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Geordie is a nickname for a person from the Tyneside area of North East England, the dialect used by its inhabitants. There are different definitions of; the term is used and has been used to refer to the people of the North East. A Geordie can specifically be a native of Tyneside and the surrounding areas. Not everyone from the North East of England identifies as a Geordie. Geordie is a continuation and development of the language spoken by Anglo-Saxon settlers employed by the ancient Brythons to fight the Pictish invaders after the end of Roman rule in Britain in the 5th century; the Angles and Jutes who arrived became ascendant politically and culturally over the native British through subsequent migration from tribal homelands along the North Sea coast of mainland Europe. The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that emerged in the Dark Ages spoke mutually intelligible varieties of what is now called Old English, each varying somewhat in phonology, morphology and lexicon; this linguistic conservatism means that poems by the Anglo-Saxon scholar the Venerable Bede translate more into Geordie than into Standard English.

In Northern England and the Scottish borders dominated by the kingdom of Northumbria, there developed a distinct Northumbrian Old English dialect. Irish migrants influenced Geordie phonology from the early 19th century onwards; the word "Geordie" can refer to a supporter of Newcastle United. The Geordie Schooner glass was traditionally used to serve Newcastle Brown Ale; the Geordie dialect and identity are associated with those of a working-class background. A 2008 newspaper survey found the Geordie accent the "most attractive in England"; when referring to the people, as opposed to the dialect, dictionary definitions of a Geordie refer to a native or inhabitant of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, or its environs, an area that encompasses Blyth, North Tyneside, South Tyneside and Gateshead. This area has a combined population of around 700,000, based on 2011 census-data; the term itself, according to Brockett, originated from all the North East coal mines. The catchment area for the term "Geordie" can include Northumberland and County Durham or be confined to an area as small as the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and the metropolitan boroughs of Tyneside.

Scott Dobson the author of the book ‘Larn Yersel Geordie,’ once stated that his grandmother, brought up in Byker, thought the miners were the true Geordies. There is a theory the name comes from the Durham coal mines. Poems and songs written, in this area, in 1876, speak of the “Geordie.”Just as a Cockney is colloquially defined as someone "born within the sound of the Bow bells", the term "Geordie" has been defined in terms of "within spitting distance of the Tyne". Academics refer to the Geordie dialect as "Tyneside English". A number of rival theories explain how the term came about, though all accept that it derives from a familiar diminutive form of the name George, "a common name among the pitmen" in North East England. One explanation is that it was established during the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715; the Jacobites declared that the natives of Newcastle were staunch supporters of the Hanoverian kings, in particular of George I during the 1715 rebellion. This contrasted with rural Northumberland, which supported the Jacobite cause.

If true, the term may have derived from the popular anti-Hanoverian song "Cam Ye O'er Frae France?", which calls the first Hanoverian king "Geordie Whelps", a play on "George the Guelph". Another explanation for the name is that local miners in the northeast of England used Geordie safety lamps, designed by George Stephenson, known locally as "Geordie the engine-wright", in 1815 rather than the competing Davy lamps, designed by Humphry Davy, used in other mining communities. Using the chronological order of two John Trotter Brockett books, Geordie was given to North East pitmen. Linguist Katie Wales dates the term earlier than does the current Oxford English Dictionary, it occurs in the titles of two songs by songwriter Joe Wilson: "Geordy, Haud the Bairn" and "Keep your Feet Still, Geordie". Citing such examples as the song "Geordy Black", written by Rowland Harrison of Gateshead, she contends that, as a consequence of popular culture, the miner and the keelman had become icons of the region in the 19th century, "Geordie" was a label that "affectionately and proudly reflected this," replacing the earlier ballad emblem, the figure of Bob Crankie.

