click links in text for more info

Geography of Madagascar

Madagascar is a large island in the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of southern Africa, east of Mozambique. It has a total area of 587,040 square kilometres with 581,540 square kilometres of land and 5,500 square kilometres of water. Madagascar is the 2nd largest island country in the world; the highest point is Maromokotro, in the Tsaratanana Massif region in the north of the island, at 2,876 metres. The capital Antananarivo is in the Central Highlands near the centre of the island, it has the 25th largest Exclusive Economic Zone of 1,225,259 km2. Madagascar is 400 kilometres east of mainland Africa. Madagascar can be divided into five general geographical regions: the east coast, the Tsaratanana Massif, the Central Highlands, the west coast, the southwest; the highest elevations parallel the east coast. The total size is 587,040 square kilometres, which makes it the world's second largest island country; the east coast consists of a narrow band of lowlands about one kilometer wide, formed from the sedimentation of alluvial soils, an intermediate zone composed of steep bluffs alternating with ravines bordering an escarpment of about 500 metres in elevation, which gives access to the Central Highlands.

The coastal region extends from north of Baie d'Antongil, the most prominent feature on the Masoala Peninsula, to the far north of the island. The coastline is straight, with the exception of a bay, offering less in the way of natural harbors than the west coast; the Canal des Pangalanes, an 800-kilometre -long lagoon formed by the washing of sand up on the island by the Indian Ocean currents and by the silting of rivers, is a feature of the coast. The beach slopes steeply into deep water; the east coast is considered dangerous for swimmers and sailors because of the large number of sharks that frequent the shoreline. The Tsaratanana Massif region at the north end of the island contains, at 2,880 metres, the highest point on the island. Further north is the Montagne d'Ambre, of volcanic origin; the coastline is indented. The mountainous topography of the Tsaratanana Massif limits the potential of the port at Antsiranana by impeding the flow of traffic from other parts of the island; the Central Highlands, which range from 800 to 1,800 m in altitude, contain a wide variety of topographies: rounded and eroded hills, massive granite outcrops, extinct volcanoes, eroded peneplains, alluvial plains and marshes, which have been converted into irrigated rice fields.

The Central Highlands extend from the Tsaratanana Massif in the north to the Ivakoany Massif in the south. They are defined rather by the escarpments along the east coast, they slope to the west coast; the Central Highlands include the Anjafy High Plateaux. The Isalo Roiniforme Massif lies between the west coast. Antananarivo, the national capital, is located in the northern portion of the Central Highlands at 1,276 m above sea level. A prominent feature of the Central Highlands is a rift valley running north to south, located east of Antananarivo and including Lac Alaotra, the largest body of water on the island; the lake is located 761 m above sea level and is bordered by two cliffs, rising 701 m to the west and 488 m to the east, which form the walls of a valley. This region has experienced geological subsidence, earth tremors are frequent; the west coast, composed of sedimentary formations, is more indented than the east coast, thus offering a number of harbors sheltered from cyclones, such as the harbor at Mahajanga.

Deep bays and well-protected harbors have attracted explorers and pirates from Europe and the Middle East since ancient times. Silting up of harbors on this coast, caused by sediment from the high levels of erosion suffered inland in Madagascar, is a major problem; the broad alluvial plains found on the coast between Mahajanga and Toliara, which are believed to have great agricultural potential, are thinly inhabited, in many places covered with swamps of Madagascar mangroves, remain unexplored, although they are the subject of mineral and hydrocarbon exploration activity. The giant oil fields of Tsimiroro and Bemolanga lie towards the west of the island; the southwest is bordered on the east by the Ivakoany Massif and on the north by the Isala Roiniforme Massif. It includes two regions along the south coast, the Mahafaly Plateau and the desert region occupied by the Antandroy people; the Mananara and Mangoro rivers flow from the Central Highlands to the east coast, as does the Maningory, which flows from Lake Alaotra.

Other rivers flowing east into the Indian Ocean include the Bemarivo, the Ivondro, the Mananjary. These rivers tend to be short. Owing to the steep elevations, they flow often over spectacular waterfalls; the rivers flowing to the west coast discharge into the Mozambique Channel and tend to be lengthier and have a lesser gradient. The major rivers on the west coast are the Sambirano, the Mahajamba, the Betsiboka, the


Collaboration is the process of two or more people or organizations working together to complete a task or achieve a goal. Collaboration is similar to cooperation. Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. Teams that work collaboratively access greater resources and rewards when facing competition for finite resources. Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of communication; such methods aim to increase the success of teams. Collaboration is present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration, though this is not a common use of the term. In its applied sense," collaboration is a purposeful relationship in which all parties strategically choose to cooperate in order to accomplish a shared outcome." Trade is a form of collaboration between two societies. Trade continues because it benefits all of its participants. Prehistoric peoples bartered services with each other without a modern currency.

Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. Trade exists because different communities have a comparative advantage in the production of tradable goods; the members of an intentional community hold a common social, political or spiritual vision. They share resources. Intentional communities include cohousing, residential land trusts, communes, kibbutzim and housing cooperatives. New members of an intentional community are selected by the community's existing membership, rather than by real estate agents or land owners. In Hutterite communities housing units are built and assigned to individual families, but belong to the colony with little personal property. Meals are taken by the entire colony in a common long room; the Oneida Community practiced Communalism and Mutual Criticism, where every member of the community was subject to criticism by committee or the community as a whole, during a general meeting. The goal was to remove bad character traits. A Kibbutz is an Israeli collective community.

The movement combines Zionism seeking a form of practical Labor Zionism. Choosing communal life, inspired by their own ideology, kibbutz members developed a communal mode of living; the kibbutzim lasted for several generations as utopian communities, although most became capitalist enterprises and regular towns. Collaboration in indigenous communities in the Americas involves the entire community working toward a common goal in a horizontal structure with flexible leadership. Children in some indigenous American communities collaborate with the adults. Children can be contributors in the process of meeting objectives by taking on tasks that suit their skills. Indigenous learning techniques comprise Learning by Pitching In. For example, a study of Mayan fathers and children with traditional Indigenous ways of learning worked together in collaboration more when building a 3D model puzzle than Mayan fathers with western schooling. Chillihuani people of the Andes value work and create work parties in which members of each household in the community participate.

Children from indigenous-heritage communities want to help around the house voluntarily. In the Mazahua Indigenous community of Mexico, school children show initiative and autonomy by contributing in their classroom, completing activities as a whole and correcting their teacher during lectures when a mistake is made. Fifth and sixth graders in the community work with the teacher installing a classroom window, they all work together without needing leadership, their movements are all in sync and flowing. It is not a process of instruction, but rather a hands-on experience in which students work together as a synchronous group with the teacher, switching roles and sharing tasks. In these communities, collaboration is emphasized, learners are trusted to take initiative. While one works, the other watches intently and all are allowed to attempt tasks with the more experienced stepping in to complete more complex parts, while others pay close attention. Ayn Rand said that one way people pursue their rational self-interest is by building strong relationships with other people.

According to Rand, participants in capitalism are connected through the voluntary division of labor in the free market, where value is exchanged always for value. Rand's theory of rational egoism claims that acting in one's self-interest entails looking out for others in order to protect the innocent from injustice, to aid friends and loved ones. Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics, computer science, economics that looks at situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns; the first documented discussion of game theory is in a letter written by James Waldegrave, 1st Earl Waldegrave in 1713. Antoine Augustin Cournot's Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth in 1838 provided the first general theory. In 1928 it became a recognized field. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in the 1944 book The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern; the term military-industrial complex refers to a close and symbiotic relationship among a nation's armed forces, its private industry, associated political interests.

In such a


Chessel is a municipality in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located in the district of Aigle. Chessel is first mentioned in 1364 as Chessey. Chessel has an area, as of 2009, of 3.57 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.2 km2 or 61.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.74 km2 or 20.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.39 km2 or 10.9 % is settled, 0.22 km2 or 6.2 % is either lakes. Of the built up area and buildings made up 3.9% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.8%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 3.6%. Out of the forested land, 19.6% of the total land area is forested and 1.1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 54.1% is used for growing crops and 5.9% is pastures, while 1.7% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality is located on the right bank of the Rhone river. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms was D'or à la fasce ondée d'azur, symbolizing the Rhône which runs through Chessel.

