Geoje prison camp
Geoje-do prison camp was a prisoner of war camp located in Geoje at the southernmost part of Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. Geojedo Camp was built to hold prisoners shortly after the outbreak of the Korean War. In February 1951, the UN High Command ordered the removal of all Communist prisoners of war from the Korean peninsula to Geoje island; the first collective violence against camp guards occurred on 18/19 June 1951, when some North Korean officers protested having to dig latrines and garbage pits. When a South Korean guard detail entered Compound 76 of the camp, the prisoners stoned the guards and the soldiers opened fire, killing three prisoners. More incidents followed including demonstrations within the compounds, work refusals, threats against camp personnel, some 15 murders among groups of pro and anti-communist Korean prisoners. In July and August 1951, the guards killed eight more prisoners. On one occasion, the guards had to rescue 200 POWs from Compound 78, where hard-core Communists had executed three supposed collaborators in a plan to control the compound.
In late September 1951, General James Van Fleet and his staff visited Geoje-do and concluded that while the physical conditions were adequate, there were too few guards and they were poorly disciplined. POWs had too much free time and independence and surrounding refugee camps allowed the easy flow of information and contraband into the camp. Van Fleet sent a new U. S. Army military police battalion to the island, which brought the 8137th Military Police Group up to three battalions and four escort companies. In December 1951, a battalion of the U. S. 23rd Infantry Regiment augmented the guard force. While the guard force now numbered 9,000 officers and men, it was still 40 percent below the force requested by the camp commander. By 1952 over 170,000 prisoners of war were held at the camp, however, U. N. forces lacked sufficient experience in controlling such large numbers of prisoners. The UNC delegation at the Panmunjom peace talks adopted the principle of only voluntary repatriation of Communist POWs, while the Chinese and North Korean position was for an all-for-all exchange of prisoners.
On 2 February 1952, U. S. Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs U. Alexis Johnson proposed the screening of the POWs allowing a free choice to each POW whether or not to return to China or North Korea; the POWs who chose not to return would be removed from the POW lists and the Communists would be offered an all-for-all exchange of those who did choose repatriation. On 27 February 1952, this approach was adopted as the U. N. position at the Panmunjom talks. It was assumed by the U. N. that each POW would have freedom of choice, but given the loose control at Geoje camp, there were numerous violent incidents among the unsegregated groups of Communist and anti-Communist POWs. On 18 February 1952 1-1,500 inmates of Compound 62 attacked a South Korean team trying to rescue non-Communist civilian internees in the compound, a battalion of the U. S. 27th Infantry Regiment entered the Compound to engage the POWs resulting in one U. S. soldier killed and 22 wounded and 75 POWs killed and 139 wounded.
After the incident, Eighth Army commander Lieutenant General James Van Fleet appointed Brigadier-General Francis Dodd as the camp commander. In the meantime, some 280 Communist agents were instructed to be captured in order to gain access to the camp and organise the anti-voluntary repatriation actions. On 13 March 1952, resisters in Compound 76 stoned a passing work detail. South Korean guards opened fire, killing 12 POWs and wounding 26. In April 1952 the U. N. started Operation Spreadout to separate repatriates from those. Koreans who refused repatriation were removed from Geoje-do to mainland camps at Pusan, Yeongcheon and Nonsan; the Chinese, divided into repatriates and nonrepatriates, would be sent to new camps on opposite sides of Jeju-do. On 7 May 1952, General Dodd visited Compound 76 to listen to complaints aired by the Communist leaders of the compound. While standing near the compound gate and one of his subordinates, Lt. Col. Wilbur Raven, were forcibly seized as the gate was opened to allow a work detail to pass through.
LTC Raven grabbed hold of a gatepost long enough for the American guards to rescue him, but Dodd was taken into the center of the camp and held hostage. For the next 78 hours, Dodd was held captive. General Charles F. Colson was rushed to the island to take command, Colson's main concern was to save Dodd's life and he feared that a military operation would produce high casualties on both sides and so he agreed to accept many of the POW's conditions for Dodd's release. Colson signed a statement that the UN forces killed and wounded many POWs and "in the future POWs can expect humane treatment in this camp" and there would be "no more forcible" screening undertaken; this statement delivered a propaganda victory to the Communists. While the Dodd incident was taking place Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark arrived in South Korea as the new UNC commander on 12 May 1952. Clark swiftly demoted Colson and Dodd, appointing Brigadier General Haydon L. Boatner as the new camp commander, with orders to bring the compounds under control.
