Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
The sub-Cambrian peneplain is an ancient flat, erosion surface, exhumed and exposed by erosion from under Cambrian strata over large swathes of Fennoscandia. Eastward, where this peneplain dips below Cambrian and other Lower Paleozoic cover rocks; the exposed parts of this peneplain are extraordinarily flat with relief of less than 20 m. The overlying cover rocks demonstrate that the peneplain was flooded by shallow seas during the Early Paleozoic. Being the oldest identifiable peneplain in its area the Sub-Cambrian peneplain qualifies as a primary peneplain; the surface was first identified Arvid Högbom in a 1910 publication with Sten Rudberg producing in 1954 the first extensive map. This mapping has been improved upon by Karna Lidmar-Bergström since the 1980s; the Sub-Cambrian peneplain extends as an continuous belt along the eastern coast of Sweden for some 700 km from north to south. Near Stockholm and Hudiksvall the peneplain is densely dissected by joint valleys and at the High Coast is the Sub-Cambrian peneplain is both uplifted and eroded.
More inland the peneplain can be traced at the crestal region of the South Swedish Dome where it is dissected by joint valleys. The Sub-Cambrian peneplain in the crestal region of the South Swedish Dome is the highest step in a piedmonttreppen system seen in Småland. In southern Sweden the peneplain surfaces tilt away from the crest of South Swedish Dome, to the northwest in Västergötland, to the northeast in Östergötland and to the east in eastern Småland. At this last region the sub-Cambrian peneplain is truncated to the west by a well defined and prominent scarp that separates it from the South Småland peneplain to the west. In the Central Swedish lowland the peneplain extends further west being 450 km wide from west to east. In Bohuslän, at the northern end of the Swedish West Coast, there is some uncertainty over whether the hilltops are remnants of the peneplain. A similar situation occurs in central Halland. Further west, parts of the Paleic surface in Norway have been interpreted to be part of the peneplain, tectonically uplifted and is disrupted by NNE-SSW trending faults.
Near the 1,100 m high Hardangervidda plateau in Norway is the Sub-Cambrian peneplain has been uplifted at least thousand meters, albeit Hardangervidda itself is part of a much younger peneplain formed in the Miocene epoch. At Stöttingfjället in northern Sweden the peneplain occur, as result of tectonic uplift, at about 650 meters giving origin to a series of water gaps including those of Ångermanälven, Indalsälven and Ljusnan. In northwestern Finland the Ostrobothnian Plain is a continuation of the peneplain. To the east the Sub-Cambrian peneplain continues as an unconformity beneath the East European Platform. On a grand-scale the peneplain is not flat as it has been deformed; this deformation is an isostatic response to erosion and the load of Phanerozoic sediments that rests above much of the peneplain. The peneplain is characterized by a general lack of inselbergs. One exception to this is the island Blå Jungfrun in the Baltic Sea, an ancient inselberg formed in Precambrian time and buried in sandstone after its formation.
Blå Jungfrun remained buried until erosion of the East European Platform freed it in geologically recent times. Interpretations of Jotnian sandstone imply that much of the Baltic Shield have had faint relief since the Mesoproterozoic, but no exhumed peneplain from this period has been preserved; the low relief terrain on which the Jotnian sandstone deposited was disturbed by the Sveconorwegian orogeny in western Sweden about 1,000 million years ago and begun to erode again into a terrain of subdued relief. The peneplain formed after 600 million years prior to the Cambrian trangression; the basement rocks forming the peneplain surface were exhumed from depths were the temperature was in excess of 100° C prior to the formation of peneplain. Karna Lidmar-Bergström and co-workers assume the peneplain formed though a cycle of erosion with a preceding brief valley phase and that it grades down to a former sea level. Due to the absence of land vegetation in Precambrian times sheet wash is thought to have been an important process of erosion leading to the formation of extensive pediments.
Sheet wash would have hindered the formation of deep weathering profiles. Indeed, at the places the substrate of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain is kaolinized it never exceeds a few meters in depth; the flatness of the peneplain meant that during the Cambrian transgression large areas were swiftly flooded forming large and shallow inland seas in changing configurations. The new relief formed on top of Cambrian sediments smoothed out irregularities in the peneplain. Early Cambrian sandstones overlying the peneplain in southern Norway and Bornholm have never been recycled; this means the parent rocks of the sandstone were eroded and the sediment reworked and weathered reaching sedimentary maturity with no other in-between step or hiatus. The source areas for these sandstones are local rocks from the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt or the Sveconorwegian and Gothian orogens. Baltic Klint Muddus plains Norrland terrain
Sicklasjön is a lake in eastern central Stockholm, Sweden. It is bordering the municipalities of Stockholm and Nacka and is named for the vicinity to the urban district Sickla. Sicklasjön known as Långsjön, is connected to Järlasjön east of it through a narrow strait and to Hammarby Sjö west of it through the canal Sickla Kanal and the sluice Sickla Sluss; the lake, forming the northern border of the Nacka Open-air Area, is considered as of significant recreational and natural value. Water flow is periodically important but inconsiderable during summers when the lake remains stratified; the lake is the last lake in the Sicklaån water system formed in an east-west oriented fissure valley. The catchment area is exploited with most of it used for one-family houses, block of flats, industrial areas, roads. On the southern shore are patches of hardwood forests, a few feeder streams, a promenade, the old farm Lilla Sickla south of which are several minor wetlands; the closed stock pile Hammarbybacken containing various types of excavated materials is located within the catchment area.