In 1926, the communal authorities placed a crescent in the higher part of the flag: this represented the old "Café de la Turquie" and was removed in 1958. The Council of State of the Canton of Vaud has accepted a request in 2004 to place the crescent back on the flag. Chessel has a population of 426; as of 2008, 7.6% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 12.4%. It has changed at a rate of 8.2 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with English being second most common and Portuguese being third. There are 3 people who speak Italian. Of the population in the municipality 99 or about 31.5% were born in Chessel and lived there in 2000. There were 119 or 37.9% who were born in the same canton, while 41 or 13.1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 54 or 17.2% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there were 2 live births to Swiss citizens and 3 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 4 deaths of Swiss citizens.

Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 2 while the foreign population increased by 3. There. At the same time, there was 1 non-Swiss man who emigrated from Switzerland to another country and 1 non-Swiss woman who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 2 and the non-Swiss population decreased by 7 people. This represents a population growth rate of -1.4%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Chessel is. Of the adult population, 31 people or 9.0 % of the population are between 29 years old. 45 people or 13.1% are between 30 and 39, 54 people or 15.7% are between 40 and 49, 55 people or 16.0% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 29 people or 8.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 23 people or 6.7% are between 70 and 79,there are 9 people or 2.6% who are 80 and 89, there is 1 person, 90 and older. As of 2000, there were 130 people who never married in the municipality.

There were 13 individuals who are divorced. As of 2000, there were 111 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.7 persons per household. There were 25 households that consist of 11 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 116 households that answered this question, 21.6% were households made up of just one person. Of the rest of the households, there are 27 married couples without children, 54 married couples with children There were 2 single parents with a child or children. There were 3 households that were made up of unrelated people and 5 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 72 single-family homes out of a total of 97 inhabited buildings. There were 9 multi-family buildings, along with 14 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 2 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single-family homes 6 were built before 1919, while 22 were built between 1990 and 2000; the greatest number of single-family homes were built between 1981 and 1990.

The most multi-family homes were built before 1919 and the next most were built between 1919 and 1945. In 2000 there were 119 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was 4 rooms of which there were 37. There were 54 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 103 apartments were permanently occupied, while 14 apartments were seasonally occupied and 2 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 0 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0%; the historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 29.63% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP and the Green Party. In the federal election, a total of 132 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 55.9%. As of 2010, Chessel had an unemployment rate of 3.9%. As of 2008

2012 Nuevo Laredo massacres

The 2012 Nuevo Laredo massacres were a series of mass murder attacks between the allied Sinaloa Cartel and Gulf Cartel against Los Zetas in the border city of Nuevo Laredo, across the U. S.-Mexico border from Laredo, Texas. The drug-violence in Nuevo Laredo began back in 2003, when the city was controlled by the Gulf Cartel. Most media reports that write about the Mexican Drug War, point to 2006 as the start of the drug war; that year is a convenient historical marker because that's when Felipe Calderón took office and carried out an aggressive approach against the cartels. But authors like Ioan Grillo and Sylvia Longmire note that Mexico's drug war began at the end of Vicente Fox's administration in 2004, when the first major battle took place in Nuevo Laredo between the Sinaloa Cartel and Los Zetas, who at that time worked as the armed wing of the Gulf Cartel; when Osiel Cárdenas Guillén, the former leader of the Gulf Cartel, was arrested in 2003, the Sinaloa Cartel, sensing weakness, tried to move in on Nuevo Laredo, unleashing a bloody battle.

Los Zetas, were successful in expelling the Sinaloa organization out of Nuevo Laredo, have ruled the city "with fear" since. The Gulf cartel and Los Zetas broke relations in early 2010, worsening the violence across northeast Mexico; the cartels are fighting for control of the corridor in Nuevo Laredo that leads into Interstate 35, one of the most lucrative routes for drug traffickers. Nuevo Laredo is a lucrative drug corridor because of the large volume of trucks that pass through the area, the multiple ports of entry. Over 40% of all cargo crossings from Mexico to the United States crosses through the border checkpoints in Nuevo Laredo, it is for the same reason that Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez are so valuable for the drug trafficking organizations. At around 3 am on 1 August 2003, the Federal Investigations Agency confronted a group of armed men in the streets of Nuevo Laredo. Members of the AFI were staying at a hotel when Juan Manuel Muñoz Morales, the attorney general of the city, called for help.