In late May, BG Boatner ordered the removal of refugees from the vicinity of the camp, followed by dispersal of the hard-core Communist POWs to smaller more controlled camps on Yoncho-do, Pongam-do and at Chogu-ri on Geoje-do. On 10 June 1952 BG Boatner ordered the 187th Regimental Combat team supported by tanks of the 64th Tank Battalion to take control of Compound 76. More than 31 POWs were killed and 131 were injured, while one U. S. soldier died and thirteen were wounded in the fighting. This action effecti
Kim Young-sam was a South Korean politician and democratic activist, who served as President of South Korea from 1993 to 1998. From 1961, he spent 30 years as one of the leaders of the South Korean opposition, one of the most powerful rivals to the authoritarian regimes of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan. Elected president in 1992, Kim became the first civilian to hold the office in over 30 years, he was inaugurated on 25 February 1993, served a single five-year term, presiding over a massive anti-corruption campaign, the arrest of his two predecessors, an internationalization policy called Segyehwa. Kim was born in Geoje Island, by the southeastern tip of the Korean peninsula, to a rich fishing family on 20 December 1927, when Korea was under Imperial Japanese rule, he was five daughters in his family. During the Korean War, Kim served in the South Korean military as a student soldier. In 1952, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy from Seoul National University. In 1954, Kim was elected to the National Assembly of South Korea, as a member of the party led by Syngman Rhee, the first president of South Korea.
At the time of his election, Kim was the youngest member of the national assembly. A few months after his electoral victory, Kim left his party and joined the opposition when Rhee attempted to amend the constitution of South Korea. Kim became a leading critic, along with Kim Dae-jung, of the military governments of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan. In 1974, he was elected as the president of the New Democratic Party. While he temporarily lost his power within the national assembly in 1976, Kim made a political comeback during the final year of Park Chung-hee's rule. Kim took a hardline policy of never compromising or cooperating with Park's Democratic Republican Party until the Yushin Constitution was repealed and boldly criticized Park's dictatorship, which could be punished with imprisonment under the new constitution. In August 1979, Kim allowed around 200 female workers at the Y. H. Trading Company to use the headquarters of New Democratic Party as a place for their sit-in demonstration and pledged to protect them.
One thousand policemen arrested the workers. One female worker died in the process and many lawmakers trying to protect them were beaten, some requiring hospitalization; the YH Incident garnered widespread criticism and led to Kim's condemnation, with an assertion that Park's dictatorship would soon collapse. After this incident, Park was determined to remove Kim from the political scene, like the imprisoned Kim Dae-jung, instructed the South Korean Central Intelligence Agency to engineer such a move. In September 1979, a court order suspended Kim's presidency of the New Democratic Party; when Kim called on the United States to stop supporting Park's dictatorship in an interview with the New York Times, Park wanted to have Kim imprisoned while the Carter Administration, concerned over increasing human right violations, issued a strong warning not to persecute members of the opposition party. When Kim was expelled from the National Assembly in October 1979, the United States recalled its ambassador back to Washington, D.
C. and all 66 lawmakers of the New Democratic Party resigned from the National Assembly. When it became known that the South Korean government was planning to accept the resignations selectively, uprisings broke out in Kim's hometown of Pusan, it was the biggest demonstration since the Syngman Rhee presidency, spread to nearby Masan and other cities, with students and citizens calling for an end to the dictatorship. The crisis was one of the causes for the assassination of Park Chung-hee on 26 October 1979 by KCIA Director Kim Jae-gyu; the government's oppressive stance towards the opposition continued under Chun Doo-hwan, who seized power with a military coup on 12 December 1979. Kim Young-Sam was expelled from the National Assembly for his democratic activities and banned from politics from 1980 to 1985. In 1983, he undertook a 21-day hunger strike protesting the dictatorship of Chun Doo-hwan; when the first democratic presidential election was held in 1987 after Chun's retirement, Kim Young-sam and Kim Dae-jung ran against each other, splitting the opposition vote and enabling ex-general Roh Tae-woo, Chun's hand-picked successor, to win the election.
