Georg Philipp Telemann

Georg Philipp Telemann was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist. Self-taught in music, he became a composer against his family's wishes. After studying in Magdeburg and Hildesheim, Telemann entered the University of Leipzig to study law, but settled on a career in music, he held important positions in Leipzig, Sorau and Frankfurt before settling in Hamburg in 1721, where he became musical director of that city's five main churches. While Telemann's career prospered, his personal life was always troubled: his first wife died only a few months after their marriage, his second wife had extramarital affairs and accumulated a large gambling debt before leaving him. Telemann is one of the most prolific composers in history and was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the leading German composers of the time—he was compared favorably both to his friend Johann Sebastian Bach, who made Telemann the godfather and namesake of his son Carl Philipp Emanuel, to George Frideric Handel, whom Telemann knew personally.

As part of his duties, he wrote a considerable amount of music for educating organists under his direction. This includes 48 chorale preludes and 20 small fugues to accompany his chorale harmonizations for 500 hymns, his music incorporates French and German national styles, he was at times influenced by Polish popular music. He remained at the forefront of all new musical tendencies, his music stands as an important link between the late Baroque and early Classical styles; the Telemann Museum in Hamburg is dedicated to him. Telemann was born in Magdeburg the capital of the Duchy of Magdeburg, Brandenburg-Prussia, his father Heinrich, deacon at the Church of the Holy Spirit, died. The future composer received his first music lessons at 10, from a local organist, became immensely interested in music in general, composition in particular. Despite opposition from his mother and relatives, who forbade any musical activities, Telemann found it possible to study and compose in secret creating an opera at age 12.

In 1697, after studies at the Domschule in Magdeburg and at a school in Zellerfeld, Telemann was sent to the famous Gymnasium Andreanum at Hildesheim, where his musical talent flourished, supported by school authorities, including the rector himself. Telemann was becoming adept both at composing and performing, teaching himself flute, violin, viola da gamba, double bass, other instruments. In 1701 he graduated from the Gymnasium and went to Leipzig to become a student at the Leipzig University, where he intended to study law, he ended up becoming a professional musician composing works for Nikolaikirche and St. Thomas. In 1702 he became director of the municipal opera house Opernhaus auf dem Brühl, music director at the Neukirche. Prodigiously productive, Telemann supplied a wealth of new music for Leipzig, including several operas, one of, his first major opera, Germanicus. However, he became engaged in a conflict with the cantor of Johann Kuhnau; the conflict intensified when Telemann started employing numerous students for his projects, including those who were Kuhnau's, from the Thomasschule.

Telemann left Leipzig in 1705 at the age of 24, after receiving an invitation to become Kapellmeister for the court of Count Erdmann II of Promnitz at Sorau. His career there was cut short in early 1706 by the hostilities of the Great Northern War, after a short period of travels he entered the service of Duke Johann Wilhelm, in Eisenach where Johann Sebastian Bach was born, he became Konzertmeister on 24 December 1708 and Secretary and Kapellmeister in August 1709. During his tenure at Eisenach, Telemann wrote a great deal of music: at least four annual cycles of church cantatas, dozens of sonatas and concertos, other works. In 1709, he married Amalie Louise Juliane Eberlin, lady-in-waiting to the Countess of Promnitz and daughter of the musician Daniel Eberlin, their daughter was born in January 1711. The mother died soon afterwards, leaving Telemann distraught. After less than a year he sought another position, moved to Frankfurt on 18 March 1712 at the age of 31 to become city music director and Kapellmeister at the Barfüßerkirche and St. Catherine's Church.

In Frankfurt, he gained his mature personal style. Here, as in Leipzig, he was a powerful force in the city's musical life, creating music for two major churches, civic ceremonies, various ensembles and musicians. By 1720 he had adopted the use of the da capo aria, adopted by composers such as Domenico Scarlatti. Operas such as Narciso, brought to Frankfurt in 1719, written in the Italian idiom of composition, made a mark on Telemann's output. On 28 August 1714, three years after his first wife had died, Telemann married his second wife, Maria Catharina Textor, daughter of a Frankfurt council clerk, they had nine children together. This was a source of much personal happiness, helped him produce compositions. Telemann continued to be extraordinarily productive and successful augmenting his income by working for Eisenach employers as a Kapellmeister von Haus aus, sending new music while not living in Eisenach. Telemann's first published works appeared during the Frankfurt period, his output increased for he fervently composed overture-suites and chamber music, most of, unappreciated.