In the English Dialect Dictionary of 1900, Joseph Wright gave the definition A man from Tyneside. The source from Durham stated, "In South Tyneside this name was applied to the Lower Tyneside men."Newcastle publisher Frank Graham's Geordie Dictionary states: The origin of the word Geordie has been a matter of much discussion and controversy. All the explanations are fanciful and not a single piece of genuine evidence has been produced. In Graham's many years of research, the earliest record he found of the term's use was in 1823 by local comedian Billy Purvis. Purvis had set up a booth at the Newcastle Races on the Town Moor. In an angry tirade against a rival showman, who had hired a young pitman called Tom Johnson to dress as a clown, Bill

Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance

The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance was an agreement signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro among many countries of the Americas. The central principle contained in its articles is that an attack against one is to be considered an attack against them all. Despite this, several members have breached the treaty on multiple occasions; the treaty was created in 1947 and came into force in 1948, in accordance with Article 22 of the treaty. The Bahamas was the most recent country to sign and ratify it in 1982; the United States maintained a hemispheric defense policy relative to European influence under the Monroe Doctrine since 1823, which became interventionist with the Roosevelt Corollary in 1904. During the 1930s the US had been alarmed by Axis overtures toward military cooperation with Latin American governments; these were discussed in a series of meetings of the International Conference of American States and the 1936 Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace. During the war Washington had been able to secure Allied support from all individual governments except Uruguay, which remained neutral, Argentina, whose government was not recognized by the Allied powers.

Some countries had signed the Declaration by United Nations in early 1942 and more had signed by the end of 1945. At the Inter-American Conference on the Problems of War and Peace, in Mexico City during February and March 1945, discussions of the post-war world order were held and produced the Act of Chapultepec. In light of the developing Cold War and following the statement of the Truman Doctrine, the US wished to make those new anti-communist commitments permanent; the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance was the first of many so-called'mutual security agreements', the formalization of the Act of Chapultepec. The treaty was adopted by the original signatories on 2 September 1947 in Rio de Janeiro, it came into force on 3 December 1948 and was registered with the United Nations on 20 December 1948. The treaty was invoked numerous times during the 1950s and 1960s, in particular supporting the United States' naval blockade unanimously during the Cuban Missile Crisis. With the exceptions of Trinidad and Tobago and The Bahamas, no countries that became independent after 1947 have joined the treaty.

During the Falklands War, the United States favored the United Kingdom because Argentina had been the aggressor, because Argentina had not been attacked, as did Chile and Colombia. This was seen by most Latin American countries as the final failure of the treaty. In 2001, the United States invoked the Rio Treaty after the September 11 attacks. In September 2002, citing the Falklands example and anticipating the Iraq War, Mexico formally withdrew from the treaty. In 2008, the Union of South American Nations created a new regional security council to take care of their own defence issues. On 5 June 2012, ALBA countries Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela, under the leadership of leftist governments, initiated the retirement from the TIAR, a decision which the Obama Administration deplored as "unfortunate" but respected; the treaty has been denounced by Nicaragua on 20 September 2012, Bolivia on 17 October 2012, Venezuela on 14 May 2013, Ecuador on 19 February 2014. In 2019 during the presidential crisis, the National Assembly of Venezuela, presided by opposition leader Juan Guaidó, opened talks on rejoining TIAR.

On 11 May, Guaidó sent a letter to Organization of American States secretary Luis Almagro requesting that Venezuela be reinstated. On 29 May 2019, the National Assembly approved its return to the Treaty in a preliminary discussion; the National Assembly reiterated its approval to return to the treaty in July 2019. Current members: Military alliance SICOFAA Mutual Defense Assistance Act Mutual Security Act Latin America–United States relations Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and Peace of 1945

Peter Kirsten

Peter Noel Kirsten is a former cricketer who represented South Africa in 12 Test matches and 40 One Day Internationals from 1991 to 1994. He is the current coach of the Ugandan national side, having been appointed in August 2014. Kirsten first attended Selborne Primary in East London, in 1966 scored his first century at the age of ten. In 1967 the family moved to Cape Town and Kirsten was enrolled at the oldest school in the country, South African College School known as SACS. Kirsten represented Western Province at schools level in both cricket. Kirsten made his debut for Western Province in first-class cricket while still at school, scoring 72 runs in the second innings. At the end of the 1973 Nuffield Week, he was selected for the South African Schools team. In the subsequent match against the Northern Transvaal first-class team he scored a century, he became only the fifth schoolboy to achieve this feat. After enrolling at Stellenbosch University he played for S. A. Universities in 1976 and 1977, scoring centuries in both matches.

