Mauritius the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The main Island of Mauritius is located about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent; the Republic of Mauritius includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon; the capital and largest city Port Louis is located on the main island of Mauritius. In 1598, the Dutch took possession of Mauritius, they abandoned Mauritius in 1710 and the French took control of the island in 1715, renaming it Isle de France. France ceded Mauritius including all its dependencies to the United Kingdom through the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814 and in which Réunion was returned to France; the British colony of Mauritius consisted of the main island of Mauritius along with Rodrigues, Agalega, St Brandon and the Chagos Archipelago, while the Seychelles became a separate colony in 1906. The sovereignty of Tromelin is disputed between Mauritius and France as some of the islands such as St. Brandon, Chagos and Tromelin were not mentioned in the Treaty of Paris.
In 1965, three years prior to the independence of Mauritius, the UK split the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritian territory, the islands of Aldabra and Desroches from the Seychelles, to form the British Indian Ocean Territory. The UK forcibly expelled the archipelago's local population and leased its largest island, Diego Garcia, to the United States; the UK has restricted access to the Chagos Archipelago. The sovereignty of the Chagos is disputed between Mauritius and the UK. In February 2019, in an advisory opinion given by the International Court of Justice on this dispute, the ICJ ordered the UK to hand back the Chagos Islands to Mauritius as as possible; the people of Mauritius are multiethnic and multilingual. The island's government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, Mauritius is ranked for democracy and for economic and political freedom; the Human Development Index of Mauritius is one of the highest in Africa. Mauritius is ranked as the most competitive and one of the most developed economies in the African region.
The main pillars of the Mauritian economy are manufacturing, financial services and information and communications technology. Mauritius is a welfare state. Along with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius is known for its varied flora and fauna, with many species endemic to the island; the island was the only known home of the dodo, along with several other avian species, was made extinct by human activities shortly after the island's settlement. The first historical evidence of the existence of an island now known as Mauritius is on a map produced by the Italian cartographer Alberto Cantino in 1502. From this, it appears that Mauritius was first named Dina Arobi around 975 by Arab sailors, the first people to visit the island. In 1507, Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island; the island appears with a Portuguese name Cirne on early Portuguese maps from the name of a ship in the 1507 expedition. Another Portuguese sailor, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, gave the name Mascarenes to the Archipelago.
In 1598, a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island Mauritius, in honour of Prince Maurice van Nassau, stadholder of the Dutch Republic. The island became a French colony and was renamed Isle de France. On 3 December 1810, the French surrendered the island to Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius. Mauritius is commonly known as Maurice and Île Maurice in French, Moris in Mauritian Creole; the island of Mauritius was uninhabited before its first recorded visit during the Middle Ages by Arab sailors, who named it Dina Arobi. In 1507, Portuguese sailors came to the uninhabited island and established a visiting base. Diogo Fernandes Pereira, a Portuguese navigator, was the first European known to land in Mauritius, he named the island "Ilha do Cirne". The Portuguese did not stay. In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island "Mauritius" after Prince Maurice of Nassau of the Dutch Republic.
The Dutch inhabited the island in 1638, from which they exploited ebony trees and introduced sugar cane, domestic animals and deer. It was from here; the first Dutch settlement lasted twenty years. Several attempts were subsequently made, but the settlements never developed enough to produce dividends, causing the Dutch to abandon Mauritius in 1710. France, which controlled neighbouring Île Bourbon, took control of Mauritius in 1715 and renamed it Isle de France. In 1723, the Code Noir was established to categorise one group of human beings as "goods", in order for the owner of these goods to be able to obtain insurance money and compensation in case of loss of his "goods"; the 1735 arrival of French governor Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais coincided with development of a prosperous economy based on sugar production. Mahé de La Bourdonnais established Port Louis as a shipbuilding centre. Under his governorship, numerous buildings were erected, a number of which are sti
Rodrigues is a 108-square-kilometre autonomous outer island of the Republic of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, about 560 kilometres east of Mauritius. It is part of the Mascarene Islands which include Réunion, it is of volcanic origin and is surrounded by coral reef, just off its coast lie some tiny uninhabited islands. The island used to be the tenth District of Mauritius; the capital of the island is Port Mathurin. Its inhabitants are Mauritian citizens; as of 2014, the island's population was about 41,669, according to Statistics Mauritius. Most of the inhabitants are of mixed European descent, its economy is based on fishing, handicraft and a developing tourism sector. The island forms part of the larger territory of the Republic of Mauritius with the President as head of state and the Chief Commissioner as head of government; the uninhabited island was named after the Portuguese explorer Diogo Rodrigues in February 1528. Many maps describe it as Diego Roiz. From the 10th century, Arabs have been known to visit the Mascarene Islands.
