Sir Thomas Lawrence PRA FRS was a leading English portrait painter and the fourth president of the Royal Academy. Lawrence was a child prodigy, he was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper at the Bear Hotel in the Market Square. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his pastel portraits. At eighteen he went to London and soon established his reputation as a portrait painter in oils, receiving his first royal commission, a portrait of Queen Charlotte, in 1790, he stayed at the top of his profession until his death, aged 60, in 1830. Self-taught, he was a brilliant draughtsman and known for his gift of capturing a likeness, as well as his virtuoso handling of paint, he became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1791, a full member in 1794, president in 1820. In 1810 he acquired the generous patronage of the Prince Regent, was sent abroad to paint portraits of allied leaders for the Waterloo chamber at Windsor Castle, is remembered as the Romantic portraitist of the Regency.
Lawrence's love affairs were not happy and, in spite of his success, he spent most of life deep in debt. He never married. At his death, Lawrence was the most fashionable portrait painter in Europe, his reputation waned during Victorian times, but has since been restored. Thomas Lawrence was born at 6 Redcross Street, the youngest surviving child of Thomas Lawrence, a supervisor of excise, Lucy Read, the daughter of a clergyman; the couple had 16 children but only five survived infancy: Lawrence's brother Andrew became a clergyman. Soon after Thomas was born his father decided to become an innkeeper and took over the White Lion Inn and next-door American Coffee House in Broad Street, Bristol, but the venture did not prosper and in 1773 Lawrence senior removed his family from Bristol and took over the tenancy of the Black Bear Inn in Devizes, a favourite stopping place for the London gentry who were making their annual trip to take the waters at Bath. It was during the family's six-year stay at the Black Bear Inn that Lawrence senior began to make use of his son's precocious talents for drawing and reciting poetry.
Visitors would be greeted with the words "Gentlemen, here's my son – will you have him recite from the poets, or take your portraits?" Among those who listened to a recitation from Tom, or Tommy as he was called, was the actor David Garrick. Lawrence's formal schooling was limited to two years at The Fort, a school in Bristol, when he was aged six to eight, a little tuition in French and Latin from a dissenting minister, he became accomplished in dancing, fencing and billiards. By the age of ten his fame had spread sufficiently for him to receive a mention in Daines Barrington's Miscellanies as "without the most distant instruction from anyone, capable of copying historical pictures in a masterly style", but once again Lawrence senior failed as a landlord and, in 1779, he was declared bankrupt and the family moved to Bath. From now on, Lawrence was to support his parents with the money; the family settled at 2 Alfred Street in Bath, the young Lawrence established himself as a portraitist in pastels.
The oval portraits, for which he was soon charging three guineas, were about 12 inches by 10 inches, portrayed a half-length. His sitters included the Duchess of Devonshire, Sarah Siddons, Sir Henry Harpur, Warren Hastings and Sir Elijah Impey. Talented and attractive Lawrence was popular with Bath residents and visitors: artists William Hoare and Mary Hartley gave him encouragement. Sometime before his eighteenth birthday in 1787 Lawrence arrived in London, taking lodgings in Leicester Square, near to Joshua Reynolds' studio, he was introduced to Reynolds. Lawrence installed his parents in a house in Greek Street, he exhibited several works in the 1787 Royal Academy exhibition at Somerset House, enrolled as a student at the Royal Academy but did not stay long, abandoning the drawing of classical statues to concentrate on his portraiture. In the Royal Academy exhibition of 1788 Lawrence was represented by five portraits in pastels and one in oils, a medium he mastered. Between 1787 and his death in 1830 he would miss only two of the annual exhibitions: once, in 1809, in protest about the way his paintings had been displayed and once, in 1819, because he was abroad.