In 1978 he played for Western Province against S. A. Universities, again scoring a century. During the 1976–77 South African first-class cricket season he scored six centuries in seven innings. Kirsten became a professional cricketer in 1978, he played for Derbyshire from 1978 to 1982 in 106 matches, scoring 7,722 runs at an average of 49.50. In South Africa he played for Western Province in 133 matches, scoring 9,087 runs at an average of 41.88. He captained Western Province for three seasons during the 1980s, achieving the first-class and One Day Tournament series double in 1981-82, he represented South Africa in all 19 unofficial Rebel Test matches from 1982 to 1989, scoring 1,192 runs at an average of 41.10. Kirsten captained South Africa in 6 of these matches, winning 4 times, losing 1 and drawing 1. During his first-class career he scored centuries in both innings of a match on three occasions, as well as eight double centuries, still the most by a South African batsman. In 1990 he became captain of the newly promoted Border team.

At the end of 1991, South Africa was invited to rejoin the International Cricket Conference, went on their first tour of India. Kirsten played in all three ODIs, scoring 86 not out in the final match, earning him the man of the match award. Controversy surrounded the selection of the 1992 World Cup team, when Clive Rice, Jimmy Cook and Kirsten were omitted from the preliminary team. All three players were stalwarts of South African cricket during the exile years. Kirsten was recalled to the team and became the team's most prolific run scorer at the tournament. Kirsten made his Test debut in 1992 against the West Indies, aged 36 years and 340 days, scoring 52 in the second innings. On the 1994 South African cricket tour of England he scored a first-class century against Sussex, before aged 39 years and 84 days, he scored his first and only Test century against England at Headingley. Kirsten is a cricket commentator for SABC Sports. Kirsten married his wife Tuffy in 1983. After retiring from cricket he published a biography In the nick of time.

Kirsten comes from a sporting family, his father Noël Kirsten played first-class cricket for Border. Peter, his younger brother Andy and half-brothers Gary and Paul Kirsten represented Western Province. Gary played in 101 cricket Tests for South Africa. In 1974, Kirsten played flyhalf for Western Province under-20 in a curtain raiser to the first test between the Springboks and the British and Irish Lions at Newlands Stadium in Cape Town. In wet conditions his ball handling abilities so impressed journalist John Reason, that special mention of this was made in his book, The Unbeaten Lions. Kirsten, aged 19, was selected to play for the Quaggas against the touring Lions, he scored 12 points as his team was defeated by 16 – 20. Following the Lions-Quagga game, he was duly selected to play for the Western Province rugby team, but in only his third match, he damaged his knee, it would take him out of rugby permanently. Vice, Telford. In the nick of time. Penguin. Cowley, Brian. Cricket’s Exiles. Don Nelson.

Chesterfield, Trevor. S. A. Cricket Captains. Southern Book Publishers. Owen-Smith, Michael. Giants of S. A. Cricket. Don Nelson. Peter Kirsten at ESPNcricinfo

Meridian, Texas

Meridian is a city and the county seat of Bosque County in central Texas, United States. The population was 1,493 at the 2010 census. Meridian is located at 31°55′29″N 97°39′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, of which 0.015 square miles, or 0.85%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Meridian has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,491 people, 515 households, 358 families living in the city. The population density was 689.3 people per square mile. There were 600 housing units at an average density of 277.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 83.43% White, 5.37% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 8.18% from other races, 2.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.00% of the population. There were 515 households out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families.

28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.27. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,750, the median income for a family was $40,625. Males had a median income of $30,179 versus $20,227 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,258. About 10.8% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 27.4% of those age 65 or over. Meridian is home to Meridian High School. Earle Bradford Mayfield, U. S. senator from Texas from 1923 to 1929, practiced law in Meridian early in his career.

