Kingdom of Serbia
The Kingdom of Serbia was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882. Since 1817, the Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty; the Principality, suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, de facto achieved full independence when the last Ottoman troops left Belgrade in 1867. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, in its composition Nišava, Pirot and Vranje districts entered the South part of Serbia. In 1882, Serbia was elevated to the status of kingdom, maintaining a foreign policy friendly to Austria-Hungary. Between 1912 and 1913, Serbia enlarged its territory through engagement in the First and Second Balkan Wars—Sandžak-Raška, Kosovo Vilayet and Vardar Macedonia were annexed. At the end of World War I in 1918 it united with Vojvodina and the Kingdom of Montenegro, towards the end of 1918 it joined with the newly created State of Slovenes and Serbs to form the new Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes under the continued rule of the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty.
The Principality of Serbia was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian revolution which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Despite brutal oppression and retaliation by the Ottoman authorities, the revolutionary leaders, first Karađorđe and Miloš Obrenović, succeeded in their goal to liberate Serbia after centuries of Turkish rule. At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–1833 it expanded to the east and west. In 1867 the Ottoman army left the Principality. Serbia expanded further to the south-east in 1878, when it won full international recognition at the Congress of Berlin. In 1882 it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia; the Serbo-Bulgarian War lasted until November 28 of the same year. The war ended in defeat for Serbia, as it had failed to capture the Slivnitsa region which it had set out to achieve. Bulgarians repelled the Serbs after the decisive victory at the Battle of Slivnitsa and advanced into Serbian territory taking Pirot and clearing the way to Niš.
When Austria-Hungary declared that it would join the war on the side of Serbia, Bulgaria withdrew from Serbia leaving the Serbo-Bulgarian border where it had been prior to the war. The peace treaty was signed on February 1886 in Bucharest; as a result of the war, European powers acknowledged the act of Unification of Bulgaria which happened on September 6, 1885. In 1888 People's Radical Party led by Sava Grujić and Nikola Pašić came to power and a new constitution, based on the liberal Constitution of Belgium was introduced; the lost war and the Radical Party's total electoral victory were some of the reasons why King Milan I abdicated in 1889. His son Alexander I assumed the throne in 1893 and in 1894 dismissed the constitution. King Alexander I of Serbia and his unpopular wife Queen Draga were assassinated inside the Royal Palace in Belgrade on the night of 28–29 May 1903. Other representatives of the Obrenović family were shot as well; this act resulted in the extinction of the House of Obrenović, ruling Serbia since 1817.
After the May Coup the Serbian Skupština invited Peter Karadjorjević to assume the Serbian crown as Peter I of Serbia. A constitutional monarchy was created with the military Black Hand society operating behind the scenes; the traditionally good relations with Austria-Hungary ended, as the new dynasty relied on the support of the Russian Empire and closer cooperation with Kingdom of Bulgaria. In April 1904 the Friendship treaty and in June 1905 the customs union with Bulgaria were signed. In response Austria-Hungary imposed a Tariff War of 1906-1909. After the 1906 elections the People's Radical Party came to power. In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia; the Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 erupted into public view when on October 5, 1908, Kingdom of Bulgaria declared its complete independence from Ottoman Empire and on October 6, 1908, when Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, populated by South Slavs. Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Italy, Principality of Montenegro, German Empire and France took an interest in these events.
In April 1909, the 1878 Treaty of Berlin was amended to accept the new status quo and bringing the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on the one hand and Russia and Serbia on the other; the annexation and reactions to the annexation were some of the contributing causes of World War I. Between 1912 and 1922 Serbia was involved in a number of wars that brought it to the brink of total destruction and ended with its victory and expansion. Victorious in the First and Second Balkan Wars, it gained significant territorial areas of the Central Balkans and doubled its territory. Negotiations between Russia and Bulgaria led to the Serbian-Bulgarian Treaty of Alliance of March 1912, which aimed to conquer and to divide the Ottoman held Macedonia. In May, a Serbian-Greek alliance was reached and in October 1912, a Serbia-Montenegro alliance was signed. After the war started, together with Montenegro, conquered Pristina and Novi Pazar. At the Battle of Kumanovo Serbians defeated the Ottoman army and proceeded to conquer Skopje and the whole of Kosovo vilayet.
