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Geomagnetic storm

A geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field. The disturbance that drives the magnetic storm may be a solar coronal mass ejection or a co-rotating interaction region, a high-speed stream of solar wind originating from a coronal hole; the frequency of geomagnetic storms decreases with the sunspot cycle. During solar maximum, geomagnetic storms occur more with the majority driven by CMEs. During solar minimum, storms are driven by CIRs; the increase in the solar wind pressure compresses the magnetosphere. The solar wind's magnetic field interacts with the Earth's magnetic field and transfers an increased energy into the magnetosphere. Both interactions cause an increase in plasma movement through the magnetosphere and an increase in electric current in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, electric current in the magnetosphere creates a magnetic force that pushes out the boundary between the magnetosphere and the solar wind.

Several space weather phenomena are caused by a geomagnetic storm. These include solar energetic particle events, geomagnetically induced currents, ionospheric disturbances that cause radio and radar scintillation, disruption of navigation by magnetic compass and auroral displays at much lower latitudes than normal; the largest recorded geomagnetic storm, the Carrington Event in September 1859, took down parts of the created US telegraph network, starting fires and shocking some telegraph operators. In 1989, a geomagnetic storm energized ground induced currents that disrupted electric power distribution throughout most of Quebec and caused aurorae as far south as Texas. A geomagnetic storm is defined by changes in the Dst index; the Dst index estimates the globally averaged change of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field at the magnetic equator based on measurements from a few magnetometer stations. Dst is reported in near-real-time. During quiet times, Dst is between − 20 nano-Tesla.

A geomagnetic storm has three phases: initial and recovery. The initial phase is characterized by Dst increasing by 20 to 50 nT in tens of minutes; the initial phase is referred to as a storm sudden commencement. However, not all geomagnetic storms have an initial phase and not all sudden increases in Dst or SYM-H are followed by a geomagnetic storm; the main phase of a geomagnetic storm is defined by Dst decreasing to less than −50 nT. The selection of − 50 nT to define; the minimum value during a storm will be between −50 and −600 nT. The duration of the main phase is 2–8 hours; the recovery phase is. The recovery phase may last as long as 7 days; the size of a geomagnetic storm is classified as intense or super-storm. In 1931, Sydney Chapman and Vincenzo C. A. Ferraro wrote an article, A New Theory of Magnetic Storms, that sought to explain the phenomenon, they argued that whenever the Sun emits a solar flare it emits a plasma cloud, now known as a coronal mass ejection. They postulated that this plasma travels at a velocity such that it reaches Earth within 113 days, though we now know this journey takes 1 to 5 days.

They wrote that the cloud compresses the Earth's magnetic field and thus increases this field at the Earth's surface. Chapman and Ferraro's work drew on that of, among others, Kristian Birkeland, who had used discovered cathode ray tubes to show that the rays were deflected towards the poles of a magnetic sphere, he theorised that a similar phenomenon was responsible for auroras, explaining why they are more frequent in polar regions. The first scientific observation of the effects of a geomagnetic storm occurred early in the 19th century: From May 1806 until June 1807, Alexander von Humboldt recorded the bearing of a magnetic compass in Berlin. On 21 December 1806, he noticed. On September 1 -- 2, 1859, the largest recorded. From August 28 until September 2, 1859, numerous sunspots and solar flares were observed on the Sun, with the largest flare on September 1; this is referred to as the Solar storm of the Carrington Event. It can be assumed that a massive coronal mass ejection was launched from the Sun and reached the Earth within eighteen hours—a trip that takes three to four days.

The horizontal field was reduced by 1600 nT as recorded by the Colaba Observatory. It is estimated that Dst would have been −1760 nT. Telegraph wires in both the United States and Europe experienced induced voltage increases, in some cases delivering shocks to telegraph operators and igniting fires. Aurorae were seen as far south as Hawaii, Mexico and Italy—phenomena that are only visible in polar regions. Ice cores show evidence that events of similar intensity recur at an average rate of once per 500 years. Since 1859, less severe storms have occurred, notably the aurora of November 17, 1882 and the May 1921 geomagnetic storm, both with disruption of telegraph service and initiation of fires, 1960, when widespread radio disruption was reported. In early August 1972, a series

Buju Banton

Buju Banton is a Jamaican reggae dancehall recording artist. He is considered one of the most significant and well-regarded artists in Jamaican music. Banton has collaborated with many international artists, including those in the Hip Hop and punk rock genres, as well as the sons of Bob Marley. Banton released a number of dancehall singles as early as 1987 but came to prominence in 1992 with two albums, Stamina Daddy and Mr. Mention, the latter which became the best-selling album in Jamaican history upon its release; that year he broke the record for #1 singles in Jamaica, previous held by Bob Marley. He signed with the major label Mercury Records and released Voice of Jamaica in 1993. By the mid-1990s, Banton's music became more influenced by his Rastafari faith, as heard on the seminal albums'Til Shiloh and Inna Heights. In 2009, he was arrested on drug-related charges in the United States and his first trial resulted in a hung jury, his 2010 album Before the Dawn won Best Reggae Album at the 53rd annual Grammy Awards.

In 2011, he was convicted on the same criminal charge and was imprisoned in the U. S. until December whereupon he was deported home to Jamaica. Buju Banton was born in Jamaica in a poor neighbourhood known as Salt Lane. Buju is a nickname given to him by his mother as a child. Banton is a Jamaican word that refers to someone, a respected storyteller, it was adopted by Myrie in tribute to the deejay Burro Banton, whom Buju admired as a child. Buju emulated forceful delivery, developing his own distinctive style. Buju's mother was a higgler, or street vendor, while his father worked as a labourer at a tile factory, he was the youngest of fifteen children born into a family, directly descended from the Maroons of Jamaica. Banton has homes in Tamarac, Florida, he has 15 children. As a youngster, Buju would watch his favourite artists perform at outdoor shows and local dancehalls in Denham Town. At the age of 12, he picked up the microphone for himself and began toasting under the moniker of Gargamel, working with the Sweet Love and Rambo Mango sound systems.

In 1986, he was introduced to producer Robert Ffrench by fellow deejay Clement Irie, his first single, "The Ruler" was released not long afterward in 1987. This led to recording sessions with producers such as Patrick Roberts, Bunny Lee, Winston Riley, Digital B. In 1991, Buju joined Donovan Germain's Penthouse Records label and began a fruitful partnership with producer Dave Kelly who launched his own Madhouse Records label. Buju is one of the most popular musicians in Jamaican history, having major chart success in 1992, with "Bogle" and "Love me Browning", both massive hits in Jamaica. Controversy erupted over "Love Me Browning" which spoke of Banton's penchant for brown-skinned women: "Mi love my car mi love my bike mi love mi money and ting, but most of all mi love mi browning." Some accused Banton of denigrating the beauty of darker skinned black women. In response, he released "Love Black Woman," which spoke of his love for dark-skinned beauties: "Mi nuh Stop cry, fi all black women, respect all the girls dem with dark complexion".

1992 was an explosive year for Buju as he broke Bob Marley's record for the greatest number of #1 singles in a year. Buju's gruff voice dominated the Jamaican airwaves for the duration of the year. Banton's debut album, Mr. Mention, includes many of his greatest hits from that year including "Bonafide Love" featuring Wayne Wonder, the singer who first brought Buju out as a guest star on the annual Jamaican stage show Sting. 1992 saw the unsanctioned re-release of "Boom Bye Bye," a controversial song recorded several years earlier when the artist was 15 years old, which resulted in a backlash that threatened to destroy his career. Several years the song would become the subject of outrage in the United States and Europe, leading to Banton being dropped from the line-up of the WOMAD festival as well as numerous other scheduled performances. Banton subsequently issued a public apology. Now on the major Mercury/PolyGram Records label, Banton released the hard-hitting Voice of Jamaica in 1993; the album included a number of conscious tracks.

These tracks included "Deportees", a song which criticises those Jamaicans who went abroad but never sent money home. Banton was invited to meet Jamaican Prime Minister P. J. Patterson, won several awards that year at the Caribbean Music Awards and the Canadian Music Awards; some of Banton's lyrics dealt with violent themes, which he explained as reflecting the images that young Jamaicans were presented with by the news media. The reality of Kingston's violence was brought home in 1993 by the murders in separate incidents of three of his friends and fellow recording artists, the deejays Pan Head and Dirtsman and singer Mickey Simpson, his response was the single "Murderer", which condemned gun violence, going against the flow of the prevailing lyrical content in dancehall. The song inspired several clubs to stop playing songs with the excessively violent subject matter. Late in 1994, Buju was affected by the death of his friend Garnett Silk. Buju's transformation continued, as he began growing dreadlocks.

His performances and musical releases took on a more spiritual tone. Banton toured Europe and Japan, playing sold-out shows.'Til Shiloh was a ve

The Golden Kite, the Silver Wind

"The Golden Kite, The Silver Wind" is a short story by Ray Bradbury, one of his collection The Golden Apples of the Sun. The story was published during the Cold War, serves as an allegory to the nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union; the story, set in China, begins in a small pastoral town or village in a time or place where trade and agriculture are still the norm. There is little in the way of modern technology. Superstition is rampant; the town is described as being in a desert area, within the vicinity of another, called Kwan-Si. The inhabitants of the town the story is set in are prone to describe their town to be in the shape of an orange, defined by the city walls. One day, a messenger comes to the Mandarin, or king, to inform him that the neighboring town has changed the shape of their walls to a pig – such that it would be interpreted by travelers as being about to eat the orange-shaped town; the messenger and the king discuss frantically how this will bring them ill luck – travelers would stay in and trade with the other town, nature will favor the pig over the orange.

Advised by his daughter, who stands behind a silken screen to hide herself, the king decides to have the town walls rebuilt to resemble a club, with which to beat the pig away. All is well in the town for a time, but soon the messenger brings news that Kwan-Si's walls have been reshaped as a bonfire to burn their club; the Mandarin of the first town has the walls changed to a shining lake. This goes on for quite some time, driving the cities' inhabitants away from their work at farms or in shops to fruitlessly rebuild the walls and wait for the other's response. Disease and famine are rampant. At last, the voice behind the silk screen, advising the Mandarin, says weakly "In the Name of the gods, send for Kwan-Si!" The two Mandarins, both starved and ailing, agree to stop their feud of superstition. The first Mandarin's daughter shows the men several kites, lying abandoned on the ground.'What are kites,' she asks,'without the wind to sustain them and make them beautiful?' Nothing, they agree.'And what is the sky, without kites upon its face to make it beautiful?'

Again, it is Nothing. Thus, she directs that Kwan-Si shall make itself to resemble the Silver Wind, her town shall be made to resemble a Golden Kite, such that the two should sustain each other and they could live in peace; the kite is representing the wind. The Golden Kite, the Silver Wind title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database