He was being chased by several individuals in a dark-colored truck. The AFI officers followed the truck with seven of their vehicles, triggering a shootout between the police officers and alleged drug traffickers; the armed confrontation lasted for more than 40 minutes, provoking "panic" and turning Nuevo Laredo into a "battlefield." The gun detonations were heard throughout most of the city. Some witnesses, who preferred to remain anonymous, claimed that they saw over "18 armed men in black with ski-masks."During the chase, five armed men in another vehicle shot at the police convoy. The triggermen in the two vehicles engaged in a gunfight with the AFI for minutes, but one of the vehicles collided with a police truck; the vehicle the drug traffickers were in caught on fire, two of the gunmen were burned to death. The third one died on the sidewalk. According to PGR, the three gunmen that were killed were members of Los Negros, a group of hitmen under the tutelage of Joaquín Guzmán Loera and of the Juárez Cartel.

Rocket-launchers, along with an "inexact number of assault rifles," were used in the attack. In addition, the government agency stated that 198 municipal police officers were to be investigated for possible connections with the Gulf Cartel, it is believed that he had liberated five members of Los Zetas, detained during the armed confrontation. According to, this shooting was the first major gunfire in Nuevo Laredo between the Mexican authorities and cartel members in over thirty years. Between 1 January and 1 August 2003, 45 homicides were reported in Nuevo Laredo, along with 40 kidnappings. After the apprehension of Osiel Cárdenas Guillén in 2003, the former leader of the Gulf Cartel, his criminal organization went through a leadership crisis, since there was no visible leader to take the lead of the cartel. Nonetheless, Joaquín Guzmán Loera, the drug boss of the Sinaloa cartel, best known as El Chapo, "broke the rules" and penetrated into Tamaulipas, his organization began to kill police officers—forcing many to take a side with or against him—and assassinating rival cartel members.

The Mexican Armed Forces and the program México Seguro were unable to put down the violence. For the first time in many years, the Mexican State was limited in its actions—and surpassed—by the criminal organizations; the Sinaloa Cartel stood to its firm intention to become the "hegemonic drug trafficking organization in Mexico." And to do so, it had to control the cities along the U. S.-Mexico border. Back in the early 2000s, if a different drug trafficking organization wanted to traffic narcotics through a different corridor, they had to pay a fee to the cartel that controlled it. Hence, it resulted in a high prize, since Osiel Cárdenas Guillén "knew how much every millimeter in his turf cost."No drug trafficking organization before the Sinaloa cartel had dared to take on the Gulf Cartel. But Juan José Esparragoza Moreno and El Chapo Guzmán were persuasive in moving on into Nuevo Laredo and the rest of Tamaulipas. One of the first steps in the war between the Gulf and Sinaloa cartels began when Arturo Beltrán Leyva, alias El Barbas, hired Dionisio Román García, the leader of a gang who operated in Nuevo Laredo under the permission of Osiel in 2002.

El Chacho turned against the Osiel and the Gulf organization by deciding to work for the Sinaloa cartel and killing a Zeta member. This triggered a series of executions in Tamaulipas. And, in order to put down the violence, El Barbas sought Arturo Guzmán Decena, one of the founders of Los Zetas

Operator-precedence parser

In computer science, an operator precedence parser is a bottom-up parser that interprets an operator-precedence grammar. For example, most calculators use operator precedence parsers to convert from the human-readable infix notation relying on order of operations to a format, optimized for evaluation such as Reverse Polish notation. Edsger Dijkstra's shunting yard algorithm is used to implement operator precedence parsers. Other algorithms include the top down operator precedence method. An operator-precedence parser is a simple shift-reduce parser, capable of parsing a subset of LR grammars. More the operator-precedence parser can parse all LR grammars where two consecutive nonterminals and epsilon never appear in the right-hand side of any rule. Operator-precedence parsers are not used in practice. First, they are simple enough to write by hand, not the case with more sophisticated right shift-reduce parsers. Second, they can be written to consult an operator table at run time, which makes them suitable for languages that can add to or change their operators while parsing.

Raku sandwiches an operator-precedence parser between two recursive descent parsers in order to achieve a balance of speed and dynamism. This is expressed in the virtual machine for Parrot, as the Parser Grammar Engine. GCC's C and C++ parsers, which are hand-coded recursive descent parsers, are both sped up by an operator-precedence parser that can examine arithmetic expressions. Operator precedence parsers are embedded within compiler compiler-generated parsers to noticeably speed up the recursive descent approach to expression parsing; the precedence climbing method is a compact and flexible algorithm for parsing expressions, first described by Martin Richards and Colin Whitby-Strevens. An infix-notation expression grammar in EBNF format will look like this: With many levels of precedence, implementing this grammar with a predictive recursive-descent parser can become inefficient. Parsing a number, for example, can require five function calls: one for each non-terminal in the grammar until reaching primary.

