Georg Forster

Johann Georg Adam Forster was a German naturalist, travel writer and revolutionary. At an early age, he accompanied his father, Johann Reinhold Forster, on several scientific expeditions, including James Cook's second voyage to the Pacific, his report of that journey, A Voyage Round the World, contributed to the ethnology of the people of Polynesia and remains a respected work. As a result of the report, Forster was admitted to the Royal Society at the early age of twenty-two and came to be considered one of the founders of modern scientific travel literature. After returning to continental Europe, Forster turned toward academia, he taught natural history at the Collegium Carolinum in the Ottoneum, at the Academy of Vilna. In 1788, he became head librarian at the University of Mainz. Most of his scientific work during this time consisted of essays on botany and ethnology, but he prefaced and translated many books about travel and exploration, including a German translation of Cook's diaries. Forster was a central figure of the Enlightenment in Germany, corresponded with most of its adherents, including his close friend Georg Christoph Lichtenberg.

His ideas and personality influenced Alexander von Humboldt, one of the great scientists of the 19th century. When the French took control of Mainz in 1792, Forster played a leading role in the Mainz Republic, the earliest republican state in Germany. During July 1793 and while he was in Paris as a delegate of the young Mainz Republic and Austrian coalition forces regained control of the city and Forster was declared an outlaw. Unable to return to Germany and separated from his friends and family, he died in Paris of illness in early 1794. Georg Forster was born in the small village of Nassenhuben near Danzig, in the region of Royal Prussia, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he was the oldest of seven surviving children of Johann Reinhold Justina Elisabeth. His father was a naturalist and Reformed pastor. In 1765, the Russian empress Catherine II commissioned the pastor to travel through Russia on a research journey and investigate the situation of a German colony on the Volga River. Georg ten years old, joined him.

On the journey, which reached the Kalmyk steppe on the lower Volga, they discovered several new species, the young Forster learned how to conduct scientific research and practice cartography. He became fluent in Russian; the report of the journey, which included sharp criticism of the governor of Saratov, was not well received at court. The Forsters claimed they had to move house, they chose to settle in England in 1766. The father took up teaching at the Dissenter's Academy in Warrington and translation work. At the age of only thirteen, the young Forster published his first book: an English translation of Lomonosov's history of Russia, well received in scientific circles. In 1772, Forster's father became a member of the Royal Society; this and the withdrawal of Joseph Banks resulted in his invitation by the British admiralty to join James Cook's second expedition to the Pacific. Georg Forster joined his father in the expedition again and was appointed as a draughtsman to his father. Johann Reinhold Forster's task was to work on a scientific report of the journey's discoveries, to be published after their return.

They embarked HMS Resolution on July 1772, in Plymouth. The ship's route led first to the South Atlantic through the Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean to the islands of Polynesia and around Cape Horn back to England, returning on July 30, 1775. During the three-year journey, the explorers visited New Zealand, the Tonga islands, New Caledonia, the Marquesas Islands and Easter Island, they went further south than anybody before them discovering Antarctica. The journey conclusively disproved the Terra Australis Incognita theory, which claimed there was a big, habitable continent in the South. Supervised by his father, Georg Forster first undertook studies of the zoology and botanics of the southern seas by drawing animals and plants. However, Georg pursued his own interests, which led to independent explorations in comparative geography and ethnology, he learned the languages of the Polynesian islands. His reports on the people of Polynesia are well regarded today, as they describe the inhabitants of the southern islands with empathy and without Western or Christian bias.

Unlike Louis Antoine de Bougainville, whose reports from a journey to Tahiti a few years earlier had initiated uncritical noble savage romanticism, Forster developed a sophisticated picture of the societies of the South Pacific islands. He described various social structures and religions that he encountered on the Society Islands, Easter Island and in Tonga and New Zealand, ascribed this diversity to the difference in living conditions of these people. At the same time, he observed that the languages of these widely scattered islands were similar. About the inhabitants of the Nomuka islands, he wrote that their languages, weapons, clothes, style of beard, in short all of their being matched with what he had seen while studying tribes on Tongatapu. However, he wrote, "we could not observe any subordination among them, though this had characterised the natives of Tonga-Tabboo, who seemed to descend to servility in their obeisance to the king."The journey was rich in scientific results. However, the