This was despite support from the first female presidential candidate, Hong Sook-ja, who resigned her candidacy in order to support Kim. In 1990, he unexpectedly merged his Democratic Reunification Party with Roh's ruling Democratic Justice Party to form the Democratic Liberal Party, now the Liberty Korea Party; as the candidate of the governing party, he defeated Kim Dae-jung in the 1992 presidential election. He was only the third civilian to hold the office, the first since 1962; the Kim Young-sam administration attempted to reform the economy. One of the first acts of his government was to start an anti-corruption campaign, which began at the top, as Kim promised not to use political slush funds. Kim's government required government and military officials to publish their financial records, precipitating the resignation of several high-ranking officers and cabinet members, he had his two predecessors as president and Roh, arrested and indicted on charges of corruption and treason for their role in military coups, although they would be pardoned near the end of his term.
Kim granted amnesty to thousands of political prisoners, removed the criminal convictions of pro-democracy protesters, arrested during the Gwangju massacre in the aftermath of the Coup d'état of December Twelfth. The an
Admiral Yi Sun-Shin was a Korean naval commander famed for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Imjin war in the Joseon Dynasty, who became an exemplar of conduct for both the Koreans and Japanese. Despite the fact that he had no prior naval training, Admiral Yi was never defeated at sea nor lost a single ship under his command to enemy action, military historians have placed him on par with Admiral Horatio Nelson as one of the greatest naval commanders in history, his title of Samdo Sugun Tongjesa meaning "Naval Commander of the Three Provinces", was the title used for the commander of the Korean navy until 1896. Over the course of his career, Admiral Yi fought in at least 23 recorded naval engagements, all against the Japanese. In most of these battles, he was lacked necessary supplies, his most famous victory occurred at the Battle of Myeongnyang, where despite being outnumbered 133 warships to 13, he managed to disable or destroy 31 of the 133 Japanese warships without losing a single ship of his own.
Yi died from a gunshot wound at the naval Battle of Noryang on December 16, 1598. His last words, "he battle is at its height. Beat my war drums. Do not announce my death", are cited as an important part of his character. Although his successes were ignored by the Korean royal court during his life, after his death various honors were bestowed upon him, including the title of Chungmugong, an enrollment as a Seonmu Ildeung Gongsin, two posthumous offices and the Deokpung Buwongun. Over time, Admiral Yi became a national hero in Korea, remains so today. Yi was born in Geoncheon-dong Street, Hanseong but spent his adolescence and early adulthood period before passing the military examination in Asan where his mother's relatives lived and where now a shrine to him stands, his family was part of the Korean Deoksu Yi clan. His grandfather Yi Baeg-nok retired from politics when neo-Confucian reformer Jo Gwang-jo was executed in the Third Literati Purge of 1519 and moved to a village near where Jo was buried.
Yi Sun-sin's father Yi Jeong was disillusioned with politics and did not enter government service as expected of a yangban family. However, popular belief that Yi Sun-sin had difficult childhood because of his family's connection with Jo is not true. One of the most important events of his early life was when Yi met and became friends with Ryu Seong-ryong, a prominent scholar who held the key official position of Dochaechalsa, was in command of the military during the Japanese invasions of Korea. During the war, Ryu's support of Admiral Yi was critical to Yi's achievements; as a young boy, Yi played war games with other local boys, showing excellent leadership talent at an early age and constructed his own bow and fletched his own arrows as a teenager. Yi became proficient in reading and writing Hanmun. In 1576, Yi passed the military examination. Yi is said to have impressed the judges with his archery, but failed to pass the test when he broke a leg during the cavalry examination. After he re-entered and passed the examination, Yi was posted to the Bukbyeong military district in Hamgyeong province.
However, he was the oldest junior officer at the age of thirty-two. There, Yi experienced battles defending the border settlements against the Jurchen marauders and became known for his strategic skills and leadership. In 1583, he lured the Jurchen into battle, defeated the marauders, captured their chief, Mu Pai Nai. According to a contemporary tradition, Yi spent three years out of the army upon hearing of his father's death. After his return to the front line, Yi led a string of successful campaigns against the Jurchen. However, his brilliance and accomplishments so soon in his career made his superiors jealous, they falsely accused him of desertion during battle; the conspiracy was led by General Yi Il, who would fail to repel the Japanese invasion at the Battle of Sangju. This tendency to sabotage and frame professional adversaries was common in the years of the Joseon military and government. Yi was stripped of his rank and tortured. After his release, Yi was allowed to fight as an enlisted soldier.