A 12th-century map by the Arab geographer Ash-Sharif al-Idrisi contains them, the Cantino planisphere of c.1500 and some other contemporary maps show the three islands of the Mascarenes as Dina Arobi, Dina Margabin and Dina Moraze. These are corrupted transliterations or transcriptions of the Arabic ديفا هاراب Diva Harab, ديفا مغربين Diva Maghrebin and ديفا ماشريق Diva Mashriq. While the second refers to Réunion, sources disagree about which of the other is Mauritius and which one Rodrigues, which are both to the east of Réunion and arranged in a somewhat stylised way on these maps; however in its original state, Rodrigues had some karst, while Mauritius after suffering 500 years of deforestation can by no means be called "desert" in a colloquial sense. The island was located again in February 1507. Part of the fleet of Afonso de Albuquerque and Tristão da Cunha, Diogo Fernandes Pereira's Cirne spotted Réunion on 9 February after a cyclone diverted their course; the other two islands were subsequently rediscovered.
The initial name was Diogo Fernandes. The orthography has been less stable at first, with the name being transcribed Diogo Rodriguez, Diego Roiz, Diego Ruys, Dygarroys or Bygarroys; some early French sources called it Île Marianne. Due to the island lying far off the beaten track of seafarers at that time, it received few visits. From 1601, the Dutch began visiting the island somewhat more for fresh supplies of food. In 1691, the Huguenot François Leguat and seven companions landed on the island, intending to set up a farming colony of Protestant refugees. Farming was not successful, but there was an abundance of tortoises, birds and other seafood. During the 18th century several attempts were made by the French to develop the island. African slaves were brought to Rodrigues to develop farming. In 1735 a permanent French settlement is established, subordinated to Île Bourbon. In 1809, after a brief battle with the French, English or British troops took possession of Rodrigues. After British occupation, slavery was abolished in 1834.
By 1843, population had declined to a low of 250. In 1883, the eruption of the Indonesian volcano Krakatoa was heard at Rodrigues Island and it remains the furthest point at 4,800 km, at which the explosion was heard; the sound was described as "the roar of heavy guns". Naval ships were ordered to investigate as it was feared the sound was due to a ship in distress firing its guns. Having been heard from about 5,000 km away on the other side of the Indian Ocean, the noise remains the loudest sound in recorded history. In 1968, Rodrigues was joined with Mauritius. In 1997, the 40-foot-long Russian yacht Admiral Nevelskoi was found in the lagoon of Rodrigues Island. Captained solo by professor Leonid Lysenko for the Russian Maritime State University as a research ship, the vessel's mast and rudder broke on a voyage in 1995, drifting for 21 days until Lysenko was rescued by the crew of the Ukrainian vessel Arkaja, at which time the Admiral Nevelskoi was abandoned. Lysenko was certain that the ship would sink, however the vessel continued to drift at sea without crew for over 2 years before washing up on Rodrigues, at which time it was removed from the water and brought ashore.