Celsa Albert Batista

Celsa Albert Batista is a black Dominican academic and historian. She wrote one of the major works on slavery and is one of the few scholars who have focused on black identity in the Dominican Republic. Recognized for her work, she has received the Pedro Henríquez Ureña Gold Medal from the Government of the Dominican Republic, the International José Martí Prize from the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization, the Order of Merit of Duarte, Sánchez and Mella, among other honors. Celsa Altagracia Albert Batista was born on 28 July 1942 in Guaymate, a batey in La Romana Province, Dominican Republic to Rosa Batista and Charles Albert, her mother was Dominican, from Santiago de los Caballeros and her father, a Cocolo who migrated to the Dominican Republic from Saint Kitts and Nevis. Conditions in the batey were deplorable and educational opportunities were limited. Though it was difficult, Albert completed her primary and secondary education, while working to help her family meet their basic needs after her father's death.

In 1964 Albert began working as an elementary school teacher in a school she founded located in La Romana in her home province. The Escuela Nuestra Señora de La Altagracia served student in the low-income areas, where she had grown up, she pursued university studies, graduating magna cum laude with her bachelor's of education degree in 1977, from Pedro Henríquez Ureña University. In 1979, she left teaching and moved to Mexico City to enroll in the National Autonomous University of Mexico and further her education in the school's Latin American Studies program. Completing her master's degree with honors in 1983, Albert's master's thesis, The Educational Ideologies of José Martí, was inspired by José Martí's writings on racism and their ethnic group, her own experiences growing up as cocolo and the influence of studying Martí, led her to focus on Afro-Dominican history as a focus for her scholarship. Albert returned to Santo Domingo and began working as curriculum director of social sciences for the Ministry of Education.

She joined the faculty of history at the Universidad Católica Santo Domingo and continued to work in various posts in the education Ministry, such as serving as director to the Division of General Curriculum and Assessment and director of culture. In 1987, she was appointed as chair of the history department at UCSD, becoming the dean of the College of Humanities in 1988. Albert became the vice rector of UCSD in 1989, she and other scholars began challenging the official history of the country, which omitted the contributions of the black population of the island, or if they were included, depicted those with African heritage as having lower-status, or subservient roles. Her first book, Los africanos y nuestra isla (The Africans and our Island, was published in 1987. Two years she published Pulula: La poesía como reflejo de la historia and followed it in 1990 with a landmark book, Mujer e esclavitud en Santo Domingo, her treatment on enslaved women remains one of the "major works" written on bondage in the Dominican Republic.

She coined the phrase cimarronaje doméstico, to refer to servant women who assisted fleeing slaves and challenged the notion that there was no history of active resistance from slaves in the country. The English word maroon, which refers to escaped slaves living independently in enclaves, derives from the Spanish word cimarrón. Albert founded the Instituto Dominicano de Estudios Africanos y Asiáticos "Sebastián Lemba" in 1990. Serving as president and executive director of the organization, she continued her work in the education Ministry and at UCSD. In 1992, Albert published two works, Las ideas educativas de José Martí and a short story La esclava Elena, her publication on Martí led her to be awarded the International José Martí Prize by UNESCO in 1995, first established that year to commemorate the centennial of Martí's death. That same year, she was honored by the Ministry of Education with the Pedro Henríquez Ureña Gold Medal. In 1996, on International Women's Day, Albert was honored with the Order of Merit of Duarte, Sánchez and Mella.

Albert returned to Mexico to attain her PhD in Latin American Studies from UNAM in 1997. She returned to the Dominican Republic and retiring from her government post, continued teaching history at UCSD, she served as graduate coordinator for Caribbean history and geography and in the Division of Continuing education was appointed as the director of education and popular culture projects. Her short story La esclava Elena was adapted as a play, Juan Pablo Duarte y las mujeres en la independencia nacional in 2012. Albert has lectured internationally on the African diaspora in Latin America, she continues to publish on the subject, with essays and texts like República Dominicana: Primer País afrodescendiente de América and Diversidad e identidad en República Dominicana. In 2013, a street at the Plaza de la Cultura in Santo Domingo was renamed in her honor

Comanche Moon (miniseries)

Comanche Moon is a television miniseries, an adaptation of the novel of the same name where Woodrow Call and Gus McCrae are in their middle years, still serving as respected Texas Rangers. In terms of the Lonesome Dove series' storyline, it serves as a prequel to the original Lonesome Dove miniseries, a sequel to Dead Man's Walk, it first aired on CBS beginning Sunday, January 13, continuing Tuesday, January 15, Wednesday, January 16, 2008. The series starts in The Republic of Texas in the early 19th century with a massacre of Comanche chieftains, observed by a young Buffalo Hump; the opening coda explains that The Texas Rangers "were formed as a volunteer troop to contain the Comanche" before indicating the locale as north-west Texas in 1858. Woodrow Call and Augustus McCrae join a party of eight others, led by Captain Scull and supported by a Kickapoo scout, who are hoping to capture Kicking Wolf, hiding in the camp of Buffalo Hump. Meanwhile, in Austin Clara Forsythe runs her shop and is visited by Maggie Tilton - the two become closer while both waiting for the party to return.