After a short period of time, however, he was appointed as the commander of the Seoul Hunryeonwon and was transferred to a small county, to be its military magistrate. Yi's efforts in northern Korea were rewarded when Yi was assigned as Commander of the Jeolla Province Left Naval District. Within the span of a few months in late 1590, he received four military appointments, in rapid succession, with each subsequent post carrying greater responsibility than the last: Commander of the Kosarijin Garrison in Pyeongan province, Commander of the Manpo Garrison in Pyeongan province, the Commander of the Wando Garrison, in Jeolla province, before receiving the appointment as Commander of the Left Jeolla Naval District; the royal court was in a state of confusion over the possibility of a war with Japan, now unified under the rule of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the unstable situation in Manchuria where a young Jurchen chieftain named Nurhaci was gathering strength. Nurhaci's descendants would become masters of China as founders of the Qing Dyn
Jeju Island is an island in Jeju Province, South Korea. The island lies in the Korea Strait, south of South Jeolla Province; the island contains Lava Tubes. Jejudo has a moderate climate. Jeju is a popular holiday destination and a sizable portion of the economy relies on tourism and economic activity from its civil/naval base; the island has been called by many different names including: Doi Dongyeongju Juho Tammora Seomra Tangna Tamna Quelpart, Quelparte or Quelpaert Island Joonwonhado Taekseungnido Samdado Before the Japanese annexation in 1910, the island was known as Quelpart to Europeans. The name Quelpart came from the first European ship to spot the island, the Dutch Quelpaert, which sighted it after being blown off course on its way to the Dutch trading base in Nagasaki, from Taiwan; the earliest known polity on the island was the kingdom of Tamna. From April 3, 1948 to May 1949, the South Korean government conducted an anticommunist campaign to suppress an attempted uprising on the island.
The main cause for the rebellion was the election scheduled for May 10, 1948, designed by the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea to create a new government for all of Korea. The elections were only planned for the south of the country, the half of the peninsula under UNTCOK control. Fearing that the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters for the South Korean Labor party reacted violently, attacking local police and rightist youth groups stationed on Jeju Island. Atrocities were committed by both sides, but those by South Korean government forces are the best-documented. On one occasion, American soldiers discovered the bodies of 97 people, killed by government forces. On another, American soldiers encountered police. Between 40,000 and 60,000 people died as a result of the rebellion, or up to 25% of the island’s total population; some 40,000 others fled to Japan to escape the fighting. In the decades after the uprising, memory of the event was suppressed by the government through strict punishment.
However, in 2006, the Korean government apologized for its role in the killings and promised reparations. As of 2010, these had not been paid. In 2008, bodies of victims of a massacre were discovered in a mass grave near Jeju International Airport. On November 11, 2018, It was announced that preparations were being made for North Korean leader Kim Jung-Un to visit Jeju during his upcoming visit to South Korea. Kim would be transported to Jeju via helicopter; the announcement came in after 200 tonnes of tangerines which were harvested in Jeju were flown to North Korea as a sign of appreciation for nearly 2 tonnes of North Korean mushrooms which Kim allowed South Korean President Moon Jae-In to take back to South Korea following the September 2018 inter-Korean summit. Jejudo is a volcanic island, dominated by Hallasan: a volcano 1,950 metres high and the highest mountain in South Korea; the island measures 73 kilometres across, east to west, 41 kilometres from north to south. The island formed by volcanic eruptions 2 million years ago, during the Cenozoic era.
The island consists chiefly of lava. An area covering about 12% of Jejudo is known as Gotjawal Forest; this area remained uncultivated until the 21st century, as its base of'a'a lava made it difficult to develop for agriculture. Because this forest remained pristine for so long, it has a unique ecology; the forest is the main source of groundwater and thus the main water source for the half million people of the island, because rainwater penetrates directly into the aquifer through the cracks of the'a'a lava under the forest. Gotjawal forest is considered an internationally important wetland under the Ramsar Convention by some researchers because it is the habitat of unique species of plants and is the main source of water for the residents, although to date it has not been declared a Ramsar site. About 2 million years ago, the island of Jeju was formed through volcanic activity. About 1.2 million years ago, a magma chamber began to erupt. About 700 thousand years ago, the island had been formed through volcanic activity.
