A cloud atlas is a pictorial key to the nomenclature of clouds. Early cloud atlases were an important element in the training of meteorologists and in weather forecasting, the author of a 1923 atlas stated that "increasing use of the air as a means of transportation will require and lead to a detailed knowledge of all the secrets of cloud building." Throughout the 19th century nomenclatures and classifications of cloud types were developed, followed late in the century by cloud atlases. The first nomenclature of clouds in English, by Luke Howard, was published in 1802, it followed a similar effort in French by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1801. Howard's nomenclature defined four fundamental types of clouds: cirrus or thread-cloud, cumulus or heap-cloud, stratus or flat cloud, nimbus or rain-cloud. There followed a long period of development of the field of meteorology and the classification of clouds, leading up to 1896, the International Year of Clouds; the history of this period is the subject of The Invention of Clouds.
During that time, the Englishmen Rev. Clement Ley and Hon. Ralph Abercromby, were influential. Both men died. Ley wrote a book, well known to meteorologists. Abercromby contributed a number of papers on the subject, stressing the most important fact that clouds are the same everywhere in the world, he wrote in collaboration with Hugo Hildebrand Hildebrandsson a detailed classification of clouds. This was adopted in Hildebrandsson's 1890 Cloud Atlas. In 1891 the International Meteorological Conference at Munich recommended the classification of Abercromby and Hildebrandsson. In 1896 another International Meteorological Conference was held, in conjunction with it was published the first International Cloud Atlas, it was a political and technical triumph, an immediate de facto standard. The scientific photography of clouds required several technical advances, including faster films and sufficient contrast between cloud and sky, it was Albert Riggenbach who worked out how to increase the contrast by using a Nicol prism to filter polarized light.
Others learned to achieve similar results using mirrors or lake surfaces, selectively photographing in certain parts of the sky. Many subsequent editions of International Cloud Atlas were published, including editions in 1906 and 1911. In this interval several other cloud atlases appeared, including M. J. Vincent's Atlas des Nuages in 1908 in the Annales of the Royal Observatory, Volume 20, it was based on the 1906 International Cloud Atlas, but with additions, it classified the clouds into three group by height of the cloud base above ground: lower, upper. The 1890 Cloud Atlas is the first known cloud atlas and book of this title, by Hildebrandsson, Wladimir Köppen, Georg von Neumayer, it was an expensive quarto book of chromolithographs reproducing 10 color oil paintings and 12 photographs for comparison, was designed to explore the advantages and disadvantages of photography for the scientific illustration of cloud forms. Its printing was limited but as a proof of concept it was a great success, leading directly to the International Cloud Atlas.
The first International Cloud Atlas was published in 1896. This was prepared by Hildebrandsson and Leon Teisserenc de Bort, members of the Clouds Commission of the International Meteorological Committee, it consists of color plates of clouds photographs but some paintings, text in French and German. The plates were selected from among 300 of the best color photographs of clouds provided by members of the commission; the atlas has remained in print since in multiple editions. Classification List of cloud types Timeline of meteorology WMO International Cloud Atlas 2017 Cloud Atlas at Clouds-Online.com Cloud Atlas at Pennsylvania State University Houze'sCloud Atlas at University of Washington Online Cloud Atlas at University of Missouri-Columbia Cloudman's Mini Cloud Atlas: The 12 Basic Cloud Classifications Cloud Atlas For In-Flight Spotters
Royal Society of Victoria
The Royal Society of Victoria is the oldest learned society in the state of Victoria in Australia. The Society was formed in 1854 as The Philosophical Institute of Victoria from a merger between The Philosophical Society of Victoria and The Victorian Institute for the Advancement of Science, both founded independently earlier in 1854 and found to be serving similar aims and membership; the Philosophical Institute received Royal Charter in 1859, the first president of the freshly renamed Royal Society of Victoria was Dr Ferdinand Mueller Victoria's Government Botanist. In 1860 the RSV organised the Wills expedition; the Society has played an important role in the life of Melbourne and Victoria, including a foundational relationship with the Melbourne Museum, the Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, the Melbourne Observatory and Victoria's National Parks. The Society convened the first Australian Antarctic Exploration Committee in 1885, commissioned the Burke and Wills expedition and established the Victorian Institute of Marine Sciences in 1978.