In 1789 he exhibited 13 portraits in oil, including one of William Linley and one of Lady Cremorne, his first attempt at a full-length portrait. The paintings received favourable comments in the press with one critic referring to him as "the Sir Joshua of futurity not far off" and, aged just twenty, Lawrence received his first royal commission, a summons arriving from Windsor Palace to paint the portraits of Queen Charlotte and Princess Amelia; the queen found Lawrence presumptuous and she did not like the finished portrait, which remained in Lawrence's studio until his death. When it was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790
George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle
George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle, styled Viscount Morpeth until 1825, was a British statesman. He served as Lord Privy Seal between 1827 and 1828 and in 1834 and was a member of Lord Grey's Whig government as Minister without Portfolio between 1830 and 1834. Carlisle was the eldest son of Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle, his wife Lady Margaret Caroline Leveson-Gower, daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford and his wife Lady Louisa, daughter of Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater, he was educated at Oxford. Carlisle was returned to parliament for Morpeth as a Whig in 1795, a seat he held until 1806. In 1806 he was sworn on to the Privy Council and appointed to the Indian board in the unity "Ministry of All the Talents", but resigned in 1807. In 1825 he succeeded his father to the earldom and he entered the House of Lords, he served in the moderate Tory governments of George Canning and Lord Goderich as First Commissioner of Woods and Forests between May and July 1827 and as Lord Privy Seal between July 1827 and January 1828.
However, he split with the Tories over electoral reform and served as a member of the cabinet in the Whig administrations of Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne as Minister without Portfolio between 1830 and 1834 and once again as Lord Privy Seal between July and November 1834. Apart from his political career Carlisle was Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire between 1824 and 1840, he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1837. Lord Carlisle married Lady Georgiana Cavendish, daughter of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire and Lady Georgiana Spencer, in 1801, they were parents of twelve children: 7th Earl of Carlisle. Lady Caroline Georgiana Howard, she married William Lascelles. Lady Georgiana Howard, she married 1st Baron Dover. Hon. Frederick George Howard. Lady Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard, she married George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland. William George Howard, 8th Earl of Carlisle. Edward Granville George Howard, 1st Baron Lanerton, he married daughter of the Hon. George Ponsonby.
Lady Blanche Georgiana Howard. She married William Cavendish Earl of Burlington and Duke of Devonshire. Hon. Charles Wentworth George Howard, he married daughter of James Parke, Baron Wensleydale. They were parents of 9th Earl of Carlisle. Lady Elizabeth Dorothy Anne Howard, she married son of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey. Hon. Henry George Howard. On 29 May 1845, he married Mary Wellesley McTavish, daughter of John McTavish, British Consul at Baltimore, his wife, Emily Caton; the couple wed from the house of the Marchioness Wellesley. He served as Secretary of the British Embassy in Paris, his wife died in Paris 21 February 1850, in her 23rd year. Lady Mary Matilda Georgiana Howard, she married 1st Baron Taunton. Lord Carlisle died at Castle Howard, Yorkshire, in October 1848, aged 75, was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, George; the Countess of Carlisle died at Castle Howard in August 1858, aged 75. Much of the modern British aristocracy can trace their roots to the sixth Earl of Carlisle.
Through his daughter Harriet, Duchess of Sutherland, he is the ancestor of the present Dukes of Hamilton & Brandon, Argyll and Westminster, the present Marquesses of Hertford and Londonderry, the present earls of Selkirk and Cromartie, the present Viscount Dilhorne, among many others. The late Duchess of Beaufort and the heir to the Duke of Roxburghe, the late wife of the sixth Duke of Sutherland, were all descended from Harriet, although none of the present holders of those titles are. Through his daughter Georgina, Duchess of Devonshire, Lord Carlisle is the ancestor of the present Duke of Devonshire, Marquess of Salisbury, Earl of Stockton. Through his daughter Lady Caroline Lascelles, he is the ancestor of the present Duke of Buccleuch & Queensberry, the present Duke of Abercorn and the present Duke of Westminster; the present Duke of Northumberland, meanwhile, is descended from Lord Carlisle through several daughters. Other descendants include Archbishop of Canterbury William Temple, naturalist Gavin Maxwell, spymaster Eliza Manningham-Buller and supermodel Stella Tennant, Princess, Lady Diana Spencer.
Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Carlisle "Howard, George". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
William Lowther, 2nd Earl of Lonsdale
William Lowther, 2nd Earl of Lonsdale PC, FRS, styled Viscount Lowther between 1807 and 1844, was a British Tory politician. Lonsdale was the eldest son of William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale, Lady Augusta, daughter of John Fane, 9th Earl of Westmorland. Henry Lowther was his younger brother, he was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge.. Lonsdale was returned to parliament for Cockermouth in 1808, a seat he held until 1813, represented Westmorland between 1813 and 1831 and 1832 and 1841, Dunwich in 1832 and West Cumberland between 1832 and 1833, he was sworn of the Privy Council in 1818 and served under the Duke of Wellington as First Commissioner of Woods and Forests between 1828 and 1830 and under Sir Robert Peel as Treasurer of the Navy and Vice-President of the Board of Trade between 1834 and 1835. In 1841 he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Lowther and held office under Peel as Postmaster General between 1841 and 1845.
In 1844 he succeeded his father in the earldom of Lonsdale. He held his last ministerial office as Lord President of the Council, with a seat in the cabinet, in 1852, in the Earl of Derby's first administration. Lonsdale was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 5 July 1810, he was Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland and Westmorland between 1844 and 1868. Lord Lonsdale never had at least three illegitimate children he acknowledged, he left them substantial sums in his will. An opera enthusiast were born to opera singers, his daughter with Caroline Saintfal, Marie Caroline, was born in Paris in 1818. Another daughter born the same year, Frances Lowther, married Henry Broadwood MP, was the mother of Brig-Gen. Arthur Broadwood. With Emilia Cresotti, an Italian opera singer, he fathered Francis William Lowther, the father of Claude Lowther MP and Toupie Lowther, he died in March 1872, aged 84, was succeeded in the earldom and to Lowther Castle by his nephew, Henry. A marble bust of him was sculpted by Edward Bowring Stephens, now in the National Trust collection at Hughenden Manor, Buckinghamshire.
Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Lonsdale
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Royal Society of Literature
The Royal Society of Literature is a learned society founded in 1820, by King George IV, to'reward literary merit and excite literary talent'. The society is a cultural tenant at London's Somerset House; the society's first president was Thomas Bishop of St David's. The society maintains its current level of about 500 Fellows of the Royal Society of Literature: 14 new fellows are elected annually, who are accorded the privilege of using the post-nominal letters FRSL. Past fellows include Samuel Taylor Coleridge, J. R. R. Tolkien, W. B. Yeats, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, George Bernard Shaw, Arthur Koestler, Chinua Achebe, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, Robert Ardrey, Sybille Bedford, Muriel Spark, P. J. Kavanagh. Present Fellows include Margaret Atwood, David Hare, Kazuo Ishiguro, Hilary Mantel, Paul Muldoon, Zadie Smith, Nadeem Aslam, Sarah Waters, Geoffrey Ashe and J. K. Rowling. A newly created fellow inscribes his or her name on the society's official roll using either Byron's pen, T. S. Eliot's fountain pen, which replaced Dickens's quill in 2013, or George Eliot's pen.
The society publishes an annual magazine, The Royal Society of Literature Review, administers a number of literary prizes and awards, including the RSL Ondaatje Prize, the RSL Jerwood Awards for Non-Fiction, the RSL Encore Award for best second novel of the year and the V. S. Pritchett Memorial Prize for short stories. From time to time it confers the honour and title of Companion of Literature to writers of particular note. Additionally the RSL can bestow its award of the Benson Medal for lifetime service in the field of literature; the RSL runs a membership scheme and offers a varied programme of events to members and the general public. Membership of the RSL is open to all; the RSL runs a schools outreach programme in collaboration with the literacy charity First Story. The RSL administers two annual prizes, two awards, two honours. Through its prize programmes, the RSL supports new and established contemporary writers; the RSL Christopher Bland Prize — £10,000 for debut prose writers over the age of 50.
