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Geography of Switzerland

The geography of Switzerland encompasses the geographical features of Switzerland, a mountainous and landlocked country located in Western and Central Europe. Switzerland is uniqueness of its landscapes, it is surrounded by 5 countries: Austria and Liechtenstein to the east, France to the west, Italy to the south and Germany to the north. Switzerland has a maximum north–south length of 220 kilometres and an east–west length of about 350 kilometres. Switzerland is well known for the Alps in the south and south east. North of the Alps, the Swiss Plateau runs along the east–west axis of the country. Most of the population of Switzerland lives on the rolling plains of the plateau; the smaller Jura Mountains are located on the north west side of the plateau. Much of the northern border with Germany follows the Rhine, though the Rhine enters Switzerland near Schaffhausen; the eastern border with Germany and a portion of Austria is drawn through Lake Constance. A portion of the southwest border with France is drawn through Lake Geneva.

Switzerland is divided into 26 sovereign cantons. The cantons along the Swiss Plateau tend to be the most populous and religiously Protestant; the cantons in the Alps tend to be less populous and have an agrarian or tourism-based economy. Switzerland is divided by language. There are four national languages: German, French and Romansh. From Bern east the population speaks German. West of Bern, the population speaks French. In the southern canton of Ticino, most people speak Italian. Romansh, a group of dialects descended from Vulgar Latin, is spoken in several regions in the canton of Graubünden. Switzerland extends between the parallels 45°49'05 and 47°48'30 lat. and the meridians 5° 57'23 and 10°29'31 long. It forms an irregular quadrilateral, of which the greatest length from east to west is 350 kilometres, the greatest breadth from north to south is nearly 220 kilometres. Switzerland is a landlocked country, the closest coastline being at the Gulf of Genoa, 160 km south of Chiasso, its political boundaries do not coincide with those of nature.

The entire canton of Ticino is south of the Alps, as are the valleys of Simplon, Bregaglia, Poschiavo and Müstair. Putting these exceptional cases aside, the physical geography of Switzerland may thus be described: On the south runs the main chain of the Alps, joined by the lower ranges that rise south of Lake Geneva, which continues Swiss till close to Piz Lad on the east. To the north of this main chain there is another great range of mountains only inferior in extent and height, which starts from the hills known as the Jorat range above Lausanne, reaches maximum in the great snowy summits of the Bernese Alps and the Tödi group, before trending to the north near Chur and, after rising once more in the Säntis group, dies away on the southern shore of Lake Constance; the Swiss portion of the main chain of the Alps and the great northern outlier run parallel to each other from Martigny to near Chur, while for a short distance they unite near Pizzo Rotondo, parting again near the Oberalp Pass.

Between these two great snowclad ranges flow two of the mightiest European rivers, the Rhône towards the west and the Rhine towards the east, their headwaters being only separated by the tangled mountain mass between Pizzo Rotondo and the Oberalp Pass, which sends the Reuss towards the north and the Ticino towards the south. To the north of the great northern outlier rises the Jura range, a huge spur of the Alps, while between the northern outlier and the Jura extends what may be called the plains or plateau of Switzerland, consisting wholly of the undulating valley of the Aare with its numerous affluents. To that river valley, the valley of the Thur, that lies between the Aare basin and the Rhine basin must be added. Putting aside the valleys of the Ticino and Inn, Switzerland may thus be described as consisting of three great river valleys with the smaller one of the Thur, which all lie to the north of the main chain of the Alps and include the region between the Alps and the Jura. If matters are examined more it can be noted that the Rhône and Rhine valleys are shut off from that of the Aare by the great northern outlier of the Alps, which consists of the Bernese and Glarus Alps.

