WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
The Aboriginal Tasmanians are the indigenous people of the Australian state of Tasmania, located south of the mainland. In the 20th century the Tasmanian Aboriginal people were thought of as being an extinct cultural. Before British colonisation in 1803, there were an estimated 3, the Palawa population was severely depleted in the 19th century. A number of point to introduced disease as the major cause of the depletion of the 19th century mainland Aboriginal population. Geoffrey Blainey wrote that by 1830 in Tasmania, Disease had killed most of them but warfare, other historians regard the Black War as one of the earliest recorded modern genocides. Benjamin Madley wrote, Despite over 170 years of debate over who or what was responsible for this near-extinction, no consensus exists on its origins, however, UN definition, sufficient evidence exists to designate the Tasmanian catastrophe genocide. The survivors were moved to Wybalenna Aboriginal Establishment on Flinders Island, in 1847, the last 47 living inhabitants of Wybalenna were transferred to Oyster Cove, south of Hobart.
Two individuals and Fanny Cochrane Smith, are considered to have been the last people solely of Tasmanian descent. People crossed into Tasmania approximately 40,000 years, ago via a bridge between the island and the rest of mainland Australia, during the last glacial period. Archaeologists excavating a 600 metre long section of river bank found a number of stone tools. Preliminary dating indicates that the site was occupied from 40,000 BP to 28,000 BP making the site 6,000 years older than the Warreen cave. Tasmania was colonised by successive waves of people from southern Australia during glacial maxima. People migrating from southern Australia into peninsular Tasmania would have crossed stretches of seawater and desert, the archeological and linguistic record suggests a pattern of successive occupation of Tasmania, and coalescence of three ethnic or language groups into one broad group. Colonial settlers found two main groups in Tasmania upon their arrival, which correlates with the broader nation or clan divisions.
Pleistocene Palawa language group - first ethnic and language group in Tasmania - absorbed or displaced by successive invasions except for remnant group on Tasman peninsula, archeological evidence suggests remnant populations on the King and Furneaux highlands being stranded by rising waters - to die out. After separation from mainland Australia, the Tasmanian people were not able to share any of the new technological advances being made by mainland groups and this made the Aboriginal Tasmanians a people that could flourish with some of the simplest technologies on record. The Tasmanian Aboriginal people extensively used fire for cooking and clearing vegetation to encourage and their capacity to create fire via the friction method had been questioned by authors in the 20th Century, though a document from 1887 clearly describes fire-lighting techniques used among Tasmanians. The historical evidence indicates their fire making ability, even though they preferred to bear coals when travelling between campsites - a consequence of Tasmanias wet maritime climate
Edward Stone Parker
He established and administered the Franklinford Aboriginal Protectorate Station in the territory of the Dja Dja Wurrung people from January 1841 to the end of 1848. Parker was born on 17 May 1802 in London to Edward Stone Parker and he became an apprenticed printer and a Sunday school teacher in the Methodist Church and was a candidate for the ministry. He married Mary Cook Woolmer in 1828, thus breaking probationary conditions for the ministry leading him to teaching in a Methodist day school in Greater Queen Street, London. The Colonial Office in England appointed him as assistant Protector of Aborigines and he arrived in Melbourne in January 1839. Robinson appointed Parker to the northwest or Loddon District in March, the Protectors duties included to safeguard aborigines from encroachments on their property, and from acts of cruelty, of oppression or injustice and a longer term goal of civilising the natives. Parker initially established his base at Jacksons Creek near Sunbury, which was not close enough to the nations of his protectorate.
The Governor of NSW, Sir George Gipps and stations or reserves for each protector were approved in 1840. Parkers original choice for a reserve in September 1840 was a site, known as Neereman by the Dja Dja Wurrung, on Bet Bet Creek a tributary of the Loddon River. However, the site proved unsuitable for agriculture and in January 1841 Parker selected another site on the side of Mount Franklin on Jim Crow Creek with permanent spring water. This became known as the Loddon Aboriginal Protectorate Station at Franklinford, a Homestead, church and several out buildings were initially constructed. Parker employed a medical officer, Dr W. Baylie, to treat the high incidence of disease, a teacher to educate Dja Dja wurrung children, at times over 200 aborigines congregated at Franklinford. Initially Parker had wanted the station used by tribes. Both cases were thrown out of due to the inadmissibility of aboriginal witness statements. Aboriginals were regarded as heathens, unable to swear on the bible, Parker learnt the Dja Dja Wurrung language and over time became more acquainted with their culture and traditions.
