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Ten-Day War

The Ten-Day War, or the Slovenian War of Independence, was a brief conflict that followed Slovenia's declaration of independence from Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991. It was fought between the Yugoslav People's Army, it lasted from 27 June 1991 until 7 July 1991. It marked the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars. Following the death of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito in 1980, underlying political, ethnic and economic tensions within Yugoslavia surfaced. In 1989 Slobodan Milošević, Chairman of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia since 1986, became president of Serbia, the largest and most populous of the six Yugoslav republics; as Milošević moved to consolidate power by centralizing the state, the governments of the other republics sought to loosen the central grip on power by devolving as much constitutional power as possible to each of the republics and autonomous provinces. A series of disagreements among delegates persisted until four of the six republics each made the decision to gain independence from Yugoslavia.

Supported by Germany and the Vatican, Slovenia was among those republics aiming for independence. The first action in defence of Slovenian independence, that united both the opposition and democratized communist establishment in Slovenia was, carried out by the Slovene police forces, in an action named Action North in 1989. In April 1990, Slovenia held its first democratic multi-party elections. On 23 December 1990, Slovenia held a referendum, which passed with 88.5% of overall electorate supporting independence, with a turnout of 93.3%. The Slovenian government was well aware that the federal government in Belgrade might seek to use military force to quash Slovenia's move towards independence. After the Slovenian elections, the Yugoslav People's Army announced a new defence doctrine that would apply across the country; the Tito-era doctrine of "General People's Defence", in which each republic maintained a Territorial Defence Force, was to be replaced by a centrally directed system of defence.

The republics would lose their role in defence matters, their TOs would be disarmed and subordinated to the YPA's headquarters in Belgrade. The Slovenian government resisted these moves and ensured that the majority of Slovenian Territorial Defence equipment was kept out of the hands of the YPA, it declared in a constitutional amendment passed on 28 September 1990 that its TO would be under the sole command of the Slovenian government. At the same time, the Slovenian government set up a secret alternative command structure, known as the Manoeuvre Structures of National Protection; this was an existing but antiquated institution, unique to Slovenia, intended to enable the republic to form an ad hoc defence structure, akin to a Home Guard. It was of negligible importance prior to 1990, with few members. However, the DEMOS-led government realised that the MSNZ could be adapted to provide a parallel organisation to the TO that would be in the hands of the Slovenian government; when the YPA tried to take control of the Slovenian Territorial Defence, the TO's command structure was replaced by that of the parallel MSNZ.

Between May and October 1990, some 21,000 Slovenian Territorial Defence and police personnel were secretly mobilised into the MSNZ command structure, of which the federal government was wholly unaware. The Slovenian government undertook detailed planning of a military campaign against the YPA, which resulted in the production of an operational and tactical plan by November 1990 — over seven months before the conflict began; the Slovenes were aware that they would not be able to deter the YPA's forces for an extended period of time. Under Defence Minister Janez Janša, they adopted a strategy based on an asymmetric warfare approach. TO units would carry out a guerrilla campaign, using anti-tank weapons and anti-aircraft missiles to ambush the YPA's units. Tank columns could be trapped by destroying the lead and rear vehicles in favourable terrain — for instance, on a narrow mountain road where room for manoeuvre was limited – enabling the rest to be tackled more easily. In preparation for this, the Slovenian government covertly bought lightweight missile systems from foreign suppliers, notably the SA-7 Grail anti-aircraft missile and the German-designed Armbrust anti-tank system.

Hit-and-run and delaying tactics were to be preferred and frontal clashes were to be avoided since in such situations the YPA's superior firepower would have been difficult to overcome. Slovenia and Croatia passed the acts about their independence on 25 June 1991; this "advance" on the date of independence was a critical element of the Slovenian plan to gain an early advantage in the expected conflict. The Slovenian government expected the Yugoslav military to respond with force on the day of the declaration of independence or shortly afterwards. By secretly advancing the date by 24 hours, the Slovenians wrongfooted the Yugoslav government, which had set 26 June as the date for its move. Although the Yugoslav army was adamantly opposed to Slovenian independence, it was divided about what to do; the YPA Chief of Staff, Colonel-General Blagoje Adžić, advocated a large-scale military operation to remove the Slovenian government and bring "healthy forces" to power in the republic. His political superior, the Yugoslav Defence Minister General of the Army Veljko Kadijević, insisted on

St. Paul the Apostle Church (Manhattan)

The Church of St. Paul the Apostle is a Roman Catholic church located at 8-10 Columbus Avenue on the corner of West 60th Street, in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, it is the mother church of the Paulist Fathers, the first order of Roman Catholic priests founded in the United States. The parish was founded in 1858, their original church was a simple brick structure built on part of the current lot, but the congregation soon outgrew it. A new Late Victorian Gothic Revival-style church was built between 1876 and 1884 designed by Jeremiah O'Rourke and the Rev. George Deshon, a military engineer trained at West Point, who took over the project six years into construction when O'Rourke died, simplified the design. Rev Isaac Hecker, who founded the Paulist Fathers, may have had a hand in its design as well, using the thirteenth-century Cathedral of Santa Croce, Florence as a model; the building utilized Tarrytown grey granite stones salvaged from the Croton Aqueduct along with stones from other structures in Manhattan.