In 2010, Russian Hon. Eric Typhis Degtyarenko located the yacht and contacted the Maritime State University, at which time the ship was converted to a maritime museum in recognition as Russia's only link to the Indian Ocean. Rodrigues is a volcanic island rising from a ridge along the edge of the Mascarene Plateau; the tectonically active Rodrigues Triple Point lies on the sea-floor nearby. Rodrigues is only 1.5 million years old if the plateau under the lagoon surrounding Rodrigues may be much more ancient than the island. Over time Rodrigues has developed a unique environment, including many endemic species. Rodrigues is situated about 560 kilometres to the east of Mauritius, it is about 18 km long and 6.5 km (
The Mascarene Islands or Mascarenes or Mascarenhas Archipelago is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar consisting of Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues. Their name derives from the Portuguese navigator Pedro Mascarenhas, who first visited them in April 1512; the islands share a common geologic origin in the volcanism of the Réunion hotspot beneath the Mascarene Plateau and form a distinct ecoregion with a unique flora and fauna. The archipelago comprises three large islands, Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, plus a number of volcanic remnants in the tropics of the southwestern Indian Ocean between 700 and 1500 kilometres east of Madagascar; the terrain includes a variety of reefs and small islands. They present various edaphic regions. On the largest islands these gave rise to unusual biodiversity; the climate is tropical. The islands are volcanic in origin; the youngest islands to form were Mauritius, the oldest of the existing islands, created along with the undersea Rodrigues ridge.
The islands of Rodrigues and Réunion were created in the last two million years. Réunion is the largest of the islands, followed by Rodrigues. Saya de Malha and Soudan were submerged, Cargados Carajos remaining as a coral atoll; the Réunion hotspot was beginning to cool and Rodrigues came out as a small island. Réunion is home to the highest peaks in the Mascarenes, the shield volcanoes Piton des Neiges and Piton de la Fournaise. Piton de la Fournaise, on the southeastern corner of Réunion, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, erupting last in 2019. Piton de la Petite Rivière Noire is the highest peak on Mauritius, the gentle hills of Rodrigues rise to only 390 m; the Mascarene Plateau is an undersea plateau that extends 2000 km, from the Seychelles to Réunion. The plateau covers an area of over 115,000 km2 of shallow water, with depths ranging from 8 to 150 meters, plunging to 4000 m to the abyssal plain at its edges; the southern part of the plateau, including the Saya de Malha Bank, Nazareth Bank, Soudan Banks and Cargados Carajos Shoals, was formed by the Réunion hotspot.
These were once volcanic islands, much like Mauritius and Réunion, which have now sunk or eroded to below sea level or, in the case of the Cargados Carajos, to low coral islands. The Saya de Malha Bank formed 35 million years ago, the Nazareth Bank and the Cargados Carajos shoals after that. Limestone banks found on the plateau are the remnants of coral reefs, indicating that the plateau was a succession of islands; some of the banks may have been islands as as 18,000–6,000 years ago, when sea levels were as much as 130 meters lower during the most recent ice age. The habitats of the islands differ in size, age, in proximity to the nearest major land mass, namely; as is common among remote islands, the Mascarene fauna and flora display a high degree of endemism. There are many introduced species but until Europeans first settled the islands in the sixteenth century the Mascarenes are not known to have harbored any human populations, so much of the island's wildlife, which would have gone extinct much earlier had any native people lived there, was still flourishing during the early days of settlement.
In prehistoric times the islands were covered in a diverse range of tropical moist broadleaf forest. At present, though the Mascarene islands form a distinct ecoregion, known as the Mascarene forests, the ecoregion is not homogeneous, comprises at least five distinct vegetation zones that reflect variations in altitude and in moisture regime; the freshwater biota includes coastal wetlands and swamp forests, grading into rainforest to windward and to lowland dry forest to leeward. Dryland areas include palm savannas, montane deciduous forests and heathlands on the highest peaks of Réunion; the dry lowland forests range from sea level to elevations of some 200 metres. They occur in regions with less than 1000 mm average annual rainfall; these dry lowland forests are dominated by palms such as Latania species and Dictyosperma album, by the palm-like screw-pines. There are sclerophyllous trees such as species in the family Combretaceae, for example Terminalia bentzoe Semi-dry sclerophyllous forests occur between the coastal areas and an altitude of 360 metres on Mauritius and Rodrigues.