Next to Sickla Kanal is a subterranean plant used to treat sludge disposal. New residential areas have been constructed in the western end of the lake. 400 kg phosphorus is transported through the lake annually, of which some 80 per cent comes from the other lakes in the water system. Surface runoff adds some 50 kg phosphorus and 600 kg nitrogen, while 24 kg phosphorus is released from lake sediments and atmospheric deposits adds some 120 kg of nitrogen. Most of metal contribution, copper and zinc, comes from Hammarbybacken where high levels of arsenic, phthalates, PCB, Carbon tetrachloride have been recorded. Though most of these pollutions are bound to particles, leachate from the eastern part of the tip is believed to leak into the lake. Chlorophyll content have decreased since the 1980s and is at present around 45 μg/l which gives a transparency of 1,5 m. Most common phytoplankton species are filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms, while zooplankton are represented by daphnia and copepods.
Common aquatic plants in the water column include rigid hornwort and yellow water-lily coupled with a presence of Nuttall's waterweed, common duckweed, white waterlily, amphibious bistort, four species of pondweeds. An inventory of lakebed fauna in 1997 documented 47 species/taxa, predominately freshwater gastropods and dragonflies; the same year, roach, a few other species were documented in the lake. Crayfish was introduced in 1992 and 1995-96. Except for seabirds such as the mallard and Eurasian coot, the thrush nightingale is present on the southern shore. Species of bats documented includes the northern bat, Daubenton's bat, Brandt's bat. Additionally, the area is a great locale for amphibians, with a presence of common toad and moor frog, traces of beaver have been found around the lake. Geography of Stockholm Lakes of Sweden "Sicklasjön". Stockholm vatten. 2007-03-01. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Vattenprogram för Stockholm 2000 - Sicklasjön". Stockholm vatten.
Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Lilla Sickla". Skarpnäck borough. 2003-07-08. Retrieved 2007-05-29
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it demonstrates oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds, like mercury, it has a lower melting point than the transition metals in groups 3 through 11. Cadmium and its congeners in group 12 are not considered transition metals, in that they do not have filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states; the average concentration of cadmium in Earth's crust is between 0.5 parts per million. It was discovered in 1817 by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Cadmium is a byproduct of zinc production. Cadmium was used for a long time as a corrosion-resistant plating on steel, cadmium compounds are used as red and yellow pigments, to color glass, to stabilize plastic. Cadmium use is decreasing because it is toxic and nickel-cadmium batteries have been replaced with nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries.
One of its few new uses is cadmium telluride solar panels. Although cadmium has no known biological function in higher organisms, a cadmium-dependent carbonic anhydrase has been found in marine diatoms. Cadmium is a soft, ductile, bluish-white divalent metal, it forms complex compounds. Unlike most other metals, cadmium is resistant to corrosion and is used as a protective plate on other metals; as a bulk metal, cadmium is not flammable. Although cadmium has an oxidation state of +2, it exists in the +1 state. Cadmium and its congeners are not always considered transition metals, in that they do not have filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. Cadmium burns in air to form brown amorphous cadmium oxide. Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid dissolve cadmium by forming cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, or cadmium nitrate; the oxidation state +1 can be produced by dissolving cadmium in a mixture of cadmium chloride and aluminium chloride, forming the Cd22+ cation, similar to the Hg22+ cation in mercury chloride.
Cd + CdCl2 + 2 AlCl3 → Cd22The structures of many cadmium complexes with nucleobases, amino acids, vitamins have been determined. Occurring cadmium is composed of 8 isotopes. Two of them are radioactive, three are expected to decay but have not done so under laboratory conditions; the two natural radioactive isotopes are 116Cd. The other three are 106Cd, 108Cd, 114Cd. At least three isotopes – 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd – are stable. Among the isotopes that do not occur the most long-lived are 109Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, 115Cd with a half-life of 53.46 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than 2.5 hours, the majority have half-lives of less than 5 minutes. Cadmium has 8 known meta states, with the most stable being 113mCd, 115mCd, 117mCd; the known isotopes of cadmium range in atomic mass from 94.950 u to 131.946 u. For isotopes lighter than 112 u, the primary decay mode is electron capture and the dominant decay product is element 47. Heavier isotopes decay through beta emission producing element 49.