The granite for the stone entrance steps was salvaged from the French Second Empire-style Booth’s Theatre on Sixth Avenue at 23rd Street. The new building was dedicated on January 25, 1885, but was still not complete at that time: the 114-foot towers had yet to reach their final height, much of the interior declarations were still to be installed; the church is known for its ecclesiastical art, contains interior elements designed between 1887-1890 by Stanford White and many large decorated side chapels. Stained glass windows were added by John LaFarge. Other artists who worked within include Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Frederick MacMonnies, Bertram Goodhue, responsible for the floor mosaics. White and Goodhue offered advice on design elements. Lumen Martin Winter's Angel of the Resurrection adorns Hecker's sarcophagus, located in the northeast corner of the nave. Other Paulist Fathers are entombed in crypt off a chapel on the lower level of the church; the New York Daily Tribune reviewed the architecture as "vast, fortress-like in its solidity—almost repelling in the aesthetic cast without and within, yet it is the most August, unworldly interior of this continent."The church was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991, designated a New York City Landmark in 2013.

A major renovation and restoration of the church was begun around 2000, as of 2013 is still underway. In 1858, the Paulist Fathers first took possession of a frame house containing a small chapel at 14 West 60th Street; the community’s motherhouse is on West 59th Street, adjacent to the church. The present building dates from the 1930s; the life of the parish has mirrored the growth and rebirth of the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood. In 1903 the 9th Avenue elevated train ran directly in front of the church. In the 1930s, the Paulists launched the radio station WLWL, it was impacted by creation of the Lincoln Center just two blocks to the north. The parish opened an elementary school in 1886 and a high school in 1922; the parish's last school closed in 1974. The parish went through a financially difficult period in the 1960s and 1970s, with the possibility of bankruptcy in 1973, razing the church for an apartment building was considered; the church sold the western part of their lot in the mid-1980s, was able to build a new Parish Center at 405 West 59th Street by selling its air rights to enable the building of a 40-story apartment tower, which sits close to the church's south tower.

Today, the parish, with six Masses each Sunday, has a large young professionals community and a Spanish-speaking community. It hosts a bookstore and gift shop at the east end of the nave. St. Paul the Apostle serves as the parish for Catholic students at nearby Fordham University, the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, the Juilliard School; the large church basement has been used as a cafeteria for the parish school, a homeless shelter, soup kitchen, rehearsal space for The Rockettes and for boxing matches. From 1996–2001, it was the home of the multi-annual Big Apple Comic Convention; the organ at The Church of St. Paul the Apostle is M. P. Möller Pipe Organ Company's Opus 9987, built in 1965. With 4,965 pipes, the instrument has 4 manuals, 83 ranks, 78 stops. Twelve of the stops are made up of pipework from the church's previous instrument, E. M. Skinner Opus 544, built in 1925; the organ speaks from two different parts of the room. At the front of the sanctuary, with large pedal towers that surround the high altar, sits the main organ.

Perched on the south wall of the sanctuary is the nave organ. Both organs are playable from one French-style console, built by the Peragallo Pipe Organ Company in 2000, which rests on a movable platform. Visitors from around the world have experienced the sound of this instrument in the sanctuary's famously reverberant acoustic. Renowned organist Virgil Fox recorded The Christmas Album on the Möller Organ in 1965. List of New York City Landmarks National Register of Historic Places listings in New York County, New York Church website Library of Congress American Memory materials

List of prisons in Jamaica

Twelve correctional institutions in Jamaica are operated by the Department of Correctional Services for the Ministry of National Security. According to articles that I’ve studied, I would most say that the Jamaican Correctional Facilities are stern in how they are operated. Although there is an excessive issue with overcrowding, they continue striving to keep order and make it their due diligence to not only correct the behaviors of the inmates but make sure each inmate has what they need. Centres for men and women: The South Camp Adult Correctional Centre New Broughton Sunset Adult Correctional Centre - For elderly men Richmond Farm Correctional Centre St. Catherine Adult Correctional Centre - Reception centre Tamarind Farm Correctional Centre Tower Street Adult Correctional Centre - Reception centreCentres for women: Fort Augusta Adult Correctional Centre – Reception centre There are three juvenile correctional centres: Armadale Juvenile Correctional Centre. - This is the centre for girls - Capacity of 40 Hill Top Juvenile Correctional Centre.