Two wide and undulating valleys and two cut trenches thus lie on the northern slope of the Alps, to the north and south of the great northern outlier of the Alps. The main chain of the Alps rises in Swiss territory to the height of 4,634 metres in the loftiest summit or Dufourspitze of Monte Rosa, though the Dom, in the Mischabel range, is the highest mountain mass, within Switzerland; the great northern outlier attains a height of 4,274 metres in the Finsteraarhorn, while the lowest level within the Confederation, is on Lake Maggiore. The highest permanently inhabited village in Switzerland is Juf at the head of the Avers valley (a tributary

Le'coe Willingham

Le'coe Willingham is an American professional basketball player. Attending Hephzibah High School, she won the 1998 AAAA Georgia State Women's state high jump title, she last played the forward position for the Atlanta Dream in the WNBA. Among Auburn’s top ten career leaders in starts, field goals made, field goal percentage, free throws made, free throws attempted, rebounds. Willingham is sixth all-time rebounder. Source Willingham began her career with the Connecticut Sun, she was not drafted, but instead signed as a free agent by the Sun. During the 2008 offseason, the Phoenix Mercury signed her as a free agent. In the 2010 offseason, she signed a free agent deal with the Seattle Storm. Willingham helped the Seattle Storm win their second championship in 2010

Pseudophilautus simba

Pseudophilautus simba is a species of frogs in the family Rhacophoridae endemic to Sri Lanka. It is only known from its type locality in the Morningside Forest Reserve, adjacent to the Sinharaja Forest Reserve, near Rakwana, southern Sri Lanka; the holotype, a mature male, measures 12.6 mm in snout–vent length, the paratypes, three mature females, 14.5–15.6 mm SVL. Body is elongate. Head is dorsally convex. Snout is truncate in lateral aspect, snout angle category 5. Canthal edges are rounded. Loreal region is flat. Interorbital space is convex. Internarial space is flat. Tympanum is distinct, vertical. Pineal ocellus, vomerine ridge, lingual papilla are all absent. Supratympanic fold is distinct. Cephalic ridges are absent. Skin on head is not co-ossified with skull. Lateral dermal fringe is absent on fingers. Rudimentary webbing is present on fingers. Prepollex is prominent. Toes have rudimentary webbing. Tarsal fold is absent. Calcar is absent. Snout, interorbital area and posterior dorsum are smooth. Dorsum and lateral side of head have glandular warts.

Lower flank is granular. Dorsal part of forelimb, thigh and foot are smooth. Throat and chest are smooth. Belly and underside of thigh are rough. Males have inner vocal slits, it inhabits closed-canopy montane forest and forest fragments within cardamom plantations at about 1,060 m asl. It is a leaf-litter species, it is a rare species threatened by habitat loss caused by agricultural encroachment, illegal gemstone mining and logging, human settlement


Chemophobia is an aversion to or prejudice against chemicals or chemistry. The phenomenon has been ascribed both to a reasonable concern over the potential adverse effects of synthetic chemicals, to an irrational fear of these substances because of misconceptions about their potential for harm the possibility of certain exposures to some synthetic chemicals elevating an individual's risk of cancer. Consumer products with labels such as "natural" and "chemical-free" appeal to chemophobic sentiments by offering consumers what appears to be a safer alternative. There are differing opinions on the proper usage of the word chemophobia; the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry defines chemophobia as an "irrational fear of chemicals". According to the American Council on Science and Health, chemophobia is a fear of synthetic substances arising from "scare stories" and exaggerated claims about their dangers prevalent in the media. Despite containing the suffix -phobia, the majority of written work focusing on addressing chemophobia describes it as a non-clinical aversion or prejudice, not as a phobia in the standard medical definition.

Chemophobia is addressed by chemical education and public outreach despite the fact that much chemophobia is economic or political in nature. Michelle Francl has written: "We are a chemophobic culture. Chemical has become a synonym for something artificial, hazardous, or toxic." She characterizes chemophobia as "more like color blindness than a true phobia" because chemophobics are "blind" to most of the chemicals that they encounter: every substance in the universe is a chemical. Francl proposes that such misconceptions are not innocuous, as demonstrated in one case by local statutes opposing the fluoridation of public water despite documented cases of tooth loss and nutritional deficit. In terms of risk perception occurring chemicals feel safer than synthetic ones to most people. People fear man-made or "unnatural" chemicals, while accepting natural chemicals that are known to be dangerous or poisonous; the Carcinogenic Potency Project, a part of the US EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity Database Network, has been systemically testing the carcinogenicity of chemicals, both natural and synthetic, building a publicly available database of the results since the 1980s.

