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Georg Henrik von Wright

Georg Henrik von Wright was a Finnish philosopher. On the retirement of Ludwig Wittgenstein as professor at the University of Cambridge in 1948, von Wright was elected to his chair at the age of 32, he published in English, Finnish and Swedish, having belonged to the Swedish-speaking minority of Finland. Von Wright was of 17th-century Scottish ancestry. Von Wright's writings come under two broad categories; the first is analytic philosophy and philosophical logic in the Anglo-American vein. His 1951 books, An Essay in Modal Logic and Deontic Logic, were landmarks in the postwar rise of formal modal logic and its deontic version, he was an authority on Wittgenstein, editing his works. He was the leading figure in the Finnish philosophy of his time, specializing in philosophical logic, philosophical analysis, philosophy of action, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, the close study of Charles Sanders Peirce; the other vein in von Wright's writings is pessimist. During the last twenty years of his life, under the influence of Oswald Spengler, Jürgen Habermas and the Frankfurt School's reflections about modern Rationality, he wrote prolifically.

His best known article from this period is entitled The Myth of Progress, it questions whether our apparent material and technological progress can be considered "progress". In the last year of his life, among his other honorary degrees, he held an honorary degree at the University of Bergen, he was awarded Swedish Academy Finland Prize in 1968. The Logical Problem of Induction, PhD thesis, 31 May 1941 Den logiska empirismen, in Swedish, 1945 Über Wahrscheinlichkeit, in German, 1945 An Essay in Modal Logic, 1951 A Treatise on Induction and Probability, 1951 Deontic Logic, 1951 Tanke och förkunnelse, in Swedish, 1955 Logical Studies, 1957 Logik, filosofi och språk, in Swedish, 1957 The Varieties of Goodness, 1963. (1958-60 Gifford Lectures in the University of St. Andrews He considered this his best and most personal work. Norm and Action, 1963 (1958-60 Gifford Lectures, St. Andrews The Logic of Preference, 1963 Essay om naturen, människan och den vetenskaplig-tekniska revolutionen, in Swedish, 1963 An Essay in Deontic Logic, 1968 Time and Contradiction, 1969 Tieteen filosofian kaksi perinnettä, in Finnish, 1970 Explanation and Understanding, 1971 Causality and Determinism, 1974 Handlung, Norm und Intention, in German, 1977 Humanismen som livshållning, in Swedish, 1978 Freedom and Determination, 1980 Wittgenstein, 1982 Philosophical Papers I-III, 1983–1984 Of Human Freedom, 1984.

Filosofisia tutkielmia, in Finnish, 1985 Vetenskapen och förnuftet, in Swedish, 1986 Minervan Pöllö, in Finnish, 1991 Myten om framsteget, in Swedish, 1993 The Tree of Knowledge, 1993 Att förstå sin samtid, in Swedish, 1994 Six Essays in Philosophical Logic, 1996 Viimeisistä ajoista. Ajatusleikki, in Finnish, 1997 Logiikka ja humanismi, in Finnish, 1998 In the Shadow of Descartes, 1998 Mitt liv som jag minns det, in Swedish, 2001Von Wright edited posthumous publications by Wittgenstein, which were published by Blackwell: 1961. Notebooks 1914-1916. 1967. Zettel. 1969. On Certainty. 1971. ProtoTractatus—An Early Version of Tractatus Logico- Philosophicus. Cornell University Press. 1973. Letters to C. K. Ogden with Comments on the English Translation of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. 1974. Letters to Russell and Moore. 1978. Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics. 1980. Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, Vols 1–2. 1980. Culture and Value. 1982. Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, Vols. 1–2, 1992.

Von Wright edited extracts from the diary of David Pinsent published by Blackwell: 1990. A Portrait of Wittgenstein as a Young Man: From the Diary of David Hume Pinsent 1912–1914. ISBN 0-631-17511-3. Obituary – The Guardian G. H. von Wright – Britannica.com Schilpp, Paul Arthur. The Philosophy of Georg Henrik von Wright. Library of Living Philosophers. La Salle: Open Court Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87548-372-0. Meggle, Georg. Georg Henrik von Wright’s Book of Friends. Acta philosophica Fennica, 92. Helsinki: Societas philosophica Fennica. ISBN 978-951-9264-83-7. ISSN 0355-1792. Georg Henrik Wright in the National Biography of Finland. Georg Henrik von Wright in 375 humanists. Faculty of Arts, University of Helsinki, 13 May 2015

Moral police

Moral police is an umbrella category of vigilante groups which act to enforce a code of morality in India. Some of India's laws, some actions of police forces in India are considered to be instances of moral policing; the target of moral policing is any activity that vigilante groups, the government or police deem to be "immoral" and/or "against Indian culture". India has several vigilante groups, they resist and oppose cultural concepts that they deem to have been imported from the Western culture. They have been known to attack pubs; some of these groups have attacked or have forced to shut down art exhibitions, where they claim obscene paintings were being displayed. They have issued diktats against western attires; some have condemned beauty parlours. Some members of the media have colluded with such groups; some politicians have supported such viewpoints and such activities. In India, the Sections 292 to 294 of the Indian Penal Code are used to deal with obscenity. Most of these laws date back to 1860.

