This conflict paralleled the Third Independence War of Italian unification. It saw the abolition of the German Confederation and its replacement by a North German Confederation that excluded Austria. The war resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia, for centuries, Central Europe was split into a few large states and hundreds of tiny entities, each maintaining its independence with the assistance of outside powers, particularly France. After 1815, the German states were again reorganized into a loose confederation. When Austria brought the dispute before the German Diet and decided to convene the Diet of Holstein, when the German Diet responded by voting for a partial mobilization against Prussia, Bismarck claimed that the German Confederation was ended. Crown Prince Frederick was the member of the Prussian Crown Council to uphold the rights of the Duke of Augustenberg. Although he supported unification and the restoration of the medieval empire, the ultimate aim of most German nationalists was the gathering of all Germans under one state.
Two ideas of national unity eventually came to the fore – once including, US newspaper The New York Times summarized its views of German nationalism shortly after the outbreak of the war, There is, in political geography, no Germany proper to speak of. There are Kingdoms and Grand Duchies, and Duchies and Principalities, inhabited by Germans, yet there is a natural undercurrent tending to a national feeling and toward a union of the Germans into one great nation, ruled by one common head as a national unit. Bismarck maintained that he orchestrated the conflict in order to bring about the North German Confederation, the Franco-Prussian War, taylor thinks Bismarck manipulated events into the most beneficial solution possible for Prussia. On 22 February 1866, Count Karolyi, Austrian ambassador in Berlin, sent a dispatch to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, possible evidence can be found in Bismarcks orchestration of the Austrian alliance during the Second Schleswig War against Denmark, which can be seen as his diplomatic masterstroke.
It was in the Prussian interest to gain an alliance with Austria to defeat Denmark and settle the issue of the duchies of Schleswig, the alliance can be regarded as an aid to Prussian expansion, rather than a provocation of war against Austria. Many historians believe that Bismarck was simply a Prussian expansionist, rather than a German nationalist and it was at the Gastein Convention that the Austrian alliance was set up to lure Austria into war. The timing of the declaration was perfect, because all other European powers were bound by alliances that forbade them from entering the conflict. Britain had no stake economically or politically in war between Prussia and Austria, the details of the discussion are unknown but many historians think Bismarck was guaranteed French neutrality in the event of a war. Italy was already allied with Prussia, which meant that Austria would be fighting both with no major allies of its own, Bismarck was aware of his numerical superiority but still he was not prepared to advise it immediately even though he gave a favourable account of the international situation.
When the Prussian victory became clear, France attempted to extract concessions in the Palatinate. Naturally I was not doubtful of the answer for a second, I answered him, its war
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and many others from 2 December 1848 until his death on 21 November 1916. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation, in December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc as part of Ministerpräsident Felix zu Schwarzenbergs plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Hungary. This allowed Ferdinands nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne, largely considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains. Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign and he concluded the Ausgleich of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary, hence transforming the Austrian Empire into the Austro-Hungarian Empire under his dual monarchy. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned its attention to the Balkans, the Bosnian crisis was a result of Franz Josephs annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, which had been occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin.
On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo resulted in Austria-Hungarys declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia and this activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for almost 68 years and he was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles. His name in German was Franz Joseph I and I and his names in other languages were and Bosnian, Franjo Josip I. Ukrainian, Фра́нц Йо́сиф I, Francisc Iosif Slovene, serbian, Фрања Јосиф Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl, and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, at the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army. From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style, Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers, Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Archduke Karl Ludwig, and Archduke Ludwig Viktor, and a sister, Maria Anna, who died at the age of four.
Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, by all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna for the setting of Innsbruck. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June. It was at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his bride, a girl of ten. Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt safe to return to Vienna, but within a few months Vienna again appeared unsafe, and in September the court left again, this time for Olomouc in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, the military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne. By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, at this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
German nationalism in Austria
German nationalism is a political ideology and historical current in Austrian politics. It arose in the 19th century as a nationalist movement amongst the German-speaking population of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and it favours close ties with Germany, which it views as the nation-state for all ethnic Germans, and the possibility of the incorporation of Austria into a Greater Germany. National liberal and pan-Germanist parties have been termed the Third Camp of Austrian politics, as they have traditionally been ranked behind mainstream Catholic conservatives, the Freedom Party of Austria, a far-right political party with representation in the Austrian parliament, has pan-Germanist roots. Traditionally, the German-speaking population of the Empire enjoyed societal privileges dating back to the reign of Empress Maria Theresa, German was considered the lingua franca of the Empire, and Empires elite consisted primarily of German-speakers. Conflict between Germans and Czechs grew particularly tense in 1879, when minister-president Viscount Taaffe did not include the German-Liberal Party in the government of Cisleithania, the German School League was formed in 1880 to protect German-language schools in parts of the Empire where German speakers were a minority.
It promoted the establishment of German-language schools in communities where public funding was used for non-German schools and this manifesto was signed by the radical German nationalist Georg von Schönerer, Viennas populist, pro-Catholic, and royalist mayor Karl Lueger, and the Jewish social democrat Victor Adler. The diverse signatories of the Linz manifesto split ideologically after Schönerer revised it to add an Aryan paragraph in 1885, Schönerer founded the German National Society, and later, in 1891, the Pan-German Society. He demanded the annexation of all German-speaking territories of Austria-Hungary to the Prussian-led German Empire and his radical racist German nationalism was especially popular amongst the well-educated intelligentsia, grammar school teachers, and students. School administrations tried to counteract these sentiments by encouraging civic pride, along with a cult of personality around the Emperor, vienna mayor Karl Lueger even tried to dismiss all Schönerians from city school administrations, but this too failed.
National-minded students rather identified with the Prussian-led German Empire than with the multiethnic Dual Monarchy, many idolised the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, victor in the Battle of Königgrätz. Members of the movement wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I, in their buttonholes. Both symbols were banned in Austrian schools. By contrast with the German National Society, the German Club accepted the Habsburg dynasty, the majority of German nationalists and liberals adhered to this more moderate ideology. This meant in practice that the service would almost exclusively hire Czechs, because most educated Czechs knew German. From the 1880s, the pan-Germanist movement was fragmented into several splinter parties, the most radical was the German Workers Party, formed in 1903, which transformed into the Austrian wing of the Nazi Party. Other pan-Germanist parties that contested elections during the first decade of the 20th century include the German Peoples Party, a broad coalition of all ethnic German national and liberal political parties known as the Deutscher Nationalverband was formed to contest the 1911 election to the Cisleithanian Imperial Council.
It went on to gain the most seats in lower house of the Council, despite this victory, the German National Association was always a very loose coalition with little unity amongst its ranks, and collapsed in 1917 at the height of First World War. It disintegrated into seventeen scattered German liberal and national parties and this disintegration, combined with dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of the First World War, led to the total fragmentation of pan-Germanist movement
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s, he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states and deliberately excluding Austria, into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germanys position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, in 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890. He provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark and France, aligning the smaller German states behind Prussia in its defeat of France, in 1871, he formed the German Empire with himself as Chancellor, while retaining control of Prussia. His diplomacy of realpolitik and powerful rule at home gained him the nickname the Iron Chancellor, German unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation to his foreign policy.
He disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion. A master of politics at home, Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world. In the 1870s, he allied himself with the Liberals and fought the Catholic Church in what was called the Kulturkampf and he lost that battle as the Catholics responded by forming a powerful Centre party and using universal male suffrage to gain a bloc of seats. Bismarck reversed himself, ended the Kulturkampf, broke with the Liberals, imposed protective tariffs, a devout Lutheran, he was loyal to his king, who argued with Bismarck but in the end supported him against the advice of his wife and his heir. Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck largely controlled domestic and foreign affairs, until he was removed by the young Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, bismarck—a Junker himself—was strong-willed and sometimes judged overbearing, but he could be polite and witty. Occasionally he displayed a violent temper, and he kept his power by threatening resignation time and again.