But his Christian proselytising met with limited success. A few young Dja Dja Wurrung became Christian and settled into agricultural farming, the protectorate ended on 31 December 1848, with about 20 or 30 Dja Dja Wurrung living at the station at that time. Parker and his family remained living at Franklinford, six Dja Dja Wurrung men and their families settled at Franklinford, but all but one died from misadventure or respiratory disease. Tommy Farmer was the last survivor of this group who walked off the land in 1864, while chiefly remembered for his work as Assistant Protector, Parker was a leading layman and preacher in the Port Philip colonys Methodist community
Peter James Gouldthorpe is an Australian artist and author best known for his childrens books. He lives and works in Hobart, Tasmania with his wife, Gouldthorpe was born in Melbourne, but most of his childhood was spent in the Northern Beaches of Sydney. After leaving high school, he studied art at East Sydney Technical College before moving to Tasmania at the age of nineteen, here, he began painting landscapes, holding several solo exhibitions in Devonport at The Little Gallery. Gouldthorpe wrote and illustrated his first childrens book and the Manly Ferry, since then, he has gone on to illustrate or write/illustrate seventeen picture books and innumerable educational books. His work uses a variety of mediums including linocut, watercolour, coloured pencils, acrylic. His books have often been shortlisted for The Children’s Book Council of Australia’s Childrens Book of the Year Awards, in 1994, First Light was awarded Picture Book of the Year. He has collaborated with some of Australia’s best-loved childrens authors, including Paul Jennings, John Marsden and he has introduced a new generation of young readers to the works of great Australian poets CJ Dennis and Ethel Turner though his illustrated versions of their work.
Since 2001, Gouldthorpe has returned to painting, often working en plein air. He has held solo shows at Colville Street Art Gallery. He has been a three-time finalist in the Glover Prize, winning the People’s Choice Award in 2010, gouldthorpes work appears in many other areas, including murals, advertising, film and live performance. Several of his murals, employing the Trompe-lœil technique, can be seen around the streets and businesses of his home town, Wind, Douglas Mawson in the Antarctic - Childrens Book Council of Australia Eve Pownall Book of the Year Award Notable Book 2014 Lyrebird. Childrens Book Council of Australia Book of the Year Award Honour Book 1992 Sheepdogs Don’t Get Burnt
Great Britain, known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the largest European island, in 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the worlds third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, the island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, most of England and Wales are on the island. The term Great Britain often extends to surrounding islands that form part of England and Wales. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England, the archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years, the term British Isles derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group.
By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, the oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne. The name Britain descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland.
The latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans, the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. The name Albion appears to have out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a term only. It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself King of Great Brittaine, Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, politically to England and Wales in combination
Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859, Bath is in the valley of the River Avon,97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site in 1987, the city became a spa with the Latin name Aquæ Sulis c. AD60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre, the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the properties of water from the springs. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, and in the 18th century the city became fashionable, Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century. Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II, the city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a centre for tourism with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year.
There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, Victoria Art Gallery, Museum of East Asian Art, the city has two universities, the University of Bath and Bath Spa University, with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C. while TeamBath is the name for all of the University of Bath sports teams. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century, solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, and the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down, messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists. The tablets were written in Latin, and cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them, for example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, and a complex was built up over the next 300 years.
Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, in the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls, probably in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, in March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig
Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemens Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemens Land to Tasmania in 1856, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to land on the shores of Tasmania in 1642. Between 1772 and 1798, only the portion of the island was visited. Tasmania was not known to be an island until Matthew Flinders, after receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient dune colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin explored DEntrecasteaux Channel and Maria Island, the demonym for Van Diemens Land was Van Diemonian, though contemporaries used the spelling Vandemonian. In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its own parliament. Main articles, Port Arthur, Convicts on the West Coast of Tasmania From the 1800s to the 1853 abolition of penal transportation, following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemens Land.
In total, some 75,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemens Land, male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts were sent to the Tasman Peninsula prison known as Port Arthur, female convicts were assigned as servants in free settler households or sent to a female factory. There were five female factories in Van Diemens Land, Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave often promptly left Van Diemens Land. Many settled in the new colony of Victoria, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as Melbourne. Anthony Trollope used the term Vandemonian, They are united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin, in 1856, Van Diemens Land was renamed Tasmania, meaning that it technically still exists but under a different name. This removed the unsavoury criminal connotations with the name Van Diemens Land, while honouring Abel Tasman, the last penal settlement in Tasmania at Port Arthur closed in 1877.
The film was nominated for a Rose dOr, an Irish Film and Television Award, the feature film Van Diemens Land focuses on the true story of convict Alexander Pearce and his infamous escape from Macquarie Harbour in 1822. Van Diemens Land is the title of the track from the rock band U2s album Rattle. The lyrics were written and sung by The Edge, the song is dedicated to a Fenian poet named John Boyle OReilly, who was deported to Australia because of his poetry. Steeleye Span does a rendition of the folk song on their album They Called Her Babylon The chorus to the English folk song Maggie May says Theyve sent you to Van Diemens cruel shore. Shirley Collins and the Albion Country Band record a version of Van Diemens Land in No Roses Carla Bruni sings the poem If You Were Coming In The Fall, the song includes a reference to Van Diemens land subtracting till my fingers dropped, into Van Diemens Land
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, entrepreneur and lecturer. Among his novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Twain was raised in Hannibal, which provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and worked as a typesetter and he became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, the short story brought international attention and was even translated into classic Greek. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists and European royalty. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of financial setbacks. He chose to pay all his creditors in full, even though he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halleys Comet, and he predicted that he would go out with it as well and he was lauded as the greatest American humorist of his age, and William Faulkner called him the father of American literature.