On Réunion only small relict patches remain at altitudes up to 750 metres on the western slopes. This semi-dry ecosystem occurs where the average annual rainfall is about 1000–1500 mm. Characteristic families of the flora in the include Ebenaceae, with ebony species in the genus Diospyros. Other tree families are occurring such as Pleurostylia spp. Foetidia spp. Olea europea subsp. Africana, Cossinia pinnata, Dombeya spp. and a variety of Sapotaceae species Sideroxylon boutonianum, Sideroxylon borbonicum spp. and Mimusops. The ecosystem is home to several spectacular endemic species of Hibiscus Zanthoxylum spp. Obetia ficifolia, Scolopia heterophylla; the lowland rainforests are characterized by dense evergreen forests, with a canopy exceeding 30 meters. With an average annual rainfall of 1500–6000 mm, occur on Mauritius island above 360 m and all over the ea
2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season
The 2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season had the earliest named storm since 1992. Many storms formed in the north-east portion of the basin, several more originated around Australia; the basin is defined as the waters of the Indian Ocean west of longitude 90°E to the coast of Africa and south of the equator. Eleven tropical storms formed, compared to an average of nine. Tropical systems were present during 73 days, higher than the average of 58 for this basin. Tropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Réunion; the season started on November 1, 2001, ended on April 30, 2002. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin; the first storm was Andre, which emerged from the Australian basin as Tropical Cyclone Alex in late October. The strongest storm, Cyclone Hary, was the first intense tropical cyclone since 2000. In January, Cyclone Dina left heavy damage in the Mascarene Islands on Réunion, where it dropped 2,102 mm of rainfall.
The second-to-last storm was Cyclone Kesiny, which killed 33 people when it struck Madagascar in the midst of a political crisis. Météo-France's meteorological office in Réunion is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the South-West Indian Ocean, tracking all tropical cyclones from the east coast of Africa to 90° E; the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the region issued advisories for storms during the season. Following the season, the start of the tropical cyclone year was changed to July 1, which defines the boundary between tropical cyclone seasons. Although the previous season was tame, the 2001–02 season was active and featured several intense tropical cyclones. During the season, eleven systems were named, above the average of nine. However, nine of the systems attained the second highest total in 30 years. In terms of both the number of systems and number of "cyclone days", the season was considered comparable by MFR to the 1993–94 season.
In this season, there were 73 days on which tropical cyclones were active, more than twice as much as the previous season and 19 days above the average. A system of cyclone intensity was active on 35 days, 15 days above the mean. Additionally, five of the systems attained "intense tropical cyclone" status, including one – Hary – that attained the "very intense tropical cyclone" stage. Activity was distributed throughout the season and had the earliest start since 1992. Like most seasons within the basin, activity reached a climax in late January. Several systems during the season developed in the eastern portion of the basin, similar to 1993–94; the Bureau of Meteorology classified a tropical low as Tropical Cyclone Alex on October 26 in the Australian region. It was located in an area of strong wind shear, which prevented significant strengthening. However, convection over the system increased on October 27, it crossed into the South-West Indian Ocean at around the same time, it was renamed Andre, becoming the earliest date for the first named storm since 1992.
After reaching 10‑minute sustained winds of 100 km/h, according to the MFR, Andre began weakening, due to increasing shear. It moved to the west-southwest before turning northwestward on October 29, around which time the convection separated from the center. Moving Andre turned to the southwest after weakening to a tropical depression. Late on October 31, the system was no longer classifiable as a tropical system, the remnants continued to the west-southwest until being absorbed by a trough on November 8; the monsoon trough spawned a tropical low on November 24 in the Australian basin. It moved to the southwest, strengthening into Tropical Cyclone Bessi on November 27. Two days it moved into the South-West Indian Ocean, was renamed Bako on December 1. Located in a similar position to the previous storm, Bako strengthened into a severe tropical storm on December 1, aided by warm waters and slack wind shear; the storm turned to the southeast on December 2, despite predictions to the contrary, that day it intensified further into a tropical cyclone, the first of the season.