He possessed not only a national and international vision but the short-term ability to juggle complex developments. As the leader of what historians call revolutionary conservatism, Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists, many historians praise him as a visionary who was instrumental in uniting Germany and, once that had been accomplished, kept the peace in Europe through adroit diplomacy. Bismarck was born in Schönhausen, a family estate situated west of Berlin in the Prussian province of Saxony. He had two siblings and Malwine, the world saw Bismarck as a typical Prussian Junker, an image that he encouraged by wearing military uniforms. Bismarck was well educated and cosmopolitan with a gift for conversation, in addition to his native German, he was fluent in English, Italian and Russian. Bismarck was educated at Johann Ernst Plamanns elementary school, and the Friedrich-Wilhelm, from 1832 to 1833, he studied law at the University of Göttingen, where he was a member of the Corps Hannovera, and enrolled at the University of Berlin.
In 1838, while stationed as an army reservist in Greifswald, at Göttingen, Bismarck befriended the American student John Lothrop Motley
Kingdom of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom, was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, the kings of Bohemia, besides Bohemia ruled the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia and parts of Saxony and Bavaria. Numerous kings of Bohemia were elected Holy Roman Emperors and the capital Prague was the seat in the late 14th century. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the became part of the Habsburg Austrian Empire. The Czech language was the language of the Diet and the nobility until 1627. German was formally made equal with Czech and eventually prevailed as the language of the Diet until the Czech national revival in the 19th century. German was used as the language of administration in many towns after Germans immigrated and populated some areas of the country in the 13th century. The royal court used the Czech and German languages, depending on the ruler, following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, both the Kingdom and Empire were dissolved.
Bohemia became the part of the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic. In 1204 Ottokars royal status was accepted by Otto IV as well as by Pope Innocent III and it was officially recognized in 1212 by the Golden Bull of Sicily issued by Emperor Frederick II, elevating the Duchy of Bohemia to Kingdom status. Under these terms, the Czech king was to be exempt from all obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils. The imperial prerogative to ratify each Bohemian ruler and to appoint the bishop of Prague was revoked, the kings successor was his son Wenceslaus I, from his second marriage. Corresponding with the Pope, she established the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star in 1233, four other military orders were present in Bohemia, the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from c. 1160, the Order of Saint Lazarus from the late 12th century, 1200–1421, and the Knights Templar from 1232–1312. The 13th century was the most dynamic period of the Přemyslid reign over Bohemia, at the same time, the Mongol invasions absorbed the attention of Bohemias eastern neighbors and Poland.
Přemysl Ottokar II married a German princess, Margaret of Babenberg and he thereby acquired Upper Austria, Lower Austria, and part of Styria. He conquered the rest of Styria, most of Carinthia, and he was called the king of iron and gold. He campaigned as far as Prussia, where he defeated the natives and in 1256, founded a city he named Královec in Czech
Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, in June and July 1878 the Congress of Berlin was organized by the Great Powers, according to article 25, The provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be occupied and administered by Austria-Hungary. To this end the governments of Austria-Hungary and Turkey reserve to themselves to come to an understanding on the details, the primary commander was Josip Filipović, the forward XVIII infantry division was under the command Stjepan Jovanović, while the rear army commander in Dalmatia was Gavrilo Rodić. The occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina started on 29 July 1878 and was over on 20 October, the Ottoman army in Bosnia and Herzegovina at the time consisted of roughly 40,000 troops with 77 cannons, that combined with local militias to around 93,000 men. Despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October 1878, Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders.