Torrence Allen, NFL player played for the San Diego Chargers from 2014 to 2017. Frank Pollard, NFL player played for the Pittsburgh Steelers in the 1980s Meridian Chamber of Commerce

Liang Yuhao

Liang Yuhao is a Hong Kong professional football player who plays as a goalkeeper for Hong Kong Premier League club Eastern. In 2011, Liang came from Guangdong to Hong Kong, had training with Hong Kong First Division League club Wofoo Tai Po, but he couldn't get into the first team during that season. In 2012, Liang signed for Hong Kong Second Division League club Wanchai. In 2012, Liang was loaning to Hong Kong First Division League club South China. In 2013, Liang returned to Hong Kong Second Division League club Tai Po, helped them to promoted to Hong Kong Premier League in 2014. In 2015, Liang signed for Hong Kong Premier League club Eastern. On 7 May 2015, was Liang first time played for Eastern against Kitchee, which the match loses 0–2. In 2019, Liang played 2 consecutive matches for Eastern as the first choice goalkeeper and he managed a clean sheet against Dreams FC in Sapling Cup. After 4 years staying at Hong Kong, Liang became a local player, he could represent Hong Kong national football team.

On 27 March 2015, in 2016 AFC U-23 Championship qualification Group F, Liang first represented Hong Kong U-23 against Australia U-23, which Hong Kong lost 0:6. EasternHong Kong Premier League: 2015–16 Hong Kong Senior Shield: 2015–16 Liang Yuhao at HKFA

2011–12 KHL season

The 2011–12 KHL season was the fourth season of the Kontinental Hockey League. The regular season began with the Opening Cup game on 7 September 2011, but because of the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl plane crash, which occurred during the first period of the Cup game and killed all but one member of the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl team, further play was delayed until 12 September 2011; the tragedy forced Lokomotiv Yaroslavl to cancel their participation in the KHL season. The Opening Cup was renamed the Lokomotiv Cup in honor of those lost in the tragedy; the regular season ended on 26 February 2012 and the following playoffs ended on 25 April. The Gagarin Cup was won by Dynamo Moscow. Dynamo Moscow is the first champion from the Western Conference of the KHL. Expansion to Slovakia With the admission of Lev Poprad from Poprad, Slovakia the league expanded beyond the borders of the former Soviet Union; this brought the number of teams to 24. However, following a plane crash that claimed the lives of the entire Lokomotiv Yaroslavl squad, Lokomotiv withdrew from the season, leaving only 23 teams as in the previous season.

The regular season was supposed to start on 7 September 2011 with the Opening Cup and end on 26 February 2012 with short breaks in November and February for international matches and for the all-star game. However, after the Yaroslavl plane tragedy the schedule had to be modified: the start of the season was postponed to 12 September and the number of games for each team was reduced to 54 as in the previous season, when only 23 teams participated. On 7 September 2011, the day of the season opening, a tragic airplane accident occurred in Yaroslavl in which the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl team was killed. After the news broke in Ufa, where the Opening Cup game between Salavat Yulaev Ufa and Atlant Moscow Oblast was underway, the match was abandoned; the KHL announced that the start of the season would be postponed to 12 September, that pre-game ceremonies would be held to honour the Lokomotiv team, while arena entertainment would be cancelled. On 10 September, at Lokomotiv's public memorial service team president Yuri Yakovlev announced that they would not participate in the 2011–12 KHL season.

The All-star weekend took place on 20 -- 21 January 2012 in Latvia. Team Fedorov defeated Team Ozoliņš with 15–11. Source: KHL.ruPoints are awarded as follows: 3 Points for a win in regulation 2 Points for a win in overtime or a penalty shootout 1 Point for a loss in overtime or a penalty shootout 0 Points for a loss in regulation The conference standings determined the seedings for the play-offs. The first two places in each conference are reserved for the division winners. Note: Bolded teams qualified for the playoffs. Y – Won division. Source: khl.ruGP = Games played. Source: khl.ruGP = Games played. During the first three rounds home ice is determined by seeding number, not position on the bracket. In the Finals the team with the better regular season record has home ice; the following players lead the league in points at the conclusion of the playoffs. Source: khl.ruGP = Games played. Source: khl.ruGP = Games played. On 23 May 2012, the KHL held their annual award ceremony. A total of 20 different awards were handed out to teams, players and media.

The most important trophies are listed in the table below. The league awarded six "Golden Helmets" for the members of the all-star team: Official Website