In the nearby mansion, Inez Scull seduces a young ranger, Jake Spoon. The tables turn on the Rangers. Scull departs with Famous Shoes to retrieve it, deputizing Call and McCrae to take the party back to Austin; the party comes across a burnt out wagon and are able to rescue a traumatized mother and her young daughters from some Comanche before returning to Austin. Separating at a river crossing to the Sierra, Scull tracks his horse alone towards Yellow Cliffs in northern Mexico, a known slavers den, finds an injured Kicking Wolf but no horse. Buffalo Hump plans a combined and final raid to the ocean for all Comanche. In Austin, having met the governor, McCrae and Forsythe reunite, as do Call and Tilton. Meanwhile, Scull is put into a wooden cage. Call and McRae, now confirmed as Captains, are tasked with retrieving Scull just as the Comanche army departs; the show begins with a Comanche attack on Austin. With the exception of a last stand at the Scull mansion, property losses are extensive, alongside most of the men being killed and the surviving women raped or kidnapped.

News of the attacks filter back to the Rangers, who decide to return and learn of the extent of the devastation. Meanwhile, having survived the cage is moved to Ahumado's snake-pit while awaiting ransom. Blue Duck falls out with his father, Buffalo Hump, is exiled, the camp is devastated by cholera. In Galveston, Forsythe is brought news of her parents' death in the raid and the loss of the store, is proposed to by her other romantic interest, Bob Allen, a horse-trader from Nebraska. In Austin, the governor re-issues the order to Call and McCrae to rescue Scull, on the proviso that they can convince cattle ranchers to provide them the 1000-head ransom on credit. After burying Bill Coleman, Call tries to come to terms with becoming a husband, while McCrae ponders why Forsythe chose Allen over him. En route to the ranchers, they have a run-in with some wild cattle before being directed to rancher Dick King and the "town" of Lonesome Dove. Unable to secure the ransom, Call and McCrae set off alone to rescue Scull.

Meanwhile, in the snake-pit, Scull is still alive. Outside the pit, Ahumado is bitten by a spider and dies en route to the medicine tree, the rest of the camp is abandoned. Scull is returned to Austin. McCrae loses the love of Forsythe when she learns of his affair, Call remains restless since Tilton has had a son, named Newton. Seven years in 1865, the American Civil War ends, Call is still single and McCrae is mourning the death of Nellie, his wife. Call remains listless, is blind to Spoon moving in with Maggie, is unable to admit feelings for her or accept his son though he has dinner with both of them. In Austin, Governor Pease is again in charge, but the pending arrival of Union cavalry represent a new phase in the struggle with the Comanche, with Rangers to be used as scouts. In Nebraska, Clara Allen, now a mother of two, hears of Nellie's death and mourns the loss of her own child too. In Boston, the Sculls are still married. On the plains, Blue Duck continues to attack and kill settlers, increasing the chances of "Blue coats" arriving in force to suppress the Comanche.

Led by Charles Goodnight, the Rangers and cavalry locate a Comanche camp, recapture "the Parker girl". Heading back to Austin, they meet Clara Allen, visiting again in order to sell her family's property. Allen and McCrae rekindle their friendship, she returns to her family in Nebraska, just as Maggie begins showing symptoms of TB. At the Comanche camp. Buffalo Hump realizes his time leaves for good, his brother-in-law relays the news to his nephew, Blue Duck at his hideaway in the forest. The Rangers and sheriffs soon raid the camp and hang most of the outlaws, but Blue Duck has left seeking to kill his father, whose death represents the end of an era for the region; as with others in the Lonesome Dove series, the teleplay was co-written by author Larry McMurtry and Diana Ossana. It was directed with the music directed by Lennie Niehaus. Events such as the shooting of the chieftains, the attack on Austin, the rescue of the white woman were all included in the series, although actual timelines or events