Fierce resistance from Muslims was expected as Austro-Hungarians realized their occupation meant that Bosnian Muslims would lose their status based on their religion. Tensions remained in parts of the country and a mass emigration of predominantly Muslim dissidents occurred. The Austro-Hungarian administration advocated the ideal of a pluralist and multi-confessional Bosnian nation, between 1861 and 1869, Topal Osman Pasha, an Ottoman grand vizier had striven to do the same. Croats and Serbs who opposed the policy mostly ignored Bosnian nationhood and instead sought to claim Bosnian Muslims as their own, the idea of a unified South Slavic state became a popular political ideology in the region at this time, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Certain Muslim circles in Bosnia and Herzegovina published the newspaper Bošnjak and this newspaper caused fierce discussions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. The newspaper supported Kállays policy, whose goal was to strengthen Austro-Hungarian rule in occupied Bosnia, although Kállays policy was not widely accepted even amongst Muslims, Bošnjak nevertheless represented the national aspirations of some Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Kállays policy was defeated in 1896 and 1899, when Bosnian Serbs and Muslims called for religious. Kállays policy had some potential to resist Croatian and Serbian national aspirations, after the death of Kallay, the policy was abandoned. By 1905, nationalism was a factor of Bosnian politics. Soon after Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, the government took the religious activities. Austro-Hungarian authorities issued regulations which made Muslim clergy Austro-Hungarian state officials and this was to isolate Bosnian Muslims from the Ottoman Empire, and its clergy who were subordinate to the Sultan. The Muslims were largely unhappy with their new status, and formed Muslim political opposition and this Muslim opposition demanded, at first, Muslim religious autonomy from Austria-Hungary, but later, as it grew stronger, they demanded autonomy from the Ottoman Empire. The Muslim opposition tried to align itself with the Serbs, who were demanding religious, but unsolved agrarian relations between the Muslim leadership and the Serbs was an obstacle to any far-reaching alliance
Herzl formed the World Zionist Organization and promoted Jewish migration to Palestine in an effort to form a Jewish state. Though he died long before its establishment, he is considered a father of the State of Israel. While Herzl is often identified as the first major Zionist activist, scholars such as Yehuda Bibas, Zvi Hirsch Kalischer. He was born in Pest, Kingdom of Hungary, to a secular Jewish family and his fathers family were originally from Zimony. He was the child of Jeanette and Jakob Herzl, who were German-speaking. Jakob Herzl, Herzls father, was a successful businessman. Herzl had one sister, Pauline, an older than he was. Theodor lived with his family in a next to the Dohány Street Synagogue located in Belváros. This passion developed into a career in journalism and a less-celebrated pursuit of playwrighting. In 1878, after the death of his sister, the moved to Vienna, Austria-Hungary. At the University of Vienna, Herzl studied law, as a young law student, Herzl became a member of the German nationalist Burschenschaft Albia, which had the motto Ehre, Vaterland.
He resigned in protest at the organisations antisemitism and he became literary editor of Neue Freie Presse, and wrote several comedies and dramas for the Viennese stage. His early work did not focus on Jewish life and it was of the feuilleton order, descriptive rather than political. Herzl was witness to mass rallies in Paris following the Dreyfus trial, there has been some controversy surrounding the impact that this event had on Herzl and his conversion to Zionism. Herzl himself stated that the Dreyfus case turned him into a Zionist and this had been the widely held belief for some time. That he may have exaggerated the influence it had on him in order to further support for his goals. Jacques Kornberg claims that the Dreyfus influence was a myth that Herzl did not feel necessary to deflate and it was at this time that Herzl wrote his play The New Ghetto, which shows the ambivalence and lack of real security and equality of emancipated, well-to-do Jews in Vienna. According to Henry Wickham Steed, Herzl was initially devoted to the propagation of Jewish-German Liberal assimilationist doctrine
University of Hohenheim
The University of Hohenheim is a campus university located in the south of Stuttgart, Germany. Founded in 1818 it is Stuttgarts oldest university, the faculty has regularly been ranked among the best in the country, making the University of Hohenheim one of Germanys top-tier universities in these fields. The university maintains academic alliances with a number of universities and is involved in numerous joint research projects. From 1770 to 1794, the Karlsschule was the university in Stuttgart. Since its founding in 1818, Stuttgarts oldest university has been the University of Hohenheim, at that time there were 18 students enrolled and a staff of three professors. It is not connected to or affiliated with the University of Stuttgart, the first director of the academy was Johann Nepomuk Schwerz, and it was located in Hohenheim Palace, built by Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg. In 1847 the institution was designated as holding the rank of an Academy of Agriculture, in 1904 the name was changed to Agricultural College.