Volcanic activity stopped for 100 thousand years. About 300 thousand years ago, volcanic activity restarted along the coastline. About 100 thousand years ago, volcanic activity formed Halla Mountain. About 25 thousand years ago, lateral eruptions around Halla Mountain left multiple oreum. Volcanic activity stopped and prolonged weathering and erosion helped shape the island. Jeju has a humid subtropical climate. Four distinct seasons are experienced on Jeju. In January 2016, a cold wave affected the region. Snow and frigid weather forced the cancellation of 1,200 flights on Jejudo, stranding 90,300 passengers. Tourism is an important component of the local economy; the island is sometimes called "South Korea’s Hawaii". Tourists from China do not require a visa to visit Jeju, unlike the rest of South Kor
Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897, it was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul; the kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade and science and technology. However, the dynasty was weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.
After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined in the late 19th century; the Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea. By the late 14th century, the nearly 500-year-old Goryeo established in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. Following the emergence of the Ming dynasty, the royal court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions: the group led by General Yi and the camp led by General Choe. Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo; when a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388, the 14th year of U of Goryeo, to demand that Goguryeo's former northern territory be handed over to Ming China, General Choe seized the chance to argue for an attack on the Liaodong Peninsula.
Yi was chosen to lead the attack. He killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yi on the throne. In 1392, Yi eliminated Jeong Mong-ju respected leader of a group loyal to Goryeo dynasty, dethroned King Gongyang, exiling him to Wonju, before he ascended the throne; the Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after 500 years of rule. In the beginning of his reign, Yi Seonggye, now ruler of Korea, intended to continue use of the name Goryeo for the country he ruled and change the royal line of descent to his own, thus maintaining the façade of continuing the 500-year-old Goryeo tradition. However, after numerous threats of mutiny from the drastically weakened but still influential Gwonmun nobles, who continued to swear allegiance to the remnants of the Goryeo and now the demoted Wang clan, the consensus in the reformed court was that a new dynastic title was needed to signify the change. In naming the new dynasty, Taejo contemplated two possibilities - "Hwaryeong" and "Joseon".
After much internal deliberation, as well as endorsement by the neighboring Ming dynasty's emperor, Taejo declared the name of the kingdom to be Joseon, a tribute to the ancient Korean state of Gojoseon. He moved the capital to Hanyang from Kaesong; when the new dynasty was promulgated and brought into existence, Taejo brought up the issue of which son would be his successor. Although Yi Bangwon, Taejo's fifth son by Queen Sineui, had contributed most to assisting his father's rise to power, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun used their influence on King Taejo to name his eighth son Grand Prince Uian as crown prince in 1392; this conflict arose because Jeong Dojeon, who shaped and laid down ideological and legal foundations of the new dynasty more than anyone else, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers appointed by the king while Yi Bangwon wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled directly by the king. With Taejo's support, Jeong Dojeon kept limiting the royal family's power by prohibiting political involvement of princes and attempting to abolish their private armies.
Both sides were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok, while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bangwon struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Dojeon and his supporters as well as Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince in 1398; this incident became known as the First Strife of Princes. Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, psychologically exhausted from the death of
Busan–Geoje Fixed Link
The Busan–Geoje Fixed Link is an 8.2 kilometers bridge-tunnel fixed link that connects the South Korean city of Busan to Geoje Island. The name of the bridge is Geoga Bridge; the route opened on December 13, 2010 and shortens the travelling distance between Geoje Island and Busan by about 60 kilometers. The new road has two lanes in each direction and carries National Road 58; the fixed link opens Geoje Island to tourist-related development and saves US$300 million in costs related to traffic delays from the longer route. The bridge was built under a public-private partnership. GK Fixed Link Corp, a consortium of seven Korean contractors, has a 40-year contract to build and transfer the fixed link; the project is planned to cost US$1.8 billion. The government has provided only one-fourth of the cost; the lead contractor in the consortium is Co.. Designers involved with the project include COWI A/S, Halcrow Group, Tunnel Engineering Consultants and Son, Arcadis US, Ben C. Gerwick; the route connects Busan, Korea's largest port city, to the shipbuilding industries and tourism destinations on Geoje Island.