However, on December 3, Bako weakened back into a severe tropical storm due to much cooler sea surface temperatures and increasing northwesterly wind shear. It weakened into a tropical depression on December 5, before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone the same day. RSMC La Reunion continued to track the remnants of Bako until December 9. On December 25, a cold front dragged over the central Mozambique Channel. A weak circulation formed in the Channel and moderate convection appeared on December 27. On December 30, RSMC La Reunion designated this low pressure as a zone of disturbed weather and was classified as a tropical depression on January 1, 2002; the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert early on December 31 and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 08S the next day. As it moved further eastwards it strengthened from a tropical depression into a severe tropical storm, with the Meteorological Services of Madagascar giving it the name Cyprien on January 1. Cyprien soon became a serious threat to western Madagascar.
Agaléga are two outer islands of Mauritius located in the Indian Ocean, about 1,000 kilometres north of Mauritius island. The population of the islands as at July 2011 was estimated at 300; the islands have a total area of 2,600 hectares. The North island is 12.5 km long and 1.5 km wide, while the South island is 7 km long and 4.5 km wide. The North Island is home to the capital Vingt Cinq; the islands are known for their coconuts, the production of, their main industry, for the Agalega day gecko. Agaléga island is leased to the Indian military for the development of strategic assets; the Head of the Mauritius Navy and the Mauritian National Security Advisor are Indian officers. See India–Mauritius Military cooperation. There are three different explanations for the name Agaléga. One hypothesis is that the Portuguese explorer, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, named Agaléga and the island of Sainte Marie in honor of his two sailboats, the "Galega" and the "Santa Maria" in 1512, when he discovered Mauritius and Réunion Island.
Another, more probable explanation relates to the Galician explorer João da Nova, who discovered the islands in 1501 while working for the Portuguese. João was popularly known by his sailors as João Galego, according to Jean-Baptiste Benoît Eyriès' Les Nouvelles Annales de Voyage. Galego is the Galician/Portuguese word for someone from Galicia, North West Spain, "Agalega", is derived from the feminine version of this. A further idea comes from a story in Sir Robert Scott's book Limuria: The Lesser Dependencies of Mauritius, where he describes the 1509 discovery of the Islands by the Portuguese mariner Diogo Lopes de Sequeira. According to this version, Diogo named the Islands Baixas da Gale, with the "da Gale" referring to putative gale-force winds hypothetically modelling the coasts of both islands. Scott suggests that maps of the region represented the islands as Gale, metamorphosing into Galera and Agalega; as with the Mascarene islands, they may have been known to Arab and Malay sailors, although no written records have been found to confirm this.
Agalega, or Galega, was examined by Captain Briggs of HMS Clorinde, on the 12th of January, 1811, who seems to have fixed its situation, not well ascertained. The landing was found difficult on account of the island being surrounded by a reef. A person who had commanded a French privateer, was at this time settled on the island, having under him a colony of negroes, who cultivated part of the ground with maize and wheat; the first settlement on the islands was founded by M. de Rosemond. Upon his arrival in August 1808, he discovered the bodies of two castaways and a bottle containing notes written by one of them, the privateer Robert Dufour; the only mountain on the islands, Montagne d'Emmerez, derives its name from the second wrecked sailor, Adelaide d'Emmerez, a Mauritian. Economic and political development of the islands didn't begin until the arrival of Auguste Le Duc in 1827, a French administrator sent by M. Barbé to organise production of coconut oil and copra. There still exists a number of historical monuments dating from the period 1827 to 1846, made by slaves: the village Vingt-Cinq, the Slave Dungeons, an Oil Mill, a cemetery for Blacks and a cemetery for Whites, among others.
Auguste Le Duc began construction of a bridge between the two islands, although it was swept away by severe weather. Father Victor Malaval brought the Catholic Church to the islands in 1897 as the first missionary. An improvised chapel was built on the South Island; the origin of inhabitants has been influenced by the political situation in the world in the nineteenth century (Mauritius, which passed to the English in 1810, the abolition of the slave trade, abolition of slavery in 1835, the arrival of coolies. The slaves themselves were of Malagasy origin, or from Madras in India, while some were freed from slaving ships while others were from the trading ports of the Comoros Islands. Legends such as "Calèche Blanc" and "Princesse Malgache" are part of the folklore of the islands, as well as the coded language of "Madam langaz Seret" which has come down from the time of slaves; this language is a mixture of French and Mauritian Creole where every syllable is doubled with the first consonants replaced by the "g".