Hohenheim College was awarded the right to confer doctorates in 1918, by appointing Margarete von Wrangell to the chair for plant nutrition in 1923, she became the first female full professor at a German university. During the period of socialism, the university was brought into line with the party’s ideology. Architecturally, the university that re-opened its doors in 1946 had survived World War II relatively undamaged, in 1964 the faculties of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Sciences were created, followed in 1968 by the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences. Hohenheim has enjoyed university status since 1967 when it became known as Universität Hohenheim, today there are approximately 9,000 students and a teaching staff of around 900, of which slightly more than 100 are professors. Over 2,000 people now work at the university, the current rector of the university is the agricultural economist Prof. Dr. Stephan Dabbert, who took office on April 1,2012. The University of Hohenheim is located in southwest Germany, in the district of Plieningen on the rim of Baden- Württemberg’s capital Stuttgart.
It was named the most beautiful campus university in Baden-Württemberg in 2009 and is acknowledged as having one of the most picturesque campuses in the country. The baroque palace, the Universitys emblem and its building, is surrounded by historic parklands and botanical gardens. The campus is close to the rail line U3 station Plieningen Garbe and is within minutes from Stuttgart airport, Stuttgart Exhibition Center. The University of Hohenheim was co-founder of the Euroleague for Life Sciences which was established in 2001 and its goal is to offer dual degree programs in Management on all academic levels, Bachelors and Doctoral studies. The participating universities work together in defining their study programs, exchanging professors
Kingdom of Dalmatia
The Kingdom of Dalmatia was a crown land of the Austrian Empire and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary. It encompassed the entirety of the region of Dalmatia with its capital at Zadar, in turn, Napoleon ceded to him the possessions of the Republic of Venice, including the Dalmatian coast and the Bay of Kotor. La Serenissima had sided with Austria in order to defend her Domini di Terraferma and was occupied by French troops on 14 May 1797, the treaty ended the centuries-long history of the Venetian Republic. When in 1804 Francis II created the title of Emperor of Austria for himself, the possessions were again lost after the Austrian defeat in the Battle of Austerlitz and the 1805 Peace of Pressburg, when they temporarily formed part of the French Illyrian Provinces. Around 1850, the Austrians had the Prevlaka fortress erected to control the traffic in the Bay of Kotor. Upon the Revolutions of 1848, Dalmatia was temporarily under the control of Ban Josip Jelačić of Croatia, in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, a unification with the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was denied.
While Croatia-Slavonia was incorporated into the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, Dalmatia remained a crown land of the Cislethanian half of the Dual Monarchy. According to M. Lorković, the population of Dalmatia numbered 297,912 in 1818,326,739 in 1825,338,599 in 1830,390,381 in 1840. Based on the 1857 census, the Kingdom of Dalmatia had 415,628 inhabitants, according to an analysis of the 1857 census,318,500 inhabitants were Croats,77,500 were Serbs, and ca.20,000 were Italian-speakers. The percentage of Dalmatian Serbs had been 19. 9% in the 1830–50 period, in the cities, the inhabitants were 71% Croat, 22% Italian and 7% Serb. There were 745 Serbs in Kotor, in all other cities there were fewer than 400, the number of Serbs in Dalmatia fell, however, in the north it rose. Among the Orthodox, there was one priest for every 400 people, while among the Catholics, the Roman Catholic archbishop had his seat in Zadar, while the diocese of Kotor, diocese of Hvar, diocese of Dubrovnik, diocese of Šibenik and diocese of Split were bishoprics.
At the head of the Orthodox community stood the bishop of Zadar, in 1904, the Vatican forbade the use of Glagolitic at the festival of SS. Cyril and Methodius, as likely to impair the unity of Catholicism, heads of the Austrian imperial administration in Dalmatia were Imperial-Royal Provincial Governors appointed by the emperor. From 1852 they were known as Imperial-Royal Lieutenants