Their work attempts to fill in the gaps in our scientific knowledge of the carcinogenicity of all chemicals, both natural and synthetic, as the scientists conducting the Project described in the journal, Science, in 1992: Toxicological examination of synthetic chemicals, without similar examination of chemicals that occur has resulted in an imbalance in both the data on and the perception of chemical carcinogens. Three points that we have discussed indicate that comparisons should be made with natural as well as synthetic chemicals.1) The vast proportion of chemicals that humans are exposed to occur naturally. The public tends to view chemicals as only synthetic and to think of synthetic chemicals as toxic despite the fact that every natural chemical is toxic at some dose; the daily average exposure of Americans to burnt material in the diet is ~2000 mg, exposure to natural pesticides is ~1500 mg. In comparison, the total daily exposure to all synthetic pesticide residues combined is ~0.09 mg. Thus, we estimate that 99.99% of the pesticides humans ingest are natural.

Despite this enormously greater exposure to natural chemicals, 79% of the chemicals tested for carcinogenicity in both rats and mice are synthetic. 2) It has been wrongly assumed that humans have evolved defenses against the natural chemicals in our diet but not against the synthetic chemicals. However, defenses that animals have evolved are general rather than specific for particular chemicals. 3) Because the toxicology of natural and synthetic chemicals is similar, one expects a similar positivity rate for carcinogenicity among synthetic and natural chemicals. The positivity rate among chemicals tested in rats and mice is ~50%. Therefore, because humans are exposed to so many more natural than synthetic chemicals, humans are exposed to an enormous background of rodent carcinogens, as defined by high-dose tests on rodents. We have shown that though only a tiny proportion of natural pesticides in plant foods have been tested, the 29 that are rodent carcinogens among the 57 tested, occur in more than 50 common plant foods.

It is probable that every fruit and vegetable in the supermarket contains natural pesticides that are rodent carcinogens. Chemistry professor Pierre Laszlo writes that chemists have experienced chemophobia from the population at large, considers that it is rooted both in irrational notions and in genuine concerns. Professor Gordon Gribble has written that the start of chemophobia could arguably be attributed to Silent Spring, that subsequent events such as the contamination of Times Beach and the disaster at Bhopal, India only exacerbated the situation; these events have led to association between the word "chemical" and notions of things that unnatural or artificial and dangerous, the opposite has occurred, where goods are marketed as "chemical free" or "natural", to avoid this association, which in turn reinforces the misconception tha

William Robertson (statistician)

Dr William Robertson FRSE FRCPE was a 19th-century Scottish physician remembered as a statistician and amateur photographer. He was born on 8 January 1818 at 28 Albany Street in Edinburgh's New Town, the son of Eliza Brown and George Robertson, Keeper of Records at Register House in Edinurgh, his great uncle was the Principal of the University of Edinburgh, William Robertson. His younger brother, George Brown Robertson, assisted his father as Deputy Keeper of Records, he was educated at Edinburgh Academy from 1826 to 1833, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, graduating with an MB ChB around 1837. He undertook postgraduate studies in Paris and Berlin, he returned to Edinburgh and worked as a Physician in Edinburgh Royal Infirmary on Drummond Street and at the New Town Dispensary. He received his doctorate in 1839, he was medical officer to the Scottish Widows Fund. In 1854 he volunteered to give his medical services as part of the Crimean War, serving at Renkioi Hospital. During this period he took many photographs of the staff and doctors.

In 1860 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposer being Sir Robert Christison. In 1871 he replaced James Stark as Superintendent of Statistics at General Register House in Edinburgh on a salary of £450 a year, he was interested in medical statistics looking at contagious diseases across the city. He retired due to ill-health in 1878 on a salary of £500 a year and was replaced by Robert James Blair Cunynghame. In his role he was involved in the Vaccination Act of both 1871 and 1873, he lived his entire life at 28 Albany Street and he died there of heart disease on 25 August 1882 aged 64. He is buried with his parents in Warriston Cemetery, he never had no children. His grave lies on the north side of the main east-west path, he left £7,400. His sister Eliza Robertson continued to live at Albany Street until her death

Look East policy (India)