Many long-standing community organisations concerned with nature and conservation have grown from an early association with the Royal Society of Victoria, such as the Victorian National Parks Association and the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria. Located in its heritage-listed headquarters at 8 La Trobe Street, in the centre of Melbourne, the Society's modern role is to communicate and advocate for the important role of science in society, providing twice-monthly public lectures about the latest scientific work and thinking underway in Victoria, convening forums with government and community to explore an evidence-based approach to issues facing the state; the Society conducts a state-wide program through management of the Inspiring Victoria program, a federally-funded initiative to engage communities with science and promote scientific literacy, including National Science Week. The Society edits and produces the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, one of Australia's longest-running regional science journals.
Back issues from the 19th century through to the early 21st century are digitised and accessible from the State Library of Victoria's online catalogue, along with holdings of the Society's historical papers and archives. Issues published from 2009 are available open access through CSIRO Publishing; the Society confers prizes and medals to recognise high-achievement throughout a scientist's various career stages. RSV bursaries are provided to school students through annual sponsorship of the Science Talent Search run by the Science Teachers' Association of Victoria. Early career researchers are acknowledged annually through the Young Scientist Research Prizes and the Phillip Law Postdoctoral Award for the Physical Sciences. Peak career achievements are recognised through the annual award of the RSV Medal for Excellence in Scientific Research. Distinguished lifetime contributions to science, in particular the public engagement with and understanding of science, are recognised through election as an RSV Fellow.
Fellows of the Royal Society of Victoria are entitled to the use of the professional postnominal FRSV. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. Melbourne: The Society, 1889- Semiannual. ISSN 0035-9211; the Transactions and proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria List of Royal Societies Burke and Wills expedition Science and the making of Victoria. Presidents of the Royal Society of Victoria; the Royal Society of Victoria The Royal Society of Victoria's web site. The Royal Society of Victoria Building Tour Virtual tour of the headquarters of The Royal Society of Victoria headquarters in Melbourne. CSIRO Publishing Current, open access editions of the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria published online by CSIRO Publishing. State Library of Victoria, Digitised Collections Access to the digitised Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, together with those of its foundation societies; the RSV's Australian Eclipse Expedition to Cape York in 1871 An account of the RSV's Australian Eclipse Expedition to Cape York in 1871 in the Journal of Astronomy History and Heritage by Dr Nick Lomb.
Burke & Wills Web A comprehensive website containing many of the historical documents relating to the Victorian Exploring Expedition. Burke & Wills 150th A website recording the activities for the Commemoration of the 150th Anniversary of the Victorian Exploring Expedition; the Burke & Wills Historical Society The Burke & Wills Historical Society
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape. However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice. Although geophysics was only recognized as a separate discipline in the 19th century, its origins date back to ancient times; the first magnetic compasses were made from lodestones, while more modern magnetic compasses played an important role in the history of navigation. The first seismic instrument was built in 132 AD. Isaac Newton applied his theory of mechanics to the precession of the equinox. In the 20th century, geophysical methods were developed for remote exploration of the solid Earth and the ocean, geophysics played an essential role in the development of the theory of plate tectonics.
Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection. In Exploration Geophysics, Geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, assess sites for environmental remediation. Geophysics is a interdisciplinary subject, geophysicists contribute to every area of the Earth sciences. To provide a clearer idea of what constitutes geophysics, this section describes phenomena that are studied in physics and how they relate to the Earth and its surroundings; the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun give rise to two high tides and two low tides every lunar day, or every 24 hours and 50 minutes. Therefore, there is a gap of 12 hours and 25 minutes between every high tide and between every low tide. Gravitational forces make rocks press down on deeper rocks, increasing their density as the depth increases.
Measurements of gravitational acceleration and gravitational potential at the Earth's surface and above it can be used to look for mineral deposits. The surface gravitational field provides information on the dynamics of tectonic plates; the geopotential surface called. The geoid would be the global mean sea level if the oceans were in equilibrium and could be extended through the continents; the Earth is cooling, the resulting heat flow generates the Earth's magnetic field through the geodynamo and plate tectonics through mantle convection. The main sources of heat are the primordial heat and radioactivity, although there are contributions from phase transitions. Heat is carried to the surface by thermal convection, although there are two thermal boundary layers – the core-mantle boundary and the lithosphere – in which heat is transported by conduction; some heat is carried up from the bottom of the mantle by mantle plumes. The heat flow at the Earth's surface is about 4.2 × 1013 W, it is a potential source of geothermal energy.
