Piran is a town in southwestern Slovenia on the Gulf of Piran on the Adriatic Sea. It is one of the three major towns of Slovenian Istria; the town has much medieval architecture, with compact houses. Piran is the administrative centre of the local area and one of Slovenia's major tourist attractions; until the mid-20th century, Italian was the dominant language, but was replaced by Slovene as demographics shifted. In the pre-Roman era, the hills in the Piran area were inhabited by Illyrian Histri tribes who were farmers and fishermen, they were pirates who disrupted Roman trade in the northern Adriatic. The Piran peninsula was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 178 and 177 BC and settled in the following years with rural homes; the decline of the Roman Empire, from the 5th century AD onward, incursions by the Avars and Slavs at the end of the 6th century, prompted the Roman population to withdraw into defensible locations such as islands or peninsulas. This started local urbanisation and by the 7th century, under Byzantine rule, Piran had become fortified.
Despite the defences, the Franks conquered Slavs settled in the region. By 952, Piran had become a part of the Holy Roman Empire; the earliest reliable records of the area are in the 7th century work Cosmographia by an anonymous cleric of Ravenna. The name of the town most originates from the Greek "pyrrhos", which means "red", because of the reddish flysch stones found in the town's area; some historians refer it to "pyros", meaning fire, due to ancient lighthouses which were supposed to be on the edge of the marina. From 1283 to 1797, the town became part of the Republic of Venice, where it was governed in a semi-autonoumous way, with a council of local noblemen assisting the Venetian delegate. Several enemy and pirate assaults were repelled during the late Middle Ages; the last decades of Venetian rule were marked by decadence, due to the competition with the nearby Austrian port town of Trieste. The town was annexed to Austrian Empire in 1797. On 22 February 1812, the Battle of Pirano was fought between a British and a French ship of the line in the vicinity of Piran.
This was a minor battle of the Adriatic campaign of the Napoleonic Wars. The French Rivoli had been completed at Venice; the French naval authorities intended her to bolster French forces in the Adriatic, following a succession of defeats in the preceding year. Captain John Talbot of HMS Victorious blockaded the port; when Rivoli attempted to escape under the cover of fog, Talbot chased her and forced her to surrender in a five-hour battle, Rivoli lost over half her crew as either wounded or dead. This was the only battle fought in the sea nowadays belonging to Slovenia. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Piran was an Austro-Hungarian city with over 12,000 inhabitants, larger than the nearby Koper, it was a flourishing spa town with good transport connections. The first trolleybus line in the Balkans was introduced to public service on 24 October 1909 in Piran. In 1912, it was replaced by a tramway that operated on the same route till 1953. After the First World War, together with Trieste and all Istria, the town was ceded to Italy.
There were no particular events in those years, until Italy entered the Second World War in 1940. With the defeat of the Axis powers and the rise of Tito's rule, Piran was assigned to the Free Territory of Trieste, Zone B, under Yugoslavian administration; the town was annexed to Yugoslavia in 1954, according to the London Memorandum signed together with Italy. A significant part of Piran's population chose to emigrate to Italy or abroad in the final phase of the Istrian exodus, rather than stay in socialist Yugoslavia; the annexation to Yugoslavia was ratified with the Osimo Treaty in 1975, signed by Italy as well. Since 1991, Piran is part of independent Slovenia. On 24 October 2010, Slovenia became the first country of former communist Europe to elect a black mayor; the physician Peter Bossman, who came from Ghana in the late 1970s, was elected mayor of Piran. He took office at the first constitutional meeting of the municipal council on 12 November 2010, succeeding Tomaž Gantar, he represents the Social Democrats.
The territorial claims of Croatia and Slovenia in the Gulf of Piran remain an important issue in the Croatia–Slovenia border disputes that began after the dissolution of Yugoslavia. Piran is the birthplace of composer and violinist Giuseppe Tartini, who played an important role in shaping its cultural heritage; the town's main square, Tartini Square, is named after him. In 1892, the 200th anniversary of his birth, a monument to Tartini was erected in Piran. Venetian artist Antonio Dal Zotto was commissioned to create a larger-than-life bronze statue, mounted on its pedestal in 1896; the statue dominates the square, overlooked by the Cathedral of Saint George. The painter Cesare Dell'Acqua was born in Piran. Piran is the seat of the Euro-Mediterranean University of Slovenia, founded in 2008 as one of the cultural projects of the Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean; the Piran Coastal Galleries, a public institution encompassing a group of six public contemporary art galleries, is based in Piran.