India's Look East policy is an effort to cultivate extensive economic and strategic relations with the nations of Southeast Asia to bolster its standing as a regional power and a counterweight to the strategic influence of the People's Republic of China. Initiated in 1991, it marked a strategic shift in India’s perspective of the world, it was developed and enacted during the government of Prime Minister Narsimha Rao and rigorously pursued by the successive administrations of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Manmohan Singh. The success of Look East policy enthused the Mandarins of South-Block to develop the policy into more action oriented and outcome based policy. After a couple of decades, India’s Act-East Policy, announced in 2014 by the Prime minister Narendra Modi's administration, became a successor to the Look-East Policy. Since the Sino-Indian War of 1962, China and India have been strategic competitors in South and East Asia. China has cultivated close commercial and military relations with India's neighbour Pakistan and competed for influence in Nepal and Bangladesh.

After Deng Xiaoping's rise to power in China in 1979 and the subsequent Chinese economic reform, China began reducing threats of expansionism and in turn cultivated extensive trade and economic relations with Asian nations. China became the closest partner and supporter of the military junta of Burma, ostracised from the international community following the violent suppression of pro-democracy activities in 1988. In contrast, during the Cold War India had a hesitant relationship with many states in Southeast Asia as such diplomatic relations were given low priority. India's "Look East" policy was developed and enacted during the governments of prime ministers P. V. Narasimha Rao and Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Along with economic liberalisation and moving away from Cold War-era policies and activities, India's strategy has focused on forging close economic and commercial ties, increasing strategic and security cooperation and the emphasis of historic cultural and ideological links. India sought to create and expand regional markets for trade and industrial development.

It began strategic and military cooperation with nations concerned by the expansion of China's economic and strategic influence. Although it had traditionally supported Burma's pro-democracy movement for many years, India's policy changed in 1993, making friendly overtures to the military junta. India increased its investments in Burma. India has increased its competition with China over the harnessing of Burma's significant oil and natural gas reserves, seeking to establish a major and stable source of energy for its growing domestic needs, countering Chinese monopoly over Burmese resources and reducing dependence on oil-rich Middle Eastern nations. Although China remains Burma's largest military supplier, India has offered to train Burma's military personnel and has sought their cooperation in curbing separatist militants and the heavy drug trafficking affecting much of Northeast India. Meanwhile China has won contracts harnessing more than 2.88–3.56 trillion cubits of natural gas in the A-1 Shwe field in the Rakhine State and has developed naval and surveillance installations along Burma's coast and the Coco Islands.

This has provoked great concern and anxiety in India, which has stepped up its investment in port development, energy and military sectors. India has established strong commercial and military ties with the Philippines, Singapore and Cambodia. India signed free trade agreements with Sri Lanka and Thailand and stepped up its military cooperation with them as well, it has numerous free trade agreements with East Asian economies, including a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement with Singapore and an Early Harvest Scheme with Thailand, while it is negotiating agreements with Japan, South Korea, Association of Southeast Asian Nations member states. Ties have been strengthened with Taiwan and South Korea over common emphasis on democracy, human rights and strategic interests. South Korea and Japan remain amongst the major sources of foreign investment in India. While India has remained a staunch supporter of the "One China" policy and recognised the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China on the mainland over the Republic of China authorities on Taiwan, India has pursued a policy of increasing engagement with Taiwan.

India has stepped up engagement with East Asia fueled by its need for cooperation on counter-terrorism, humanitarian relief, anti-piracy and energy security, confidence-building and balancing the influence of other powers, notably China. Driven by the fact that more than 50% of India's trade passes through the Malacca Strait, the Indian navy has established a Far Eastern Naval Command off Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. India has been conducting joint naval exercises with Singapore since 1993, with Vietnam in 2000 and has engaged in joint patrols with Indonesia in the Andaman Sea since 2002. Japan and India were members of the tsunami relief regional core group in the Indian Ocean in 2004 along with Australia and the United States. While India and China remain strategic rivals, India's "Look East" policy has included significant rapprochement with China. In 1993, India began holding high-level talks with Chinese leaders and established confidence-building measures. In 2006, China and India opened the Nathu La pass for cross-border trade for th