In the latter half of the Frankfurt period, he composed an innovative work, his Viola Concerto in G major


The OHAL region was a "super-region" created in Turkey in 1987 under state of emergency legislation to deal with the developing Kurdish–Turkish conflict. From 1994 onwards the scope of the OHAL super-region was narrowed, with provinces being downgraded to "neighbouring province" and removed from OHAL altogether; the state of emergency was extended 46 times for four months each. OHAL was discontinued on 30 November 2002. A new era started with the declaration of a region under emergency legislation in the provinces of Bingöl, Diyarbakır, Elazığ, Mardin, Siirt and Van and the declaration of Adıyaman, Bitlis and Muş provinces as neighbouring provinces on 19 July 1987; the legal basis was the Cabinet Decree 285 that appointed a regional governor for the state of emergency. The regime and the region became known as OHAL Region. On 6 May 1990 the newly created provinces Şırnak became part of the OHAL region. On 19 March 1994 Bitlis became a neighboring province. Starting at the end of 1994 the region was narrowed down.

First Elazığ was excluded from the provinces under emergency legislation and Adıyaman was no longer counted as neighbouring province. On 30 November 1996 Mardin was "degraded" to neighbouring province; the same happened to Batman, Bingöl and Bitlis provinces on 6 October 1997. Emergency legislation was lifted in Siirt on 30 November 1999, in Van on 30 July 2000 and in Hakkari and Tunceli provinces on 30 July 2002. On 30 November 2002 OHAL was lifted completely; until the end, the emergency legislation has been in force in Şırnak provinces. In 1987 the governor was invested with the power to relocate and evacuate whole settlements, villages or hamlets. In April 1990, Decree 413 was issued which allowed the regional governor to ban, confiscate or fine publications, shut down printing plants, control all workers union activities, require prosecutors to open legal processes who violate decree 413, evacuate villages without a notice issued in advance, relocate harmful state employees and send to exile people to other parts in Turkey.

In December 1990, with the Decree No. 430 he received authority over the provincial governors and was enabled to coordinate actions between them as well the right to exile people from the area he governed. With the same decree the regional governor and the provincial governors were issued with an immunity against any legal prosecution in connections with actions they made due to the powers they received with the Decree No. 430. In the OHAL region journalists were not granted access; the regional governors were: Hayri Kozakçıoğlu Necati Çetinkaya Ünal Erkan Necati Bilican Aydın Arslan Gökhan Aydıner Since 2002 the Turkish Armed Forces have declared parts of the former OHAL region as security zone. Some people argued. In an article of September 2005 the lawyers M. Sezgin Tanrıkulu and Serdar Yavuz presented some figures concerning human rights violations in the region under emergency legislation between 1987 and 2002; these are official figures, since they were given in reply to a request of Diyarbakır deputy Mesut Değer of 29 January 2003 to the Defence Ministry.

The response dates 28 February 2003. The death toll was given as: In addition 371 members of the armed forces and 572 civilians lost their lives because of exploding mines or bombs. In the region 1,248 political killings had happened. Among them 750 had been clarified. Eighteen people had died in custody and 194 people "disappeared"; some had been found in prison, in good health or dead. There had been 1,275 complaints of torture and in 1,177 cases investigations had been initiated. In 296 trials against civil servants 60 had resulted in conviction, while in 56 of them the sentences had been suspended. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan declared a three-month state of emergency in Turkey after the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, it has been renewed every three months since then

Chapada Limpa Extractive Reserve

The Chapada Limpa Extractive Reserve is an extractive reserve in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The Chapada Limpa Extractive Reserve is in the municipality of Maranhão, it has an area of 11,971 hectares. The reserve is in the Chapadinha microregion of the Leste Maranhense mesoregion, on the frontier of soybean monoculture in the state, it is in the Munim River basin and is drained by tributaries of the Iguará, Mocambo and Preto rivers and various intermittent streams. The terrain contains areas of plateau and slopes, with remains of caatinga and many swamps and waterways, it has species typical of the Amazon and the caatinga biome. The reserve contains the traditional communities of Chapada Limpa I, Chapada Limpa II, Califórnia, Juçaral, Morada Nova, Porco Magro, Quatro Bocas, Roça Velha, Santana, São Gabriel, São Martins and Severo. In 2016 the Ministry of the Environment said there were 116 registered families with 531 people organized into five neighbourhood associations; the population density was 4.43 inhabitants per km².

Residents in the lower parts of the reserve extract babassu for income, use the juçara and bacaba palms typical of the wetland environment for family use. They practice subsistence agriculture, growing rice and corn; the Chapada Limpa Extractive Reserve was created by federal decree on 26 September 2007 with an area of 11,971 hectares to protect the livelihoods and ensure the use and conservation of renewable natural resources used traditionally by the residents. The region had for years been an area of conflict between the traditional extractive population and soybean agribusinesses; the reserve conserved part of one of the most threatened biomes in the country. It was the first extractive reserve in the cerrado biome in Maranhão, it is administered by the federal Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. The reserve is classed as IUCN protected area category VI, its objectives are to protect the livelihoods and ensure the use and conservation of renewable natural resources traditionally used by the extractive population.

On 12 November 2008 the Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária recognised the reserve as meeting the needs of 62 families, who would qualify for PRONAF support. This was modified on 19 November 2008 to read 122 families; the deliberative council was created on 17 May 2011. The management agreement was approved on 29 February 2016