An operator-precedence parser can do the same more efficiently. The idea is that we can left associate the arithmetic operations as long as we find operators with the same precedence, but we have to save a temporary result to evaluate higher precedence operators; the algorithm, presented here does not need an explicit stack. The algorithm is not a pure operator-precedence parser like the Dijkstra shunting yard algorithm, it assumes that the primary nonterminal is parsed in a separate subroutine, like in a recursive descent parser. The pseudocode for the algorithm is; the parser starts at function parse_expression. Precedence levels are greater than or equal to 0. Parse_expression return parse_expression_1 parse_expression_1 lookahead:= peek next token while lookahead is a binary operator whose precedence is >= min_precedence op:= lookahead advance to next token rhs:= parse_primary lookahead:= peek next token while lookahead is a binary operator whose precedence is greater than op's, or a right-associative operator whose precedence is equal to op's rhs:= parse_expression_1 lookahead:= peek next token lhs:= the result of applying op with operands lhs and rhs return lhs Note that in the case of a production rule like this: the algorithm must be modified to accept only binary operators whose precedence is > min_precedence.

An example execution on the expression 2 + 3 * 4 + 5 == 19 is. We give precedence 0 to equality expressions, 1 to additive expressions, 2 to multiplicative expressions. Parse_expression_1 the lookahead token is +, with precedence 1; the outer while loop is entered. Op is + and the input is advanced rhs is 3 the lookahead token is *, with precedence 2; the inner while loop is entered.parse_expression_1 the lookahead token is *, with precedence 2. The outer while loop is entered.op is * and the input is advanced rhs is 4 the next token is +, with precedence 1. The inner while loop is not entered. Lhs is assigned 3*4 = 12 the next token is +, with precedence 1; the outer while loop is left.12 is returned.the lookahead token is +, with precedence 1. The inner while loop is not entered. Lhs is assigned 2+12 = 14 the lookahead token is +, with precedence 1; the outer while loop is not left. Op is + and the input is advanced rhs is 5 the next token is ==, with precedence 0; the inner while loop is not entered.

Lhs is assigned 14+5 = 19 the next token is ==, with precedence 0. The outer while loop is not left. Op is == and the input is advanced rhs is 19 the next token is end-of-line, not an operator; the inner while loop is not entered. Lhs is assigned the result of evaluating 19 == 19, for example 1; the next token is end-of-line, not an operator. The outer while loop is left.1. There are other ways to apply operator precedence rules. One is to build a tree of the original expression and apply tree rewrite rules to it. Su

Academy Award for Best Sound Editing

The Academy Award for Best Sound Editing is an Academy Award granted yearly to a film exhibiting the finest or most aesthetic sound design or sound editing. Sound editing is the creation of sound effects; the award is received by the Supervising Sound Editors of the film, sometimes accompanied by the Sound Designers. The nominations process took place in two phases; the sound branch of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences shortlisted seven films during the early 1980s until 2006. Clips were screened at a "bake-off" and branch members voted using a weighted ballot to select up to three nominees. In a rule change on June 30, 2006, the bake-off for the Sound Branch was eliminated; the usual process of a "preferential ballot" submission was instituted resulting in five nominees each year. During certain years, the highest award given for this category may be a "Special Achievement Award", not an Oscar. Academy rules require that a minimum number of films must be nominated in a category for an Academy Award to be granted.

This is a list of films that have won or been nominated for an Academy Award for Best Sound Effects, Sound Effects Editing, or Sound Editing. See Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing for a corresponding list of winners for Best Sound. BAFTA Award for Best Sound BAFTA Award for Best Editing Academy Award for Best Film Editing Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Sound Richard King has received the most wins. Ben Burtt, Charles L. Campbell, Per Hallberg, Richard Hymns, Gary Rydstrom have received the most wins, including Special Achievement Awards. Wylie Stateman has the most nominations without a single win, he has been nominated nine times as of 2020. Alan Robert Murray has the most nominations. Note: Ben Burtt and Stephen Hunter Flick both have Special Achievement wins in addition to their competitive wins; these have been included with their nomination count. The only sound editor to date who has a Special Achievement win and has an Oscar nomination but not a competitive win is Richard L. Anderson.

† = includes special achievement wins