One isotope of cadmium, 113Cd, absorbs neutrons with high selectivity: With high probability, neutrons with energy below the cadmium cut-off will be absorbed. The cadmium cut-off is about 0.5 eV, neutrons below that level are deemed slow neutrons, distinct from intermediate and fast neutrons. Cadmium is created via the s-process in low- to medium-mass stars with masses of 0.6 to 10 solar masses, over thousands of years. In that process, a silver atom captures a neutron and undergoes beta decay. Cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Stromeyer and Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Stromeyer found the new element as an impurity in zinc carbonate, for 100 years, Germany remained the only important producer of the metal; the metal was named after the Latin word for calamine. Stromeyer noted that some impure samples of calamine changed color when heated but pure calamine did not, he was persistent in studying these results and isolated cadmium metal by roasting and reducing the sulfide.
The potential for cadmium yellow as pigment was recognized in the 1840s, but the lack of cadmium limited this application. Though cadmium and its compounds are toxic in certain forms and concentrations, the British Pharmaceutical Codex from 1907 states that cadmium iodide was used as a medication to treat "enlarged joints, scrofulous glands, chilblains". In 1907, the International Astronomical Union defined the international ångström in terms of a red cadmium spectral line. This
A joint is a break of natural origin in the continuity of either a layer or body of rock that lacks any visible or measurable movement parallel to the surface of the fracture. Although they can occur singly, they most occur as joint sets and systems. A joint set is a family of parallel, evenly spaced joints that can be identified through mapping and analysis of the orientations and physical properties. A joint system consists of two or more intersecting joint sets; the distinction between joints and faults hinges on the terms visible or measurable, a difference that depends on the scale of observation. Faults differ from joints in that they exhibit visible or measurable lateral movement between the opposite surfaces of the fracture; as a result, a joint may have been created by either strict movement of a rock layer or body perpendicular to the fracture or by varying degrees of lateral displacement parallel to the surface of the fracture that remains “invisible” at the scale of observation. Joints are among the most universal geologic structures as they are found in most every exposure of rock.
They vary in appearance and arrangement, occur in quite different tectonic environments. The specific origin of the stresses that created certain joints and associated joint sets can be quite ambiguous and sometimes controversial; the most prominent joints occur in the most well-consolidated and competent rocks, such as sandstone, limestone and granite. Joints may be open fractures or filled by various materials. Joints infilled by precipitated minerals are called veins and joints filled by solidified magma are called dikes. Joints result from brittle fracture of a rock body or layer as the result of tensile stresses; these tensile stresses either were induced or imposed from outside, e.g. by the stretching of layers. When tensional stresses stretch a body or layer of rock such that its tensile strength is exceeded, it breaks; when this happens the rock fractures in a plane parallel to the maximum principal stress and perpendicular to the minimum principal stress. This leads to the development of a single sub-parallel joint set.
Continued deformation may lead to development of one or more additional joint sets. The presence of the first set affects the stress orientation in the rock layer causing subsequent sets to form at a high angle 90°, to the first set. Joints are classified either by the processes responsible for their geometry; the geometry of joints refers to the orientation of joints as either plotted on stereonets and rose-diagrams or observed in rock exposures. In terms of geometry, three major types of joints, nonsystematic joints, systematic joints, columnar jointing are recognized. Nonsystematic joints are joints that are so irregular in form and orientation that they cannot be grouped into distinctive, through-going joint sets. Systematic joints are planar, joints that can be traced for some distance, occur at evenly spaced distances on the order centimeters, tens of meters, or hundreds of meters; as a result, they occur as families of joints. Exposures or outcrops within a given area or region of study contains two or more sets of systematic joints, each with its own distinctive properties such as orientation and spacing, that intersect to form well-defined joint systems.
Based upon the angle at which joint sets of systematic joints intersect to form a joint system, systematic joints can be subdivided into conjugate and orthogonal joint sets. The angles at which joint sets within a joint system intersect is called by structural geologists as the dihedral angles; when the dihedral angles are nearly 90° within a joint system, the joint sets are known as orthogonal joint sets. When the dihedral angles are from 30 to 60° within a joint system, the joint sets are known as conjugate joint sets. Within regions that have experienced tectonic deformation, systematic joints are associated with either layered or bedded strata, folded into anticlines and synclines; such joints can be classified according to their orientation in respect to the axial planes of the folds as they commonly form in a predictable pattern with respect to the hinge trends of folded strata. Based upon their orientation to the axial planes and axes of folds, the types of systematic joints are: Longitudinal joints – Joints which are parallel to fold axes and fan around the fold.