Musical Evenings of Piran have taken place for decades in Greyfriars Franciscan monastery's atrium, one of the most beautiful cloister atriums in the Slovenian
Črnomelj is a town in southeastern Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Črnomelj, it lies on the left bank of the Dobličica rivers. The municipality is at the heart of the area of White Carniola, the southeastern part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola, it is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region. It includes the hamlets of Čardak, Kočevje, Kozji Plac and Nova Loka. Črnomelj was first attested in written sources in 1228 as Schirnomel. The name is derived from *Čьrnomľь, based on the hypocorism *Čьrnomъ, thus meaning'Črnom's settlement'. In the modern German the name was Tschernembl; until 1918, the Austro-Hungarian postal service used the bilingual names Tschernembl – Černomelj. The German name alone was used by the postal service before 1867. Archaeological evidence has shown that the area has been settled since from the late Bronze Age onwards with the settlement developing through the Iron Age; the exact year of the destruction of the Iron Age settlement by Romans is not known.
Evidence indicates that it was destroyed either during Octavians campaign against the Illyrians between 35 and 33 BC, Tiberius's campaign in Pannonia in 12 to 9 BC, or in the Great Illyrian revolt of 6 to 9 AD. It was first mentioned as Schirnomel in written documents dating to 1228, in a charter issued by the Patriarch of Aquileia. Before 1277 it was developed into a regional center, it was mentioned as a town in 1407, so it gained town privileges prior to that, but it is mentioned as a market after that. During the 16th century it held an important military position as one of the centers for organizing supplies for the military frontier. After the establishment of Karlovac in what is now Croatia in 1579, it lost that position. Črnomelj was the home of a powerful noble family of von Tschernembl. Mentioned for the first time in 1267, they achieved important posts in the Habsburg nobility of Carniola. During the 15th century they expanded their influence and one of the heads of the family, Georg von Tschernembl, held the positions of Captain of Triest and Captain of Styria, one of the most important lands of Habsburgs.
In the 16th century they joined the Protestant nobility of Inner Austria and in 1564 Hans von Tschernembl sold their numerous holdings in Carniola and moved to Upper Austria. There the most important and known member of the family was born in 1567, Georg Erasmus von Tschernembl, an important political leader of the Protestant nobility of Upper and Lower Austria. After his death in 1626, the family became Catholic again and regained their lost possessions in Upper Austria; the last male member of the family died in 1667, but through numerous female members their bloodline continued into some of the royal houses of today's Europe. They served as an example of ruined nobility of 18th century for the German writer Gottlieb August Crüwell and his work Schönwiesen, printed in Berlin in 1911; until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy. It was the seat of the district of the same name, one of the 11 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the province of Carniola. Črnomelj is the site of a mass grave associated with the Second World War.
The Parish Shed Mass Grave is located north of town on the edge of a small sinkhole in the woods. It contains the remains of undetermined victims; the parish church in the town is dedicated to Saint Peter and belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Novo Mesto. The current building was built in the 17th century on the site of a 13th-century church. There are two other churches in the town. One, dedicated to Saint Sebastian, is mentioned as a chapel in the early 16th century, but was extended into a church in 1646 after an outbreak of the plague, it was restored in 1904 and in 1963. The second is dedicated to the Holy Spirit and is a Gothic building first mentioned in documents dating to 1487, but restyled, most in 1895, it is built on top of Roman occupation layers. A monument in the town is dedicated to fallen Partisans, it stands on a small hill called Griček. It is the work of Marko Župančič with sculptures by Jakob Savinšek; the town is home to Slovenian football club Bela Krajina Črnomelj. Jasmin Kurtić footballer Črnomelj on Geopedia Črnomelj municipal site
Gulf of Trieste
The Gulf of Trieste is a shallow bay of the Adriatic Sea, in the extreme northern part of the Adriatic Sea. It is part of the Gulf of Venice and is shared by Italy and Croatia, it is closed to the south by the peninsula of Istria, the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea, shared between Croatia and Slovenia. The entire Slovenian sea is part of the Gulf of Trieste; the gulf is limited by an imaginary line connecting the Punta Tagliamento on the Italian and Savudrija on the Croatian coast. Its area is 550 square kilometres, its average depth is 18.7 metres, its maximum depth is 37 metres. With the exception of flat islets blocking the entrance to Laguna di Grado, there are no islands in the gulf, its eastern coasts, with Trieste and the Slovenian Littoral, have more rugged relief. The sea current in the gulf flows counterclockwise, its average speed is 0.8 knots. Tides in the gulf are among the largest in the Adriatic Sea, but do not exceed 60 centimetres; the average salinity is 37–38‰, but in the summer it falls below 35‰.