It replaces either a 210-minute journey by a 120-minute journey by ferry. The new route cuts travel time down to 40 minutes; the fixed link crosses three islets and ends on Gaduk Island. In addition to the tunnel between Daejuk and Gaduk islands, a tunnel is used to cross each of the islets; the 1.87 km bridge between Jungjuk and Jeo islands includes a cable-stayed bridge with a 475 m main span and 220 m side spans. This bridge has two 156 m diamond-shaped pylons. Between Geoje and Jeo islands, a 1.65 km bridge includes a three-pylon cable-stay bridge. This bridge has two mainspans of 230 meters with side spans of 106 meters; the pylons are 102 meters tall and there is 36 meters of clearance underneath the bridge. When it opened, the tunnel became the world’s deepest immersed roadway tunnel and the world’s second-longest concrete immersed tunnel, at 3.2 kilometers. It is Korea's first immersed tunnel, it became the second-deepest immersed vehicle tunnel after completion of the Marmaray in 2013. The tunnel is made up of 180 m segments constructed in a dry dock in Anjeon.
Each segment was sunk into place. List of bridges List of bridge–tunnels Lists of tunnels Øresund Bridge Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line Undersea tunnel Cho, Aileen. "A Sinking Feeling Is Good in Busan, For Contractors and Their Advisors". Engineering News-Record. New York: McGraw-Hill. 262: 24–29. ISSN 0891-9526. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Fraser, Don. "Vision On". Bridge Design & Engineering. London: Hemming Information Services. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Halcrow Group Limited. "Busan Geoje Fixed Link Project". Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2009. Halcrow Group Limited. Busan Geoje Fixed Link. Halcrow Group Limited. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2009. Rowson, Jessica. "Korea crossing - Busan Geoje link". New Civil Engineer. London: Emap. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2009. Yeoward, Andrew J.. "Land Locking: South Korean Islands Linked by Mammoth Job". Roads & Bridges Magazine.
Scranton Gillette Communications. 48: 26–29. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Busan-Geoje Link in the Structurae database. Retrieved on 2009-02-22. Busan-Geoje Bridge at Structurae. Retrieved February 22, 2009. Busan-Geoje Bridge at Structurae. Retrieved February 22, 2009. Busan-Geoje Tunnel at Structurae. Retrieved February 22, 2009
The Korean Peninsula is located in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 km from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the east and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water; the peninsula's names, in Korean and Japanese, all share the same origin, that being Joseon, the old name of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty and Gojoseon longer before that. In North Korea's standard language, the peninsula is called Chosŏn Pando, while in China, as well as in Singapore and Malaysia it is called Cháoxiǎn Bàndǎo. In Japan, it is either Chōsenhantō or Kanhantō. In Vietnam, it is called Bán đảo Triều Tiên. Meanwhile, in South Korea, it is called Hanbando, referring to the Samhan the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula, they both use "Korea" as part of their official English names, a name that comes from the Goryeo dynasty. Until the end of World War II, Korea was a single political entity whose territory coincided with the Korean Peninsula.
In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Imperial Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, liberated Korea north of the 38th parallel. U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was divided into two regions, with separate governments. Both claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved into the south on 25 June 1950. Since the Armistice Agreement ended the Korean War in 1953, the northern section of the peninsula has been governed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, while the southern portion has been governed by the Republic of Korea; the northern boundaries for the Korean Peninsula are taken to coincide with today's political borders between North Korea and its northern neighbors and Russia. These borders are formed by the rivers Amnok and Duman.
Taking this definition, the Korean Peninsula has an area of 220,847 km2. The Korean Peninsula has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula's position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west; the peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining; when these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with cloudy days with rain, sometimes heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer.
High pressure is dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes low; the weather becomes dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is dry with some snow falling at times. Temperatures can drop to -20 °C in the mountainous areas; the Korean Peninsula is located in East Asia. To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia; the peninsula is surrounded by the Yellow Sea to the west, the East China Sea and Korea Strait to the south, the Sea of Japan to the east. Notable islands include Ulleung Island, Dokdo; the southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu; the southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and covered by volcanic matter.
To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan; some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan, Mount Kumgang, Mount Seorak, Mount Taebaek, Mount Jiri. There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan, they are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of