His parents met when his father moved to Missouri, and they were married in 1823, Twain was of Cornish and Scots-Irish descent. Only three of his siblings survived childhood, Orion and Pamela and his sister Margaret died when Twain was three, and his brother Benjamin died three years later. His brother Pleasant died at six months of age, slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, and it became a theme in these writings. His father was an attorney and judge, but he died of pneumonia in 1847, the next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printers apprentice. In 1851, he working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal. He educated himself in libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating there was but one permanent ambition among his comrades. Pilot was the grandest position of all, the pilot, even in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, and no board to pay.
As Twain describes it, the pilots prestige exceeded that of the captain, bixby took Twain on as a cub pilot to teach him the river between New Orleans and St. Louis for $500, payable out of Twains first wages after graduating. It was more than two years before he received his pilots license, piloting gave him his pen name from mark twain, the leadsmans cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms, which was safe water for a steamboat
It was headed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, known as the Colonial Secretary. In 1768 the separate American or Colonial Department was established, in order to deal with affairs in British North America. With the loss of the American colonies, the department was abolished in 1782, responsibility for the remaining colonies was given to the Home Office, and subsequently transferred to the War Office. In 1801 the War Office was renamed the War and Colonial Office under a new Secretary of State for War, in 1825 a new post of Permanent Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies was created within this office. It was held by Robert William Hay initially and his successors were James Stephen, Herman Merivale, Frederic Rogers, Robert Herbert and Robert Henry Meade. In 1854 this office was divided two and a new Colonial Office was created to deal specifically with the needs of the colonies. The Colonial Office did not have responsibility for all British possessions overseas, in 1907 the Dominion Division of the Colonial Office was created, and from 1925 separate Secretaries of State for Dominion Affairs were appointed.
After the independence of India in 1947, the Dominion Office was merged with the India Office to form the Commonwealth Relations Office, in 1966, the Commonwealth Relations Office re-merged with the Colonial Office, forming the Commonwealth Office. Two years later, this department was merged into the Foreign Office, establishing the modern Foreign. It became known as the Commonwealth Relations Office Year Book, in addition to the official List published by the Colonial Office, an edited version was produced by Waterlow and Sons. It can be difficult to distinguish between the two versions in library catalogue descriptions, but it is still edited by Sir W. H. Mercer, K. C. M. G. One of the Crown Agents for the Colonies, but it is printed by Waterlow and Sons and it comes as near to being an Official publication as possible, but well assume that it isnt. British Empire Colonial Service List of British Empire-related topics
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
Flinders Island, the largest island in the Furneaux Group, is a 1, 367-square-kilometre island located in the Bass Strait, northeast of Tasmania, Australia. Flinders Island is situated 54 kilometres from Cape Portland and it is located on 40° south, Flinders Island was first inhabited at least 35,000 years ago, when people made their way from Australia across the then-land bridge which is now Bass Strait. A population remained until about 4,500 years ago, succumbing to thirst, in February 1798 British navigator Matthew Flinders charted some of the southern islands, using one of the schooner Francis open boats. James Cook named the islands Furneauxs Islands, after Tobias Furneaux, Flinders named the largest island in the group Great Island. He named a group of mountains on Flinders Island, the Three Patriarchs, the small island just to the east, Flinders named Babel Island from the noises made by the seabirds there. Phillip Parker King named the largest island Flinders Island, after Matthew Flinders, Flinders named Mount Chappell Island after his wife Ann née Ann Chappelle.
In the late 18th century, the island was frequented by sealers and Aboriginal women. Seal stocks soon collapsed, causing the last sealing permit to be issued in 1828, many sealers families chose to stay in the Furneaux Group, subsisting on cattle grazing and muttonbirding. From 1830, the remnants of the Tasmanian Aboriginal population were exiled to Settlement Point on Flinders Island and these 160 survivors were deemed to be safe from white settlers here, but conditions were poor, and the relocation scheme was short-lived. The Municipality of Flinders Island was instituted in 1903, the island forms part of the state of Tasmania, and part of the Municipality of Flinders Island local government area. Flinders Island is only one of the islands included in the Municipal area. Of these islands Flinders Island is the island with more than one permanent settlement. The island is about 62 kilometres from north to south, and 37 kilometres from east to west, with a total land area of 1,333 square kilometres.
Mount Strzelecki in the south west is the islands highest peak at 756 metres, about a third of the island is mountainous and rugged with ridges of granite running the length of the island. The coastal areas are dominated by sandy deposits often taking the shape of dunes, many coastal lagoons punctuate the eastern shore, formed by dunes blocking further drainage. This drainage is provided by many small streams, few of them permanently flowing directly leading to the waters of Bass Strait or such a lagoon. The coastal areas are covered in scrub or shrubs, whereas the vegetation at a higher elevation consists of woodland. The total number of plant species in the Furneaux Group well exceeds 800, native bird species include the Cape Barren goose and the short-tailed shearwater