The origin and purpose of this language remains unclear. Today, the population consists of around 300 people, known locally as Agaléens. Catholicism is the dominant religion. North Island is 12.5 kilometres long and 1.5 kilometres wide while South Island is 7 kilometres long and 4.5 kilometres wide. The total area of both islands is 26 square kilometres; the soil is coral. The culmination is at the top of the hill Emmer on the island in the north; the climate is hot and humid and the average annual temperature is 26 °C, ranging from a minimum of 22.5 °C and a maximum of 30.6 °C. April is the hottest month of the year; the tropical climate is conducive to the development of mangrove and coconut trees that cover the two islets. Agaléga is managed by a company of the State of Mauritius, the Outer Island Development Company, a company which develops remote islands; the company delegates a Resident Manager, a kind of steward, the supreme authorit
Vacoas-Phoenix known as French: Villes Jumelles, is a town in Mauritius, located in the Plaines Wilhems District, the eastern part lies in the Moka District. The town is administered by the Municipal Council of Vacoas-Phoenix; the town lies between Quatre Curepipe. The towns of Vacoas and Phoenix fused in 1963. Vacoas-Phoenix became a municipality in 1968. For the general elections the town is classified as the No 15 constituency known as La Caverne and Phoenix and the No 16 Vacoas and Floreal constituency; the football team of the town is the AS de Vacoas-Phoenix, they play in the Mauritian League, the top division in Mauritian football. The town of Vacoas-Phoenix is divided into different suburbs. Vacoas-Phoenix is twinned with: Antsirabé, Madagascar Pune, India Sainte-Suzanne, Réunion, France Nantong, China List of places in Mauritius
Le Pouce is the third highest mountain in Mauritius, at 812 meters. Only Piton de la Petite Rivière Noire and Pieter Both are taller, it is named Le Pouce because of the thumb-shaped peak of the mountain. It can be viewed from the capital of Mauritius, Port Louis, is a popular hike for the view of the city; the mountain is in the Moka Range and is closest to the village of La Laura-Malenga in the Moka District. Charles Darwin ascended the mountain on 2 May 1836; the Mascarene Islands, the island chain that Mauritius lies in, is a volcanic belt. Le Pouce is the second highest peak in the Moka Range, formed ten million years ago from volcano eruptions; the range is no longer volcanically active. Le Pouce is overgrown with acacia, which are not native to the area. One example of flora endemic to Le Pouce is Pandanus pseudomontanus known as Le Pouce Mountain Screwpine; this plant is not listed on the IUCN Red List, but IUCN has assessed it as critically endangered. The only individuals of this species are two plants in the Le Pouce Mountain Nature Reserve.
Since both of these are male plants, the species is at "extremely high risk of extinction'. The trek to the top of Le Pouce is considered an easy hike. However, the ascent is steep near the thumb. Le Pouce can be reached from Port Louis. Unlike Pieter Both, climbing gear is not needed. From the peak, Port Louis and Beau-Bassin Rose-Hill can be seen, as well as many other places around the island. Le Pouce was formed ten million years ago in a basalt lava dome. Charles Darwin ascended the mountain during his voyage around the world, he recorded in his journal: I ascended La Pouce, a mountain so called from a thumb-like projection, which rises close behind the town to a height of 2600 feet. The centre of the island consists of a great platform, surrounded by old broken basaltic mountains, with their strata dipping seawards; the central platform, formed of comparatively recent streams of lava, is of an oval shape, thirteen geographical miles across, in the line of its shorter axis. The exterior bounding mountains come into that class of structures called Craters of Elevation, which are supposed to have been formed not like ordinary craters, but by a great and sudden upheaval.
There appears to me to be insuperable objections to this view: on the other hand, I can hardly believe, in this and in some other cases, that these marginal crateriform mountains are the basal remnants of immense volcanos, of which the summits either have been blown off, or swallowed up in subterranean abysses. As time went by and tourism increased, hiking Le Pouce became a tourist attraction