Seismic waves are vibrations that travel along its surface. The entire Earth can oscillate in forms that are called normal modes or free oscillations of the Earth. Ground motions from waves or normal modes are measured using seismographs. If the waves come from a localized source such as an earthquake or explosion, measurements at more than one location can be used to locate the source; the locations of earthquakes provide information on mantle convection. Recording of seismic waves from controlled sources provide information on the region that the waves travel through. If the density or composition of the rock changes, waves are reflected. Reflections recorded using Reflection Seismology can provide a wealth of information on the structure of the earth up to several kilometers deep and are used to increase our understanding of the geology as well as to explore for oil and gas. Changes in the travel direction, called refraction, can be used to infer the deep structure of the Earth. Earthquakes pose a risk to humans.
Understanding their mechanisms, which depend on the type of earthquake, can lead to better estimates of earthquake risk and improvements in earthquake engineering. Although we notice electricity during thunderstorms, there is always a downward electric field near the surface that averages 120 volts per meter. Relative to the solid Earth, the atmosphere has a net positive charge due to bombardment by cosmic rays. A current of about 1800 amperes flows in the global circuit, it flows downward from the ionosphere over most of the Earth and back upwards through thunderstorms. The flow is manifested by lightning below the sprites above. A variety of electric methods are used in geophysical survey; some measure spontaneous potential, a potential that arises in the ground because of man-made or natural disturbances. Telluric currents flow in the oceans, they have two causes: electromagnetic induction by the time-varying, external-origin geomagnetic field and motion of conducting bodies across the Earth's per
The Palatinate also Rhenish Palatinate, is a region in southwestern Germany. It occupies the southernmost quarter of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, covering an area of 5,451 square kilometres with about 1.4 million inhabitants. Its residents are known as Palatines; the Palatinate borders on Saarland in the west also comprising the state's Saarpfalz District. In the northwest, the Hunsrück mountain range forms the border with the Rhineland region; the eastern border with Hesse and the Baden region runs along the Upper Rhine river, while the left bank, with Mainz and Worms as well as the Selz basin around Alzey, belong to the Rhenish Hesse region. In the south, the German-French border separates the Palatinate from Alsace. One-third of the region is covered by the Palatinate Forest, including the Palatinate Forest Nature Park popular with hikers. With about 1,771 km2 it is Germany's largest contiguous forested area, is part of the Franco-German Palatinate Forest-North Vosges Biosphere Reserve.
The western and northern part of the Palatinate is densely mountainous. Its highest mountain is the Donnersberg with a height of 687 m, situated in the North Palatine Uplands near Kirchheimbolanden. Most of the major Palatinate towns lie in the lower eastern part of the Upper Rhine Plain down to the River Rhine. Here the German Wine Route passes through the Palatinate wine region, it is one of the greatest wine-producing regions in Germany, in the last two decades has become well known for its numerous prizewinning white and reds of highest quality produced by a number of talented young winemakers. Major rivers include the Upper Rhine tributaries Lauter and Speyerbach, as well as Schwarzbach and Glan in the west; the Electoral Palatinate and several other territories were part of the Palatinate, but today belong to other German territories. The Palatinate is divided into four non-administrative sub-regions, comprising the following rural districts and independent towns and cities: North Palatinate, i.e. the sparsely inhabited North Palatine Uplands, made up of Donnersbergkreis, including the small towns of Eisenberg, Kirchheimbolanden and Rockenhausen Anterior Palatinate between Upper Rhine and the Haardt range of the Palatinate Forest Bad Dürkheim Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis and the towns and cities of Frankenthal, Neustadt an der Weinstraße and Speyer South Palatinate.
Germersheim Südliche Weinstraße and the town of Landau West Palatinate up to the western part of the North Palatine Uplands Kaiserslautern Kusel Südwestpfalz and the towns of Kaiserslautern and Zweibrücken. Like most of Europe, the Palatinate is part of the oceanic climate zone influenced by the Atlantic, with an average annual temperature of about 10 degrees Celsius. Wet air from the prevailing westerly and southwesterly winds leads to precipitation in the Mittelgebirge ranges, while it warms up on its way further down to the Rhine Valley. Here the temperate weather permits the cultivating of almond and fig trees, stone pines, Mediterranean Cypress and some banana species; the lower hilly regions are known for their extended chestnut forests, sometimes referred to as "German Tuscany" in tourist advertising. A Celtic region, this area was conquered by the Roman Empire under Emperor Augustus in about 12 BCE, whereafter it was part of the Germania Superior province. During the decay of the Empire, Alamanni tribes settled here.