The region of Metohija was taken by Montenegro. At Bitola and Ohrid Serbian army units establish
Battle of Drina
The Battle of Drina was fought between the Serbian and Austro-Hungarian armies in September 1914, during World War I. The Austro-Hungarians engaged in a significant offensive over the Drina river at the western Serbian border, resulting in numerous skirmishes. In early October, the Serbian Army was forced to retreat, regrouped to fight in the subsequent Battle of Kolubara. After being defeated in the Battle of Cer in August 1914, the Austro-Hungarian army retreated over the Drina river back into Bosnia and Syrmia. Under pressure from its allies, Serbia conducted a limited offensive across the Sava river into the Austro-Hungarian region of Syrmia. Meanwhile, the Timok First Division of the Serbian Second Army suffered a heavy defeat in a diversionary crossing, suffering around 6,000 casualties while inflicting only 2,000. With most of his forces in Bosnia, general Oskar Potiorek decided that the best way to stop the Serbian offensive was to launch another invasion into Serbia to force the Serbs to recall their troops to defend their much smaller homeland.
September 7 brought a renewed Austro-Hungarian attack from the west, across the river Drina, this time with both the Fifth Army in Mačva and the Sixth Army further south. The initial attack by the Fifth Army was repelled by the Serbian Second Army, with 4,000 Austro-Hungarian casualties, but the stronger Sixth Army managed to surprise the Serbian Third Army and gained a foothold into Serbian territory. After some units from the Serbian Second Army were sent to bolster the Third, the Austro-Hungarian Fifth Army managed to establish a bridgehead with a renewed attack. At that time, Field Marshal Radomir Putnik withdrew the First Army from Syrmia and used it to deliver a fierce counterattack against the Sixth Army that went well, but bogged down in a bloody four-day fight for a peak of the Jagodnja mountain called Mačkov Kamen, in which both sides suffered horrendous losses in successive frontal attacks and counterattacks; the two Serbian divisions lost around 11,000 men, while Austro-Hungarian losses were comparable.
Field Marshal Putnik ordered a retreat into the surrounding hills and the front settled in a month and a half of trench warfare, unfavourable to the Serbs, who possessed heavy artillery, obsolete, had short ammunition stocks, limited shell production and a lack of proper footwear, since the vast majority of infantry wore the traditional opanaks, while the Austro-Hungarians had soak-proof leather boots. Most of the war material was supplied by the Allies. In such a situation, Serbian artillery became silent, while the Austro-Hungarians increased their fire. Serbian daily casualties reached 100 soldiers from all causes in some divisions. During the first weeks of trench warfare, the Serbian Užice Army and the Montenegrin Sanjak Army conducted an abortive offensive into Bosnia. In addition, both sides conducted a few local attacks. Http://www.rastko.org.yu/svecovek/ustrojstvo/namesnistva/radjevina/krupanj/spomen_crkva_l.html Mitar Đurišić, Prvi svetski rat - u bici na Drini, archived from the original on 2011-07-26, retrieved 2010-10-13
The Karađorđević is a Serbian dynastic family, founded by Karađorđe Petrović, the Veliki Vožd of Serbia in the early 1800s during the First Serbian Uprising. The short-lived dynasty was supported by the Russian Empire and was opposed to the Austria-Hungary supported Obrenović dynasty. After Karađorđe's assassination in 1817, Miloš Obrenović founded the House of Obrenović; the two houses subsequently traded the throne for several generations. Following the assassination of Alexander in 1903, the Serbian Parliament chose Karađorđe's grandson, Peter I Karađorđević living in exile, for the throne of the Kingdom of Serbia, he was duly crowned as King Peter I, shortly before the end of World War I, representatives of the three peoples proclaimed a Kingdom of the Serbs and Slovenes with Peter I as sovereign. In 1929, the Kingdom was renamed Yugoslavia, under Alexander I, the son of Peter I. In November 1945, the throne was lost when the League of Communists of Yugoslavia seized power, during the reign of Peter II.
In English, it is spelled Karadjordjevic while pronunciation is anglicized as Karageorgevitch, was in previous times rendered as Kara-Georgevitch. According to some researchers, Karađorđe's paternal ancestors most migrated from the Highlands to Šumadija during the Second Great Serb Migration in 1737–39 under the leadership of Patriarch Šakabenta, as a result of the Austrian-Turkish War. Serbian historiography accepted the theory; some conjecture has arisen about. According to Radoš Ljušić, Karađorđe's ancestors most hailed from Vasojevići, but he has said there is no certain historical information on Karađorđe's ancestors or where they came from, folklore being the only real source. Most Karađorđe's ancestors hailed from Vasojevići. Grigorije Božović claimed. Contributing to Srbljak theory is the fact that the family celebrated St Clement as their Slava until 1890, while the patron saint of Vasojevići, i.e. Vaso's descendants is Archangel Michael. King Peter I was allowed to change his Slava to St Andrew the First-called by Belgrade Metropolitan Mihailo in 1890, following the death of his wife, Princess Zorka, thus honoring the date by Julian calendar when Serbian rebels liberated Belgrade during the First Serbian Uprising.
Furthermore, King Peter chose Duke of Vasojevići Miljan Vukov Vešović to be his bridesman during his wedding to princess Zorka in 1883. Upon being asked by his future father-in-law prince Nicholas why he chose Miljan amongst various Dukes of Montenegro, he replied that he chose him because of heroism and relation describing him as Vojvode of my own blood and kin, his son, born in Cetinje was nicknamed Montenegrin The Vasojevići tribe claim descent from Stefan Konstantin of the Nemanjić dynasty. The Vasojevići were proud of Karađorđe, saw him as their kinsman. Montenegrin politician and Vasojević Gavro Vuković, supported this theory. Accordingly, Alexander Karađorđević was given the title "Voivode of Vasojevići" by Petar II in 1840. Other theories include: Montenegrin historian Miomir Dašić claimed that Karađorđe's family originated from the Gurešići from Podgorica in Montenegro. Folklorist Dragutin Vuković believed that Tripko Knežević–Guriš was Karađorđe's great-grandfather; the family claimed descent from the Vasojevići tribe and had emigrated in the late 1730s or early 1740s.
The family lived in Mačitevo, from where grandfather Jovan moved to Viševac, while Jovan's brother Radak moved to Mramorac. According to some famous Serbian historian like Dimitrije Tucović and Miroslav Ćosovic, the ancestors of Karađorđević are part of the Vasojevići tribe, which according to them is of Albanian origin; the Karađorđevićs are active in Serbian society in various ways. There is a view that constitutional parliamentary monarchy would be the ultimate solution for stability and continuity. In addition, they support Serbia as a democratic country with a future in the European Union; the last crown prince of Yugoslavia, has lived in Belgrade in the Dedinje Royal Palace since 2001. As the only son of the last king, Peter II, who never abdicated, the last official heir of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia he claims to be the rightful heir to the Serbian throne in the event of restoration. Prior to the fall of Slobodan Milošević, he united the parliamentary opposition in several major congresses.
In the palace, he receives religious leaders and strives, as opportunity permits, to demonstrate his commitment to human rights and to democracy. The Karađorđevićs are much engaged in humanitarian work. Crown Princess Katherine has a humanitarian foundation while Crown Prince Alexander heads the Foundation for Culture and Education, whose activities include student scholarships, summer camps for children, etc; the Karađorđevićs are prominent in national sports activities. The Karadjordjević family was a Serbian Royal House the Royal House of the Serbs and Slovenes and the Royal House of Yugoslavia; when they last reigned they were called the Royal House of Yugoslavia. Crown Prince Alexander was born in London but on property temporarily recognised by the United Kingdom's government as subject to the sovereignty of the Yugoslav crown, on which occasion it was publicly declared that the Crow
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz known as Tito, was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, most Yugoslavs considered him popular and a benevolent dictator, he was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation, he gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Nicolae Ceaușescu of Romania, Sukarno of Indonesia, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Broz was born to a Croat Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Austria-Hungary. Drafted into military service, he distinguished himself, becoming the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Army of that time.