- Capacity of 98 Rio Cobre Juvenile Correctional Centre. - Capacity of 120 There are two remand centres: Horizon Adult Remand Centre Saint Andrew Juvenile Remand Centre. - Capacity of 48In addition, many remand prisoners are held in police station gaols. Old Jail in St Ann's Bay Saint Jago Women's Centre List of schools in Jamaica Since 2004, the Department of Correctional Services has published comprehensive annual statistics

Frank H. Sobey

Frank H. Sobey, OC was a Canadian businessman and art collector, the primary builder of the Sobeys chain of supermarkets. Born in Lyons Brook, Nova Scotia, to John William Sobey and Eliza Sobey, he was three years old when his family moved from the farming community to the nearby then-booming coal mining town of Stellarton. In 1907, his father purchased a meat retailing business in town and became a butcher, peddling meat products door to door on a horse-drawn wagon. In 1912, his father built a 2-storey store in Stellarton's central business district, selling meat and vegetables. In an era where education opportunities were limited in small Maritime towns, Sobey left school after Grade 8. However, he had an entrepreneurial mindset, at age sixteen enrolled in a business college. In 1924, he persuaded his father to expand the store to carry a full range of groceries and the family began expanding, opening stores in the nearby industrial towns of New Glasgow and Westville, as well as the university town of Antigonish.

In the early 1940s, wished to purchase a building on Archimedes Street in New Glasgow for a supermarket. The property was owned by a company named Empire Company Ltd. and in order to acquire the building, he purchased the company itself. Empire was transformed into the family's holding company and was privatized in 1981. Through Empire Company Ltd. Sobey purchased a local drive-in theatre and built a chain of movie theaters, in addition to substantial commercial and residential real estate holdings. In 1971, while still remaining active in the business, he handed over formal control of the company's operations to his three sons, Bill and Donald Sobey. In the late 1950s, Premier Robert Stanfield appointed Sobey as president of Industrial Estates Limited with a salary of $1/year. Sobey was one of the investors behind Peter Munk in founding Clairtone. Sobey received an honorary Doctor of Laws from Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the university named its Faculty of Commerce in his honour.

In 1985, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada and was inducted into the Canadian Business Hall of Fame. Sobey married Irene MacDonald on November 24, 1924, they had four children: Bill, David and Dianne. He died in Halifax in 1985 at the age of 83. In 1982, Sobey endowed the Sobey Foundation to provide funding for important initiatives that have a positive and long-lasting impact in health and for communities; the "Frank H. Sobey Awards in Business Studies" annually provides $10,000 to assist full-time business students from any Atlantic Canadian university. Saint Mary's University named its commerce program the Sobey School of Business after Sobey. Sobey and his wife Irene acquired a significant art collection that included works by Cornelius Krieghoff, Tom Thomson and notable Group of Seven members A. Y. Jackson and Arthur Lismer, his collection today can be seen at Crombie House, his former residence located in Abercrombie, Nova Scotia. The Sobey Art Foundation was established in 1985 with a mandate to maintain and add to the collection.

The foundation's Sobey Art Award is Canada's largest prize for a young Canadian artist. It is awarded every two years to an artist 39 years of age or younger who has exhibited work in a public or commercial art gallery in Canada during the previous 18 months; the winner of the award receives up to $70,000 and the 3 runners-up $1,000. Bruce, Harry. Frank Sobey: The Man and the Empire ISBN 0-7715-9834-3 Pitts, Gordon; the Codfathers: Lessons from the Atlantic Business Elite. (2005 – Key Porter Books ISBN 1-55263-718-2 Nina Munk. My Father's Brilliant Mistake. 2008, May 12. Canadian Business

Bilinear interpolation

In mathematics, bilinear interpolation is an extension of linear interpolation for interpolating functions of two variables on a rectilinear 2D grid. Bilinear interpolation is performed using linear interpolation first in one direction, again in the other direction. Although each step is linear in the sampled values and in the position, the interpolation as a whole is not linear but rather quadratic in the sample location. Bilinear interpolation is one of the basic resampling techniques in computer vision and image processing, where it is called bilinear filtering or bilinear texture mapping. Suppose that we want to find the value of the unknown function f at the point, it is assumed that we know the value of f at the four points Q11 =, Q12 =, Q21 =, Q22 =. We first do linear interpolation in the x-direction; this yields f ≈ x 2 − x x 2 − x 1 f + x − x 1 x 2 − x 1 f, f ≈ x 2 − x x 2 − x 1 f + x − x 1 x 2 − x 1 f. We proceed by interpolating in the y-direction to obtain the desired estimate: f ≈ y 2 − y y 2 − y 1 f + y − y 1 y 2 − y 1 f = y 2 − y y 2 − y 1 + y − y 1 y 2 − y 1