The Section 292 of the Indian Penal Code deals with sales and distribution of obscene books and other material. It criminalises materials like books and paintings if it is deemed to be "lascivious or appeals to the prurient interest"; the Section 292 was amended in 1969 to exclude material that are for public good, scientific material and religious figures. Police use Section 292 of the IPC to file cases against film posters and advertisement hoardings that are deemed to be "obscene"; the Section 293 deals with the sale of obscene material to people under 20. The Section 294 of the Indian Penal Code deals with "obscene acts and songs" and it states that: There is no proper definition of an obscene act and it is open to interpretation, it is used by the police to justify acts of moral policing. Immoral Traffic Act, 1956 was passed to prevent human trafficking, it allows police to raid hotels. Police have used this law to arrest consenting couples. India's obscenity laws have been compared to the Hicklin test.

Valentine's Day is opposed by groups like Shiva Sena and the moral police for being a western import. Vigilante group have been known to attack card shops prior to the occasion. Couples are beaten up for holding hands or kissing in public. Shiv Sena leader Uddhav Thackeray has called it an attack of the west on Indian culture and that it is attracting youth for commercial gain. Shiv Sena leader Bal Thackeray has said that people not wanting violence on the day should not celebrate it, he has called the festival shameless and contrary to Indian culture. The police try to restrict these groups but though their activities flourish'til the date. In the early 1990s, a women's separatist organization called Dukhtaran-e-Millat in Jammu and Kashmir began forcing local women to cover their faces and threatening them with acid attacks. During the period, they attacked cinemas, video parlours, beauty parlours and wine shops. In 2005, they attacked hotel bars and restaurants, destroyed liquor bottles. In 1996, a Hindi magazine Vichar Mimansa published an article titled "M. F. Husain: A Painter or a Butcher?" which contained reprints of paintings M. F. Husain had created in 1975.

They depicted various Hindu goddesses in copulating poses. Eight different lawsuits were filed against him. In 2008, the Delhi High Court quashed three cases, transferred to it; the 1996 Miss World pageant was held in Bangalore. It faced criticism from protestors who claimed that event was India's culture. Several self-immolation threats were made; the police arrest 1,500 protestors, including several from the BJP. One man died in a self-immolation attempt. Among other organizations which had protested the event were: Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha and Communist Party of India. In 1997, a lawyer named Sabu Thomas from Kerala filed an obscenity case against the author Arundhati Roy, claiming that the 21st chapter of The God of Small Things contains obscene scenes; the book was criticized by politician E. M. S. Namboodiripad. In May 2005, Nationalist Congress Party workers stormed a pub in Pune, broke window panes, damaged furniture; the move came days after Pune Police had forced five pubs to shut before the closing time of 12:30 am.

In September 2005, Tamil actress Kushboo said during an interview with a magazine that it was fine for girls to indulge in pre-marital sex as long as they took precautions against diseases and pregnancies. Various political parties, notably Pattali Makkal Katchi and Dalit Panthers of India, took offence at the statement, they claimed that the comment "denigrates the chastity of Tamil Women" and over 20 lawsuits were filed against the actress in the state of Tamil Nadu. During a hearing in November, protestors hurled eggs, rotten slippers at her car. In April 2010, the Supreme Court of India dropped all 23 defamation cases against her. In September 2005, a fatwa against tennis player Sania Mirza was issued by a cleric named Haseeb-ul-hasan Siddiqui of the Sunni Ulema Board; the fatwa said that her attire on billboard advertisements were un-Islamic. Mirza decided to hire bodyguards. In September 2005, a court in Rajasthan fined an Israeli couple ₹1,000 for kissing during their wedding ceremony; the couple had decided to get married in a Hindu ceremony at Pushkar Lake.