Its most prominent features are: The Bay of Panzano in Italy The Bay of Muggia in Italy The Bay of Grignano in Italy The Bay of Koper in Slovenia The Gulf of Piran, the sovereignty over, a matter of dispute between Croatia and Slovenia since 1991. The entire Slovenian coastline is located on the Gulf of Trieste, its length is 46.6 kilometres. Towns along the coastline include Koper and Piran. Slovenian Riviera Free Territory of Trieste Treaty of Osimo Barcolana regatta Media related to Gulf of Trieste at Wikimedia Commons Gulf of Trieste on Geopedia.si Conditions in the Gulf of Trieste on and near the Slovene coast: Koper - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days Piran - graphs, in the following order, of water temperature, wave height, wave period, wave direction, current speed, current direction, maximum wave height data for the past 30 days
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
The Kamnik–Savinja Alps are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps. They lie except for the northernmost part, which lies in Austria; the western part of the range was named the Kamnik Alps in 1778 by the scientists Belsazar Hacquet and Franz Xaver von Wulfen, after the town of Kamnik in the valley of the Kamnik Bistrica River. Its eastern part was named the Savinja Alps or Solčava Alps by the mountaineer Johannes von Frischauf in 1875, after the settlement of Solčava and the main river, the upper Savinja; the Kamnik–Savinja Alps are located south of the Karawanks range at the border of Austria and Slovenia, stretching from the Sava River in the west to the Savinja in the east, where the adjacent Slovenian Prealps with the Pohorje range, the Celje Hills at the Dravinja River, as well as the Sava Hills are located. In the northwest, the valley of Vellach Creek leading to Bad Vellach is the southernmost point of both the Austrian state of Carinthia and Austria as a whole; the entire main chain is today part of Slovenia.
It formed the border between the Inner Austrian duchies of Carinthia and Carniola. The tripoint was located at the Carinthia Mount Rinka. There is a small glacier below Mount Skuta, the easternmost glacier in the Southern Alps; the most important peaks are: Grintovec – 2,558 m Kočna – 2,540 m Skuta – 2,532 m Ojstrica – 2,350 m Storžič – 2,132 m Planjava – 2,394 m Brana – 2,253 m Carinthia Mount Rinka – 2,433 m Cold Mountain – 2,203 m Krofička – 2,083 m Kalce Ridge – 2,224 m In total, 28 peaks surpass 2,000 m. The total area of the Slovene part is about 900 km². About three quarters of the surface are covered with forest, many of the higher peaks are bleak and rocky; the most important passes are the Seebergsattel between Austrian Carinthia and Slovenia's Municipality of Jezersko, as well as the Pavlič Pass. On the Slovenian side, there is a skiing area, whereas tourism in the Vellach Valley focuses on health spas. List of mountains in Austria List of mountains in Slovenia Media related to Kamnik–Savinja Alps at Wikimedia Commons Kamnik–Savinja Alps on Hiking Trail
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley; the countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania and Herzegovina, Italy and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast, it is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas; the prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally; the Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin.
The surface water temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 12 °C in winter moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era; the plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast; the western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity; the sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic and threatened ones.
The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire; the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania; the former disintegrated during the 1990s. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Bosnian-Herzegovinian, Montenegrin waters are still disputed.
Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast. Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year; the largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year. The origins of the name Adriatic are linked to the Etruscan settlement of Adria, which derives its name from the Illyrian adur meaning water or sea. In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum or, less as Mare Superum, " upper sea"; the two terms were not synonymous, however. Mare Adriaticum corresponds to the Adriatic Sea's extent, spanning from the Gulf of Venice to the Strait of Otranto; that boundary became more defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete.
Mare Superum on the other hand encompassed both the modern Adriatic Sea and the sea off the Apennine peninsula's southern coast, as far as the Strait of Sicily. Another name used in the period was Mare Dalmaticum, applied to waters off the coast of Dalmatia or Illyricum; the names for the sea in the languages of the surrounding countries include Albanian: Deti Adriatik. In Croatian and Slovene, the sea is referred to as Jadran; the Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea, bordered in the southwest by the Apennine or Italian Peninsula, in the northwest by the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in the northeast by Slovenia, Croatia, B
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection