The Blue Party was a political group that contested elections in the Eastern section of the Province of Canada. The Blue Party was ideologically located on the political right, was defined by its support for the Catholic Church, for supporting confederation; the party was formed in 1854 by conservative members of the former Reform movement, following in the tradition of Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Francis Hincks. The first leader of the Blue Party, George-Étienne Cartier, was the Premier of Canada East; the Blue Party held majorities in Canada East uninterrupted from 1854 to 1867, formed coalition governments with the English-speaking Conservatives from Canada East, the Liberal-Conservative Party from Canada West. Their main electoral challenge came from a secularist left-wing party. After confederation in 1867, the party was dissolved, members became part of the Conservative Party of Quebec at the provincial level, the Conservative Party of Canada federally; the Reform Party was a broad movement, organized around achieving responsible government in the Province of Canada.
Because responsible government was required to enact any form of self-government, it was supported by both liberals and conservatives who could not achieve their own policy aims without it. The Reform Party was thus able to draw in members from across the ideological spectrum. After 1848, when responsible government was introduced by the Imperial Government, the unifying policy of the movement had been achieved and the movement began to break down. By 1853, the government was unable to secure majorities on core legislation. By the time of election in 1854, the party had broken down into factions based on their ideological positions; the French-Canadian conservatives called themselves Ministerialists, in recognition of their support of the government and opposition of the Rouges and Liberals. By 1856, the Ministerialist faction had changed their name to Bleu; the Ministerialists experienced electoral success in the Canadian general election, 1854. They won 35 seats in Canada East, their strong electoral performance allowed them to form a coalition government with the Canada West Conservatives lead by Allan MacNab.
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché was the first leader of the Ministerialist group, but was replaced by George-Étienne Cartier as the Blue Party was formed. The coalition between the Canada West Conservatives and Blue Party began the Liberal-Conservative tradition of government in the province. After the 1858 election, the Blue Party and Eastern-Canadian Conservatives became the largest group in the Legislative Assembly, formed a coalition government with the Canada West Conservatives as the larger partner. Canada West had returned a majority of Liberal members, but the large majority commanded by the Blue Party and Conservatives in Canada East prevented the Liberals from taking power; the number of factions in the legislature made it difficult to secure majorities on government legislation, forcing the Blue-Conservative coalition out for a four-day period in 1858 after losing a non-confidence vote. However, the new Liberal-Rouge government was unable to secure a majority in the Legislative Assembly, the Blue Party reformed a ministry with the Conservatives.
The Blue Party was ideologically moderate. The party supported Confederation, the dismantling of the seigneurial system, the role of the Catholic Church in Canadian society; the Blue Party was opposed to the republican positions of the Parti rouge. List of political parties in Canada
Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada
The Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada was the lower house of the legislature for the Province of Canada, which consisted of the former provinces of Lower Canada known as Canada East and the province of Quebec, Upper Canada known as Canada West and the province of Ontario. It was created by The Union Act of 1840. Canada East and Canada West each elected 42 members to the assembly; the upper house of the legislature was called the Legislative Council. The first session of parliament began in Kingston in Canada West in 1841; the second parliament and the first sessions of the third parliament were held in Montreal. On April 25, 1849, rioters protesting the Rebellion Losses Bill burned the parliament buildings; the remaining sessions of the third parliament were held in Toronto. Subsequent parliaments were held in Quebec City and Toronto, except for the last session in 1866 of the eight and final parliament, held in Ottawa, the capital chosen for the Dominion of Canada; the British North America Act of 1867 divided the Province of Canada into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, each province having its own Legislative Assembly, as well as representation in the Parliament of Canada.
Parliament for the United Provinces of Canada drifted around the cities of Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City and Ottawa: 1841–1843 three sessions were held at the 3 storey Kingston General Hospital 1843 Parliament moves to Montreal and sites at renovated St. Anne's Market. 1849 temporary sites for Parliament at Bonsecours Market and the Freemason's Hall, Montreal for single session. 1849–1850 Parliament returns to Toronto to the site of the Third Parliament Buildings at Front and Simcoe Streets. 1851 Parliament relocates to Quebec City in 1851 to the Quebec Parliament Building until fire destroys the building in 1854. 1854–1859 Parliament remains in Quebec City and relocates to Quebec Music Hall and Quebec City Courthouse. 1859 Parliament returns to Toronto to the site of the last parliament held there in 1849-1851 sessions. 1860–1865 Parliament returns to Quebec to the newly re-built Parliament Buildings, Quebec at Parc Montmorency. This tradition carried onto the role of the Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada.
Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada – Legislature replaced by the Legislature of the Province of Canada Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada – Legislature replaced by the Legislature of the Province of Canada Legislative Assembly of Ontario – succeeding legislature for Canada West Legislative Assembly of Quebec – succeeding legislature for Canada East House of Commons of Canada – succeeding parliament replacing the Legislature of the Province of Canada List of by-elections in the Province of Canada Upper Canadian politics in the 1850s, University of Toronto Press Ontario's parliament buildings.
The Province of Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. It covered the southern portion of the current-day Province of Quebec and the Labrador region of the modern-day Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Lower Canada consisted of part of the former colony of Canada of New France, conquered by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War ending in 1763 Other parts of New France conquered by Britain became the Colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island; the Province of Lower Canada was created by the "Constitutional Act of 1791" from the partition of the British colony of the Province of Quebec into the Province of Lower Canada and the Province of Upper Canada. The prefix "lower" in its name refers to its geographic position farther downriver from the headwaters of the St. Lawrence River than its contemporary Upper Canada, present-day southern Ontario; the colony/province was abolished in 1841 when it and adjacent Upper Canada were united into the Province of Canada.
Like Upper Canada, there was significant political unrest. Twenty-two years after the invasion by the Americans in the War of 1812, a rebellion now challenged the British rule of the predominantly French population. After the Patriote Rebellion in the Rebellions of 1837–38 were crushed by the British Army and Loyal volunteers, the "1791 Constitution" was suspended on 27 March 1838 and a special council was appointed to administer the colony. An abortive attempt by revolutionary Robert Nelson to declare a Republic of Lower Canada was thwarted; the provinces of Lower Canada and Upper Canada were combined as the United Province of Canada in 1841, when The Union Act of 1840 came into force. Their separate legislatures were combined into a single parliament with equal representation for both constituent parts though Lower Canada had a greater population; the Province of Lower Canada inherited the mixed set of French and English institutions that existed in the Province of Quebec during the 1763–91 period and which continued to exist in Canada-East and in the current Province of Quebec.
Lower Canada was populated by Canadiens, an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward. Traveling around Lower Canada was made by water along the St. Lawrence River. On land the only main route was the Chemin du Roy or King's Highway, built in the 1730s by New France; the King's Highway remained as an alternate means of travel until the challenge of steamboats and trains on land began to challenge the royal road. Challenged by boats and trains, the royal road's importance waned after the 1850s and would not re-emerge as a key means of transportation until the modern highway system of Quebec was created in the 20th century; the Canadas Upper Canada French colonial empire French and Indian War Province of Quebec Former colonies and territories in Canada Canada East, period after the Act of Union List of lieutenant governors of Quebec Ottawa River timber trade Timeline of Quebec history National Patriots' Day Republic of Lower Canada Robert Christie.
A History of the Late Province of Lower Canada, Quebec City: T. Cary/R. Montreal: Worthington, 1848–1855 François-Xavier Garneau. History of Canada: from the time of its discovery till the union year, Montreal: J. Lovell, 1860 Media related to Lower Canada at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of Lower Canada at Wiktionary Lower Canada from The Canadian Encyclopedia Lower Canada - Encyclopædia Britannica Gouvernors of Lower Canada - Histoire du Québec Lower Canada - Library and Archives Canada Lower Canada - Quebec Parliament library
Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck
Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount Monck, was the last Governor-General of the Province of Canada and the first Governor General of Canada after Canadian Confederation. Prior to Confederation he was concurrently Lieutenant Governor of both Canada Canada East, he was the son of Charles Monck, 3rd Viscount Monck, his wife Bridget née Willington. Charles Monck married 24 July 1844, his first cousin, Lady Elizabeth Louise Mary Monck, daughter of his uncle Henry, the 2nd Viscount, created Earl of Rathdowne in 1822. Lord and Lady Monck, their two sons and two daughters, came to Canada, but they did not remain throughout his term of office as Governor General of Canada; the family resided at Spencerwood in Quebec during most of their stay in Canada. She died in June 1892, aged 78, her husband died in November 1894, aged 75. They had issue: Frances Mary Monck Elizabeth Louise Mary Monck Henry Monck, 5th Viscount Monck Richard Charles Stanley Mountjoy Monck Monck obtained a law degree from Trinity College, Dublin.
He married his cousin Elizabeth Monck in 1844, in 1849 he inherited his father's title of Viscount Monck. In 1852 he was elected MP for Portsmouth, from 1855 to 1858 he served as Lord of the Treasury under Lord Palmerston. In 1861 he was appointed Governor General of British North America as well as Governor of the Province of Canada. During this time, the Canadian colonies were beginning to organise themselves into a confederation; the American Civil War had just broken out, the Trent Affair caused diplomatic tension between the United States and Britain. The Canadian government was eager to gain some measure of independence during this turbulent period; the Quebec Conference, the Charlottetown Conference, the London Conference, at which the details of confederation were discussed, all took place during Monck's time as governor. Monck supported the idea, worked with John A. Macdonald, George Brown, George-Étienne Cartier, Étienne-Paschal Taché, who formed the "Great Coalition" in 1864. In 1866 Viscount Monck became a peer with the title Baron Monck.
When the Canadian colonies became a semi-independent confederation the next year, Monck became the country's first Governor General. Monck was responsible for establishing Rideau Hall as the residence of the Governor General in Ottawa. In 1869 Monck was succeeded by 1st Baron Lisgar, he returned home to Ireland, where he became Lord Lieutenant of Dublin in 1874. He died in 1894. Monet, Jacques. "Monck, Charles Stanley, 4th Viscount Monck". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XII. University of Toronto Press. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Monck http://www.gg.ca Photograph: Governor General Monck in 1864. McCord Museum Photograph: Lord Monck, Governor General in 1866. McCord Museum
John A. Macdonald
Sir John Alexander Macdonald was the first prime minister of Canada. The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned half a century. Macdonald was born in Scotland; as a lawyer he was involved in several high-profile cases and became prominent in Kingston, which elected him in 1844 to the legislature of the Province of Canada. By 1857, he had become premier under the colony's unstable political system. In 1864, when no party proved capable of governing for long, Macdonald agreed to a proposal from his political rival, George Brown, that the parties unite in a Great Coalition to seek federation and political reform. Macdonald was the leading figure in the subsequent discussions and conferences, which resulted in the British North America Act and the birth of Canada as a nation on 1 July 1867. Macdonald was the first Prime Minister of the new nation, served 19 years. In 1873, he resigned from office over the Pacific Scandal, in which his party took bribes from businessmen seeking the contract to build the Canadian Pacific Railway.
However, he was re-elected in 1878, continuing until he died in office in 1891. Macdonald's greatest achievements were building and guiding a successful national government for the new Dominion, using patronage to forge a strong Conservative Party, promoting the protective tariff of the National Policy, completing the railway, he fought to block provincial efforts to take power back from the national government in Ottawa. His most controversial move was to approve the execution of Métis leader Louis Riel for treason in 1885, he died in 1891, still in office. Historical rankings have placed Macdonald as one of the highest rated Prime Ministers in Canadian history. John Alexander Macdonald was born John Alexander Mcdonald in Ramshorn parish in Glasgow, Scotland, on the 10th or 11th of January 1815, his father was named Hugh, an unsuccessful merchant, who had married John's mother, Helen Shaw, on 21 October 1811. John Alexander Macdonald was the third of five children. After Hugh's business ventures left him in debt, the family immigrated to Kingston, in Upper Canada, in 1820, where there were a number of relatives and connections.
The family lived with another, but resided over a store which Hugh Macdonald ran. Soon after their arrival, John's younger brother James died from a blow to the head by a servant, supposed to look after the boys. After Hugh's store failed, the family moved to Hay Bay, west of Kingston, where Hugh unsuccessfully ran another shop, his father, in 1829, was appointed a magistrate for the Midland District. John Macdonald's mother was a lifelong influence on her son, helping him in his difficult first marriage and remaining a force in his life until her 1862 death. John attended local schools; when he was aged 10, his family scraped together the money to send him to Midland District Grammar School in Kingston. Macdonald's formal schooling ended at 15, a common school-leaving age at a time when only children from the most prosperous families were able to attend university. Macdonald regretted leaving school when he did, remarking to his secretary Joseph Pope that if he had attended university, he might have embarked on a literary career.
Macdonald's parents decided. As Donald Creighton wrote, "law was a broad, well-trodden path to comfort, influence to power", it was "the obvious choice for a boy who seemed as attracted to study as he was uninterested in trade." Besides, Macdonald needed to start earning money to support his family because his father's businesses were again failing. "I had no boyhood," he complained many years later. "From the age of 15, I began to earn my own living." Macdonald travelled by steamboat to Toronto, where he passed an examination set by The Law Society of Upper Canada, including mathematics and history. British North America had no law schools in 1830. Between the two examinations, they were articled to established lawyers. Macdonald began his apprenticeship with George Mackenzie, a prominent young lawyer, a well-regarded member of Kingston's rising Scottish community. Mackenzie practised corporate law, a lucrative speciality that Macdonald himself would pursue. Macdonald was a promising student, in the summer of 1833, managed the Mackenzie office when his employer went on a business trip to Montreal and Quebec in Lower Canada.
That year, Macdonald was sent to manage the law office of a Mackenzie cousin who had fallen ill. In August 1834, George Mackenzie died of cholera. With his supervising lawyer dead, Macdonald remained at the cousin's law office in Hallowell. In 1835, Macdonald returned to Kingston, though not yet of age nor qualified, began his practice as a lawyer, hoping to gain his former employer's clients. Macdonald's parents and sisters returned to Kingston, Hugh Macdonald became a bank clerk. Soon after Macdonald was called to the Bar in February 1836, he arranged to take in two students. Oliver Mowat became
Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942)
The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. Known as the "Liberal-Conservative Party", it dropped "Liberal" from its name in 1873, although many of its candidates continued to use this name; as a result of World War I and the Conscription Crisis of 1917, the party joined with pro-conscription Liberals to become the "Unionist Party", led by Robert Borden from 1917 to 1920, the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" until 1922. It reverted to "Liberal-Conservative Party" until 1938, when it became the "National Conservative Party", it ran in the 1940 election as "National Government" though it was in opposition. The party was always referred to as the "Conservative Party" or Tories; the roots of the party are in the pre-Confederation coalition government of 1854 comprising the Parti bleu of George-Étienne Cartier, along with Ontario Liberals and Conservatives led by Sir John A. Macdonald, it was out of this coalition that the Liberal-Conservative Party was formed and it was this period that formed the basis for Confederation in 1867.
Macdonald became the leader of the Conservative Party and formed the first national government in 1867. The party brought together ultramontane Quebec Catholics, pro-tariff businessmen, United Empire Loyalist Tories and Orangemen. One major accomplishment of Macdonald's first government was the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway which led to the Pacific Scandal that brought down the government in 1873; the Conservatives under Macdonald returned to power in 1878 by opposing the Liberal Party's policy of free trade or reciprocity with the United States and promoting, the National Policy which sought to promote business and develop industry with high tariff protectionist measures as well as settle and develop the west. The principal difference between the Conservatives and the Liberals in this period and well into the twentieth century was that Conservatives were in favour of imperial preference and strong political and legal links with Britain while Liberals promoted free trade and continentalism and greater independence from Britain.
Macdonald died in 1891 and, without his leadership, the Conservative coalition began to unravel under the pressure of sectarian tensions between Catholic French Canadians and British imperialists who tended to be anti-French and anti-Catholic. The government's mis-handling of the grievances that aroused the Red River Rebellion and the North-West Rebellion, its hanging of their leader Louis Riel), the Manitoba Schools Question exacerbated tensions within the Conservative Party and suppressed much of the support among Quebecois for the Conservative party, a problem only smoothed over by the 1980s. Free trade between Canada and the U. S. was the major issue of the 1911 election. Sir Wilfrid Laurier's Liberals, in favour of increased trade with the U. S. were swept from power. Robert Borden led a new Tory administration that emphasised a revitalised National Policy and continued strong links to Britain. Borden had built a base in Quebec by allying with anti-Laurier Quebec nationalists, but, in government, tensions between Quebec nationalists and English Canadian imperialists made any grand coalition untenable.
World War I created a further strain as most Quebecers were unenthusiastic about Canadian involvement in what they saw as a foreign, British, while Borden's supporters, most living in English Canada, supported Canada's war effort and its policy of conscription of men for the war. The attempt to turn the Conservatives into a hegemonic party by merging with Liberal-Unionists failed as most Liberals either joined the new Progressive Party of Canada or rejoined the Liberals under its new leader William Lyon Mackenzie King. One critical issue in this split was free trade - farmers were hostile to Tory tariff policy and free trade was a key issue in the creation of the Progressives while the Conscription Crisis destroyed any remaining Conservative base in Quebec for generations leaving the Tories with less support than they had before the Union government. Borden's successor, Arthur Meighen formally attempted to make the Unionist coalition permanent by creating the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" but most Liberals ended up returning to their old party and some Conservatives balked at what they saw as an attempt to destroy the Conservative Party.
John Hampden Burnham, MP for Peterborough West, quit the government caucus to sit as an Independent Conservative and resigned his seat in order to contest it in a by-election on his position. Meighen's party was defeated by the Liberals in the election of 1921 coming in third behind the Progressives. At March 1922 caucus meeting the party voted to revert to its original name of the Liberal-Conservative Party; the Liberals were reduced to a minority government in the 1925 election. The Conservatives won a plurality of seats in the House of Commons, but King was able to stay in power with the support of the Progressives and form a minority government. King's government was defeated in a vote in the House of Commons within months and Prime Minister King asked Governor-General Byng to call a new election but Byng refused and asked Meighen to form a government. Meighen's government was defeated three days after taking office by a vote in the Commons, leaving no choice but a new election; the general election produced a Liberal victory.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the U. S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is the second-smallest by population and the sixth-smallest by area of the 50 U. S. states. The state capital is the least populous state capital in the United States; the most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state. As of 2015, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. In crime statistics, it was ranked as the safest state in the country in 2016. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory, now Vermont and was claimed by France's colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War. Thereafter, the nearby colonies the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed the extent of the area called the New Hampshire Grants to the west of the Connecticut River, encompassing present-day Vermont.
The provincial government of New York sold land grants to settlers in the region, which conflicted with earlier grants from the government of New Hampshire. The Green Mountain Boys militia protected the interests of the established New Hampshire land grant settlers against the newly arrived settlers with land titles granted by New York. A group of settlers with New Hampshire land grant titles established the Vermont Republic in 1777 as an independent state during the American Revolutionary War; the Vermont Republic abolished slavery before any of the other states. Vermont was admitted to the newly established United States as the fourteenth state in 1791. Vermont is one of only four U. S. states that were sovereign states, given that the original 13 states were former colonies. During the mid 19th century, Vermont was a strong source of abolitionist sentiment and sent a significant contingent of soldiers to participate in the American Civil War. Protestants and Catholics make up the majority of those reporting a religious preference with 37% reporting no religion.
Other religions individually contribute no more than 2% to the total. The geography of the state is marked by the Green Mountains, which run north–south up the middle of the state, separating Lake Champlain and other valley terrain on the west from the Connecticut River valley that defines much of its eastern border. A majority of its terrain is forested with conifers. A majority of its open land is in agriculture; the state's climate is characterized by cold, snowy winters. Vermont's economic activity of $26 billion in 2010 caused it to rank 34th in gross state product, it has been ranked 42nd as a state in. In 1960, Vermonters' politics started to shift from being reliably Republican towards favoring more liberal and progressive candidates. Starting in 1963, voters have alternated between choosing Democratic governors. Voters have chosen Democrats for president since 1992. In 2000, the state legislature was the first to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples; the origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but comes from the French Les Monts Verts, meaning "the Green Mountains".
Thomas Young introduced it in 1777. In 1913, the Secretary of State of Vermont speculated that the archaic French term Mont Verd may have inspired Young. Another source points out the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, as a possible reason; the Green Mountains form a north–south spine running most of the length of the state west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are located the Taconic Mountains. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen. Vermont is located in the New England region of the Northeastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles, making it the 45th-largest state, it is the only state. Land comprises 9,250 square miles and water comprises 365 square miles, making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is smaller than Haiti, it is the only landlocked state in New England, it is the easternmost and the smallest in area of all landlocked states.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the state's eastern border with New Hampshire, though much of the river is within New Hampshire's territory. 41% of Vermont's land area is part of the Connecticut River's watershed. Lake Champlain, the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States, separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles long, its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles at the Canada–U. S. Border; the width averages 60.5 miles. The state's geographic center is three miles east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen U. S. federal border crossings between Canada. Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state. Areas in Vermont a