However, the priests were offended when the couple started kissing and hugging during the ceremony, filed a lawsuit. In December 2006, an obscenity case was filed against Rajasthan Ch

Ostrobothnia (historical province)

Ostrobothnia, Swedish: Österbotten, Finnish: Pohjanmaa is a historical province comprising a large western and northern part of modern Finland. It is bounded by Karelia, Savonia and Satakunda in the south, the Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay and Swedish Västerbotten in the west, Laponia in the north and Russia in the east; the word pohja means either "north" or "bottom", maa is "land". In ancient Scandinavian understanding, the north was the bottom of the world, where the Sun disappeared each night; the word was associated with the cardinal direction because the houses were constructed such that the back of the house faced north, the coldest direction. Ostrobothnia is divided into Regions of Finland: Ostrobothnia, Northern Ostrobothnia, Central Ostrobothnia, Southern Ostrobothnia and Kainuu, the southern part of Lapland. State administration is done by the regional state administrative agencies of Länsi- ja Sisä-Suomi and Pohjois-Suomi; the earliest human presence in Ostrobothnia is represented by the 120,000-year-old settlement near Kristinestad representing the only remaining evidence of pre-ice age presence of Neanderthal man in Fennoscandia.

Modern humans arrived 9,000 years ago, as soon as the ice sheet disappeared and enough land had risen above sea level. A complex hunter-gatherer society emerged along the coast. Among the visible remains from this time are the Neolithic stone enclosures unique to Ostrobothnia known locally as Giant's Churches, they are a rare example of monumental architecture built by hunter-gatherers in northern Europe. During the Bronze and Iron Ages an agrarian society replaced earlier structures in southern Ostrobothnia, whereas traditional economies survived much longer in the northern and inland locations. During the early Middle Ages settlers from Sweden inhabited the coastal strip of Southern and Central Ostrobothnia forming administrative units under Swedish rule; the Swedish crown established Korsholm as the administrative centre. At the same time, large parts of the inland Ostrobothnia were colonized by Finnish settlers from Savonia. In the 16th century, the Finnish settlement and agriculture had reached the northern part of the east coast of Gulf of Bothnia.

This led to severe clashes with the Orthodox Christian Karelians, who were supported by their suzerain Russia. Throughout the late 16th century, both parties engaged in constant raid-type warfare against the enemy civilian populations, although formal peace existed for the most time. For example, in winter 1590, men of Ii and Liminka raided the Pechenga Monastery on the Arctic Sea, while the Karelians raided Ii and Liminka, burning all dwellings; the war ebbed due to the Treaty of Tyavzino in 1595. During the late stages of the war, the Swedish crown had stationed regular troops in the province to help the population in defence; this was in marked contrast to the earlier practice where the province had been responsible for its own defence. After the war, the Ostrobothnians revolted against the stationing of regular soldiers to the province, leading to the Cudgel War, the last peasant uprising in Finnish history; the war was a devastating loss to the peasants and marked the definitive end of the province as semi-independent, unregulated frontier.

Katarina Asplund, a Finnish pietist, was a leading figure within the pietism movement in Ostrobothnia, was in conflict with the authorities on charges of blasphemy. The first towns in Ostrobothnia were established in the 17th century, obtaining soon prominence through the import of pine tar, essential for the maintenance of the wooden ships of the period; the Great Northern War was the low point in the history of the province, occupied in 1714–1721 by Russian troops, along with the rest of Finland. In Ostrobothnia, the Russian troops engaged in the creation of a wide strip of no-man's land between the occupied Finland and Sweden proper; the Northern Ostrobothnia suffered losing a fourth of its population due to ravages of war. In 1809 Ostrobothnia was separated from Sweden along with the rest of Finland. However, during the last two centuries, the different regions of Ostrobothnia have diverged so that relating their histories in the article of the historical province is not prudent; the regions of Norrbotten and Västerbotten remain on the Swedish side.

Ostrobothnia can be said to be divided from Southern parts of Finland by the watershed Suomenselkä, a glacial formation on the Northern part of which the waters flow to Merenkurkku or Perämeri and on the Southern part to Gulf of Finland or to Selkämeri. In the East, the historical Ostrobothnia is bordered by Russian Karelia on Maanselkä watershed, which divides the estuaries of Oulujoki and Iijoki from the estuaries of rivers flowing to White Sea. In the North, the historical borders of Ostrobothnia towards Västerbotten and Laponia are somewhat undefined because the permanently fixed inhabitation was a new phenomenon at the time of the introduction of county system, which replaced the older provincial divisions. On the coast, the historical border ran somewhere between the Torniojoki and Iijoki, without any formal definition in the inland. However, the watershed between Kemijoki and Olhavajoki estuaries may serve as a definition of the border between Laponia and Ostrobothnia; the stereotypical topographic feature of Ostrbothnia is the coastal plain