From 511 onwards the area belonged to the eastern part of Frankish Austrasia, that—as Rhenish Franconia—became part of East Francia according to the 843 Treaty of Verdun. From the Middle Ages until 1792, the Palatinate was divided into 45 secular and ecclesiastical territories, some of which were small; the largest and most important of these was the Electorate of the Palatinate, a number of Franconian territories on both sides of the Rhine held by the Counts palatine of Lotharingia. By the late 12th century, the Count palatine had achieved the status of a Prince-elector, becoming one of the seven higher nobles with the privilege of electing the Emperor, as confirmed by the Golden Bull of 1356. In 1214 the Bavarian House of Wittelsbach was enfeoffed with these estates, which they ruled until 1918, together with the collateral branch of Palatinate-Zweibrücken from 1410, they lost control with the reunification with Bavaria under Elector Charles Theodore in 1777. The major ecclesiastical territory in the region was the Bishopric of Speyer.
The Imperial city of Landau joined the Alsacien Décapole in 1521 to preserve its status. It was seized by France after the Thirty Years' War. Other larger regional entities included the Prince-Bishopric of Speyer; the Prince-Bishopric held possessions on both sides of the Rhine. For centuries, the Electoral Palatinate and Bavaria maintained dynastic links because both were ruled by members of the Wittelsbach family. In 1794 the Left Bank of the Rhine, including the Palatinate, was occupied by French revolutionary troops; as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, the First French Republic annexed the region. In 1798 they introduced a new administrative system with the establishment of departments; the area of the Palatinate became the Département of Mont Tonnerre, laying the cornerstone of its regional identity today
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Matthew Fontaine Maury was an American astronomer, United States Navy officer, oceanographer, cartographer, author and educator. He was nicknamed "Pathfinder of the Seas" and "Father of Modern Oceanography and Naval Meteorology" and "Scientist of the Seas" for his extensive works in his books The Physical Geography of the Sea, the first such extensive and comprehensive book on oceanography to be published. Maury made many important new contributions to charting winds and ocean currents, including ocean lanes for passing ships at sea. In 1825, at 19, Maury obtained, through US Representative Sam Houston, a midshipman's warrant in the United States Navy; as a midshipman on board the frigate USS Brandywine, he immediately began to study the seas and record methods of navigation. When a leg injury left him unfit for sea duty, Maury devoted his time to the study of navigation, meteorology and currents, he became Superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory and head of the Depot of Charts and Instruments.
There, Maury studied thousands of ships' charts. He published the Wind and Current Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean, which showed sailors how to use the ocean's currents and winds to their advantage, drastically reducing the length of ocean voyages. Maury's uniform system of recording oceanographic data was adopted by navies and merchant marines around the world and was used to develop charts for all the major trade routes. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, Maury, a Virginian, resigned his commission as a US Navy commander and joined the Confederacy, he spent the war in the South as well as abroad, in Great Britain and France. He helped acquire a ship, CSS Georgia, for the Confederacy while he advocated stopping the war in America among several European nations. Following the war, Maury accepted a teaching position at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Virginia, he died at the institute in 1873, after he had completed an exhausting state-to-state lecture tour on national and international weather forecasting on land.
He had completed his book, Geological Survey of Virginia, a new series of geography for young people. Maury was a descendant of the Maury family, a prominent Virginia family of Huguenot ancestry that can be traced back to 15th-century France, his grandfather was an inspiring teacher to Thomas Jefferson. Maury had Dutch-American ancestry from the "Minor" family of early Virginia, he was born in 1806 in Spotsylvania County, near Fredericksburg. The family moved to Franklin, when he was five, he wanted to emulate the naval career of his older brother, Flag Lieutenant John Minor Maury, however, caught yellow fever after fighting pirates as an officer in the US Navy. As a result of John's painful death, Matthew's father, forbade him from joining the Navy. Maury considered attending West Point to get a better education than the Navy could offer at that time, but instead, he obtained a naval appointment through the influence of Tennessee Representative Sam Houston, a family friend, in 1825, at the age of 19.
Maury joined the Navy as a midshipman on board the frigate Brandywine, carrying the Marquis de La Fayette home to France, following La Fayette's famous visit to the United States. Maury began to study the seas and to record methods of navigation. One of the experiences that piqued this interest was a circumnavigation of the globe on the USS Vincennes, his assigned ship and the first US warship to travel around the world, his seagoing days came to an abrupt end at the age of 33, after a stagecoach accident broke his right leg. Thereafter, he devoted his time to the study of naval meteorology, charting the winds and currents, seeking the "Paths of the Seas" mentioned in Psalms 8:8 as: "The fowl of the air, the fish of the sea, whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas." Maury had known of the Psalms of David since childhood. In A Life of Matthew Fontaine Maury, she states on pages 7–8: "Matthew's father was exact in the religious training of his family, now numbering five sons and four daughters, viz.