After being wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during World War I, he was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains. He participated in some events of the Russian Revolution in subsequent Civil War. Upon his return home, Broz found himself in the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, he was General Secretary of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and went on to lead the World War II Yugoslav guerrilla movement, the Partisans. After the war, he was the Prime President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. From 1943 to his death in 1980, he held the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia, serving as the supreme commander of the Yugoslav military, the Yugoslav People's Army. With a favourable reputation abroad in both Cold War blocs, he received some 98 foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honour and the Order of the Bath. Tito was the chief architect of the second Yugoslavia, a socialist federation that lasted from November 1943 until April 1992.
Despite being one of the founders of Cominform, he became the first Cominform member to defy Soviet hegemony in 1948 and the only one in Joseph Stalin's time to manage to leave Cominform and begin with its own socialist program with elements of market socialism. Economists active in the former Yugoslavia, including Czech-born Jaroslav Vanek and Croat-born Branko Horvat, promoted a model of market socialism dubbed the Illyrian model, where firms were owned by their employees and structured on workers' self-management and competed with each other in open and free markets. Josip Broz was born on 7 May 1892 in Kumrovec, a village in the northern Croatian region of Hrvatsko Zagorje which at that time was part of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he was the seventh or eighth child of Franjo Broz and Marija née Javeršek, his parents having lost a number of children in early infancy. He was raised as a Roman Catholic, his father, was a Croat whose family had lived in the village for three centuries, while his mother Marija, was a Slovene from the village of Podsreda.
The villages were only 16 kilometres apart, his parents had been married on 21 January 1881. Franjo Broz had inherited a 4.0-hectare estate and a good house, but he was unable to make a success of farming. Josip spent a significant proportion of his pre-school years living with his maternal grandparents at Podsreda, where he became a favourite of his grandfather Martin Javeršek, by the time he returned to Kumrovec to commence school he spoke Slovene better than Croatian, had learned to play the piano. Despite his mixed parentage, Broz referred to himself as a Croat. In July 1900, at the age of eight, Broz entered primary school at Kumrovec, but only completed four years of school, failing the 2nd grade graduating in 1905; as a result of his limited schooling, throughout his life he was poor at spelling. After leaving school, he worked for a maternal uncle on the family farm. In 1907, his father wanted him to emigrate to the United States, but could not raise the money for the voyage. Instead, aged 15 years, Josip left Kumrovec and travelled about 97 kilometres south to Sisak where his cousin Jurica Broz was doing army service.
Jurica helped him get a job in a restaurant, but Broz soon tired of that work and approached a Czech locksmith, Nikola Karas, for a three-year apprenticeship, which included training and room and board. As his father could not afford to pay for his work clothing, Josip paid for it himself. Soon after, his younger brother Stjepan became apprenticed to Karas. During his apprenticeship he was encouraged to mark May Day in 1909, read and sold Slobodna Reč, a socialist newspaper. After completing his apprenticeship in September 1910, Broz used his contacts to gain employment in Zagreb and at the age of 18 joined the Metal Workers' Union and participated in his first labour protest, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia. He returned home in December 1910 and in early 1911 began a series of moves, first seeking work in Ljubljana Trieste and Zagreb, where he worked repairing bicycles and joined his first strike action on May Day 1911. After a brief period of work in Ljubljana, between May 1911 and May 1912 he worked in a factory in Kamnik in the Kamnik–Savinja Alps, a
Cetinje, is a city and Old Royal Capital of Montenegro. It is the historic and the secondary capital of Montenegro, where the official residence of the President of Montenegro is located. According to the 2011 census, the town had a population of 14,093 while the Cetinje municipality had 16,657 residents as of 2011. Cetinje is the centre of Cetinje Municipality; the city rests on a small karst plain surrounded by limestone mountains, including Mount Lovćen, the legendary mountain in Montenegrin historiography. Cetinje was founded in the 15th century and became a center of Montenegrin life and both a cradle of Montenegrin culture and an Orthodox religious center, its status as the honorary capital of Montenegro is due to its heritage as a long-serving former capital of Montenegro. In Montenegrin, the town is known as Цетиње / Cetinje. Cetinje was founded in 1482, when Ivan Crnojević moved his capital from Obod above the Crnojević River to deeper into the hills to a more defended location in a field at the foot of Mount Lovćen.
He had his court built at the new location that year and founded a monastery as a personal endowment in 1484. His court and the monastery are the first recorded renaissance buildings in Montenegro. Crnojević was forced to move the seat of the Eparchy of Zeta from Vranjina to Cetinje due to the Ottoman invasions, in 1485; the town was named after the Cetina river. The bishopric of Zeta was elevated to a metropolitanate in Cetinje, it was to play an important part in both the religious and national life. The Crnojević printing house, the first printing house in southeastern Europe, was active between 1493 and 1496 in Cetinje. Zeta was first put under Ottoman rule in 1499 annexed by the Ottomans in 1514, organized into the Sanjak of Montenegro. In the next two centuries, the development of Cetinje stagnated, it was often subject to attack by Venice and the Ottomans. The city therefore endured many privations in the course of the 17th centuries. In this period the court and the monastery of the Crnojevići dynasty were destroyed.
It was only at the end of the 17th century, in 1697, that Cetinje began to flourish again under the rule of the Petrović dynasty, refounded by Danilo Petrović. Leading the wars of liberation and strengthening the unity in the country occupied Danilo and his successors, so they were unable to devote enough effort to the further development of Cetinje, it was only during the rule of Petar II Petrović Njegoš. In 1838 his new royal residence called. Cetinje was enlarged by building new houses that led to genuine urbanization. Many modern buildings designed for foreign consulates were built due to the newly established relations with various European countries; the buildings of the French, British and Austro-Hungarian consulates are regarded as the most beautiful of these. Cetinje made great progress under the rule of Prince Nikola I Petrović when numerous public edifices were built; those include the first hotel, called ‘Lokanda’ the new Prince’s palace, the Girls’ Institute and the hospital. This period saw the first tenancy houses.
In the 1860 census Cetinje had 34 households. After holding off Ottoman incursions in 1852 and 1853, Cetinje was captured by Ottoman Omar Pasha's forces during the Montenegrin–Ottoman War of 1861–62. Ottoman rule over Montenegro did not last much more than a decade however, as 14 years the "Great War", the third successive contest between the two nations, ended in Montenegrin victory, with most previously-Montenegrin territory returning to their control. Montenegrin independence was recognized at the Congress of Berlin of 1878 and Cetinje became the capital of a European country. Between 1878 and 1914 Cetinje flourished in every sense. Many renowned intellectuals from other South-Slavic parts came to stay there and made a contribution to the cultural and every other aspect of life. Montenegro was proclaimed a kingdom in 1910; this had a great effect on Cetinje's development. At this time the Government House, the symbol of state power, was built; the population census from the same year recorded a massive growth in the world's smallest capital, registering 5,895 inhabitants.
In the Interwar period, Cetinje expanded its territory. But when it was decided by the Parliament of Montenegro that the administrative organs should be located in Titograd, Cetinje went through a harsh crisis. By building certain industrial sections and at the same time neglecting the development of the city's traditional and potential cultural and tourist capacities, the chance to create a strong basis for more solid prosperity was lost. Cetinje is situated with average height above sea level of 671m, it is 12 km of airline far from 15 km from Skadar Lake. Now, it is on the main road Podgorica-Cetinje-Budva, which makes it open to the inside of Montenegro and Montenegrin coast. Cetinje has an oceanic climate, with dry and warm summers, mild and wet winters. Cetinje is well known for its plentiful precipitations, is one of the rainiest towns in Europe with around 3,300 mm of precipitation annually. Although abundant in precipitation, the Cetinje field and its surroundings do not have water flows on the surface and water sources are scarce.
This is a consequence of the