Cross-joints – Joints which are perpendicular to fold axes. Diagonal joints – Joints which occur as conjugate joint sets that trend oblique to the fold axes. Strike joints – Joints which trend parallel to the strike of the axial plane of a fold. Cross-strike joints – Joints which cut across the axial plane of a fold. Columnar jointing is a distinctive type of joints that join together at triple junctions either at or about 120° angles; these joints split a rock body into long, columns. Such columns are hexagonal, although 3-, 4-, 5- and 7-sided columns are common; the diameter of these prismatic columns range from a few centimeters to several metres. They are oriented perpendicular to either the upper surface and base of lava flows and the contact of the tabular igneous bodies with the surrounding rock; this type of jointing is typical of thick lava flows and shallow di
Riddarholmen is a small islet in central Stockholm, Sweden. The island forms part of Gamla Stan, the old town, houses a number of private palaces dating back to the 17th century; the main landmark is the church Riddarholmskyrkan, used as Sweden's royal burial church from the 17th century to 1950, where a number of earlier Swedish monarchs lie buried. The western end of the island gives a magnificent panoramic and photogenic view of the bay Riddarfjärden used by TV journalists with Stockholm City Hall in the background. A statue of Birger Jarl, traditionally considered the founder of Stockholm, stands on a pillar in front of the Bonde Palace, north of Riddarholm Church. Other notable buildings include the Old Parliament Building in the south-eastern corner, the Old National Archive on the eastern shore, the Norstedt Building, the old printing house of the publisher Norstedts, the tower roof of, a well-known silhouette on the city's skyline. While the Riddarholm Church dates back to the Middle Ages, is one of Stockholm's oldest buildings, most of the present structures on Riddarholmen were built during the 17th century when the island was an aristocratic setting that gave the islet its present name.
Three of the palaces are gathered around the central public square, Birger Jarls Torg centred on the 19th-century statue of Birger Jarl: The Wrangel Palace on the west side, the most impressive, incorporates a medieval defensive tower and a portal designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. North of the square, the two 19th-century wings of the Palace of Schering Rosenhane reach the rustic main building, which dates from the 17th century. Wrangel Palace, the palaces of Hessenstein, Schering Rosenhane are today used by Svea Hovrätt, the appellate court for Svealand, while the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court reside in the palaces of Bonde and Stenbock respectively; some of the older Swedish Government Agencies, like the Legal and Administrative Services Agency and the Chancellor of Justice, are located on the island. According to a Swedish guide book, these anonymous institutions, together with the motorway Centralbron that isolates the island from the rest of the city, make the island as a whole a lifeless and dull environment, despite ambitious restorations during the 1990s.
The island is first mentioned as Kidaskär in the Eric Chronicles from around 1325, which recounts how King Magnus Ladulås had a Greyfriars monastery built on the island about 1270, asking in his will that he be buried in it in 1285. During the Middle Ages, the original name disappeared from historical records, replaced by Gråbrödraholm, Gråmunkeholm, the latter most used until the 17th century; the monastery, closed following the Protestant Reformation and was subsequently converted into a church. As consequence, the name changed in the 1630s, the island being referred to as Riddarholmen, för detta Gråmunkeholm kallad in 1638; the old name did persist however, so while Charles XI preferred the new name, his youngest daughter Ulrika Eleonora remained faithful to the old. C. K. G. Billings's yacht Vanadis is now anchored at Riddarholmen, is used as a hotel known as Mälardrottningen with the ship rechristened as Lady Hutton. History of Stockholm Geography of Stockholm List of streets and squares in Gamla stan Riddarholmsbron Hebbes Bro Birger Jarls torn Media related to Riddarholmen at Wikimedia Commons
The Bergianska trädgården, the Bergian Garden or Hortus Bergianus, is a botanical garden located in the Frescati area on the outskirts of Stockholm, close to the Swedish Museum of Natural History and the main campus of Stockholm University. The director of the garden is known as Professor Bergianus; the Garden was founded through a donation in 1791 by the historian and antiquarian Bengt Bergius and his brother Peter Jonas Bergius, a physician and scientist, for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, was located at their mansion and its adjacent garden on the Karlbergsvägen road, in what is now the Vasastaden district in central Stockholm. Which at the time still had a rural character; the Garden was donated to the Royal Academy after the brothers' death in 1791, in accordance with their will. The first person to serve as director was Olof Swartz; the garden was moved to its current location in 1885, because its original location was slated for construction. Today the garden is owned by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
It is jointly administered by the Academy of Stockholm University. 1791–1818 Olof Swartz 1823–1856 Johan Emanuel Wikström 1857–1879 Nils Johan Andersson 1879–1914 Veit Brecher Wittrock 1915–1944 Robert Fries 1944–1965 Carl Rudolf Florin 1970–1983 Måns Ryberg 1983–2001 Bengt Jonsell 2002–current Birgitta Bremer Official English web site