The Encore Awards — £10,000 for best second novel of the year. The RSL took over the administration of this award in 2016; the RSL Giles St Aubyn Awards for Non-Fiction – annual awards, one of £10,000 and two of £5,000, to authors engaged on their first commissioned works of non-fiction. The RSL Ondaatje Prize – an annual award of £10,000 for a distinguished work of fiction, non-fiction or poetry, evoking the spirit of a place; the V. S. Pritchett Memorial Prize – an annual prize of £1,000 for the best unpublished short story of the year; the Benson Medal -- awarded to those. Companion of Literature – the highest honour that the Society can bestow upon a writer; the Council of the Royal Society of Literature is central to the election of new fellows, directs the RSL's activities through its monthly meetings. Patron Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall President Dame Marina Warner DBE Presidents Emeritus Sir Michael Holroyd CBE FRHistS C Lit Colin Thubron CBE Chair of Council Lisa Appignanesi OBE Vice-PresidentsAnne Chisholm OBE Maureen Duffy Maggie Gee OBE The Hon. Victoria Glendinning CBE Sir Ronald Harwood CBE Dame Hilary Mantel DBE Philip Pullman CBE Claire Tomalin Jenny Uglow OBE, Benson Medallist CouncilBernardine Evaristo MBE, Vice Chair Blake Morrison, Vice Chair Simon Armitage CBE Colin Chisholm, Hon Treasurer Jonathan Coe Imtiaz Dharker Sir Richard Eyre CH CBE Abdulrazak Gurnah Tessa Hadley Derek Johns Jonathan Keates FSA Dame Hermione Lee FBA Daljit Nagra Michèle Roberts 1820–1832 Bishop Thomas Burgess 1832–1833 The Lord Dover 1834–1845 The Earl of Ripon 1845–1849 Henry Hallam 1849–1851 The Marquess of Northampton 1851–1856 The Earl of Carlisle 1856–1876 The Rt Rev. Connop Thirlwall 1876–1884 The Prince Leopold 1885–1893 Sir Patrick Colquhoun 1893–1920 The Earl of Halsbury 1921–1945 The Marquess of Crewe 1946–1947 The Earl of Lytton 1947–1982 The Lord Butler of Saffron Walden 1982–1988 Sir Angus Wilson 1988–2003 The Lord Jenkins of Hillhead 2003–2008 Sir Michael Holroyd 2008–2017 Colin Thubron 2017–present Marina Warner The Royal Society of Literature comprises up to 500 fellows who are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSL.
New fellows of the Royal Society of Literature are elected by its current fellows. To be nominated for fellowship, a writer must have published two works of literary merit, nominations must be seconded by an RSL fellow. All nominations are presented to members of the Council of the Royal Society of Literature, who vote biannually to elect new fellows. Nominated candidates who have not been successful are reconsidered at every election for three years from the year in which they were proposed. Newly elected fellows are introduced at the Society's AGM and summer party. While the President reads a citation for each, they are invited to sign their names in the roll book which dates back to 1820, using either T. S. Eliot's fountain pen or Byron's pen. In 2013, Charles Dickens's quill was retired and replaced with Eliot's fountain pen, in 2018 George Eliot's pen was offered as a choice, the first time in the RSL's history that a pen that belonged to a woman writer was an option. In 2018 the RSL honoured the achievements of Britain's younger writers through the initiative "40 Under 40", which saw the election of 40 new fellows aged under 40.
The * before the name denotes an Honorary Fellow. The list is online at the RSL website; the Royal Society of Literature website RSL biannual magazine RSL literary prizes and awards Current RSL Fellows
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
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