumas Operation 2004 Close Squamish Operation 2005 Buy Crown Pacific Limited Partners 2005 Buy Floragon Forest Products Molalla Inc. 2005 Close Marysville and Field Operations 2006 Sell Saltar and MacKenzie Operations 2008 Buy Portac Inc. 2008 Close Queensborough Operations 2013 Buy Rayonier Wood Products Division 2013 Buy Keadle Lumber Enterprises Inc. 2014 Buy Tolleson Lumber Company 2014 Name changed to Interfor Corporation 2014 Close Forks/Beaver Operations 2014 Acquired properties from Simpson Lumber Company Interfor produces lumber for residential and industrial applications.

It uses several species of wood in its products, including Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock, Western Red Cedar, Ponderosa pine, Lodgepole pine and Southern Yellow Pine. It markets European Red Pine lumber through a sales agreement with Ilim Timber. Interfor has sawmills in British Columbia, Oregon, South Carolina, Arkansas. In BC this includes two sawmills on the Coast. In the US Pacific Northwest, the company operates two sawmills in Washington state and two in Oregon, it operates the Cedarprime remanufacturing plant in Washington. In the US Southeast, the company operates seven sawmills in Georgia, one in South Carolina, one in Arkansas. Interfor's woodlands and manufacturing operations have been independently certified to internationally recognized standards. In British Columbia's Great Bear Rainforest, Interfor is known to log the oldest and rarest cedar trees. All of Interfor's BC sawmills are Chain-of-Custody certified. Chain-of-Custody certification tracks logs from harvest through the manufacturing process.

In BC, Interfor mills are independently certified to meet Program for Endorsement of Forest Certification and Sustainable Forestry Initiative® CoC certification requirements. Select Interfor mills meet Forest Stewardship Council® CoC certification requirements. Interfor's Preston and Perry Mills in the United States are certified to the SFI fiber sourcing requirements. 2009 - Interfor was awarded an SFI Inc. Conservation Leadership Award for collaborative work with First Nations to ensure there is a suitable supply of monumental cedar trees to meet long-term cultural needs on British Columbia's Pacific Coast.2007 - Interfor was a co-recipient of the World Wildlife Fund – Gift to the Earth Award to acknowledge collaborative work that led to the landmark agreements to conserve temperate rainforests in British Columbia's north and central coast regions. Interfor has more than doubled in size since 2002 and is one of the largest lumber companies in the world