John Minor, Walker, Betsy, Richard Launcelot, Matthew Fontaine and Charles. He would assemble them night and morning to read the Psalter for the day and verse about, his Bible is depicted on his monument beside his left leg. As officer-in-charge of the United States Navy office in Washington, DC, called the "Depot of Charts and Instruments," the young lieutenant became a librarian of the many unorganized log books and records in 1842. On his initiative, he sought to improve seamanship through organizing the information in his office and instituting a reporting system among the nation's shipmasters to gather further information on sea conditions and observations; the product of his work was international recognition and the publication in 1847 of "Wind and Current Chart of the North Atlantic." His international recognition assisted in the change of purpose and name of the depot to the United States Naval Observatory and Hydrographical Office in 1854. He held that position until his resignation in April 1861.
Maury was one of the principal advocates for the founding of a national observatory, he appealed to a science enthusiast and former US President, Represe
Karl Weyprecht spelt Carl Weyprecht, was an Austro-Hungarian explorer. He was an officer in the Austro-Hungarian Navy, he is most famous as an Arctic explorer, an advocate of international cooperation for scientific polar exploration. Although he did not live to see it occur, he is associated with the organisation of the first International Polar Year. In 1856, he joined the Austro-Hungarian Navy as a provisional sea cadet, he served in the Austro-Sardinian War. From 1860 to 1862, he served on the frigate Radetzky under the command of Admiral Tegetthoff. From 1863 to 1865, he was instructional officer on the training ship Hussar. On 23 July 1865, he became known to the German geographer August Petermann at a meeting of the "Geographic Society" in Frankfurt, he served aboard the ironclad Drache. He met Julius von Payer in 1870, made a preliminary expedition with Payer to Novaya Zemlya in 1871. On 18 February 1872, Weyprecht gained citizenship in Austria-Hungary, he co-led, with Julius von Payer, the 1872-1874 Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition which discovered the archipelago Franz Josef Land in the Arctic Ocean.
The expedition's ship Admiral Tegetthoff was abandoned in the pack ice. The expedition moved on sledges to go further north to open water, where they used boats to reach the Black Cape of Novaya Zemlya and would contact a Russian schooner, "Nikolaj", under Captain Feodor Veronin, get to Vardø, where they took the mail boat south and returned to Vienna, he was awarded the 1875 Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Gold MedalOn 18 September 1875, he addressed the 48th Meeting of German Scientists and Physicians in Graz, Austria. He reported the "basic principles of Arctic research" and suggested that fixed Arctic observation stations should be established. According to Weyprecht, it was important to organize a network of Arctic stations taking regular measurements of weather and ice conditions with identical devices and at preestablished intervals. In 1879, he presented these ideas, along with George Neumayer's to the 2nd International Congress of Meteorologists in Rome. Karl Weyprecht died of tuberculosis in 1881.
The Austro-Hungarian polar expedition led by Weyprecht was selected as main motif for the Austrian Admiral Tegetthoff Ship and The Polar Expedition commemorative coin minted on 8 June 2005. The reverse side of the coin shows two explorers in Arctic gear with the frozen ship "Admiral Tegetthoff" behind them. Swedish musician Stina Nordenstam's sound installation Isens Fasor was spoken directly from Karl Weyprecht's expedition journal. Weyprecht Mountains, Cape Weyprecht, Weyprecht Fjord, Weyprecht Glacier, Weyprecht Islands The base camp near Erfoud, Morocco for the PolAres MARS2013 analog mission by the OeWF in February of that year was named Camp Weyprecht during the landing ceremony in the morning of 11 February 2013. Karl Weyprecht, Die Metamorphosen des Polareises. Österr.-Ung. Arktische Expedition 1872-1874 Julius von Payer New Lands within the Arctic Circle Andreas Pöschek: Geheimnis Nordpol. Die Österreichisch-Ungarische Nordpolexpedition 1872-1874. - Wien: 1999 Ursula Rack Sozialhistorische Studie zur Polarforschung anhand von deutschen und österreich-ungarischen Polarexpeditionen zwischen 1868-1939.
"Weyprecht, Karl". New International Encyclopedia. 1905