The Kalachuris of Kalyani were a 12th-century Indian dynasty, who ruled over parts of present-day northern Karnataka and Maharashtra. This dynasty rose to power in the Deccan region between 1156 and 1181 CE; the rulers of the dynasty traced their origins to one Krishna, said to have conquered Kalinjar and Dahala in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Bijjala, a viceroy of the dynasty, is said to have established the authority over Karnataka after wresting power from the Chalukya king Taila III. Bijjala was succeeded by his sons Someshvara and Sangama but after 1181 CE, the Chalukyas retrieved the territory, their rule was short and turbulent and yet important from a socio-religious point of view. A unique and purely native form of Kannada literature-poetry called the Vachanas was born during this time; the writers of Vachanas were called Vachanakaras. Many other important works like Virupaksha Pandita's Chennabasavapurana, Dharani Pandita's Bijjalarayacharite and Chandrasagara Varni's Bijjalarayapurana were written.
The Kalachuris of Kalyani overthrew the Kalyani Chalukyas in the early part of the 12th century, had a short but stormy rule. The name "Kalachuri" is shared by multiple earlier dynasties; some historians such as Dr. P. B. Desai believe that the southern Kalachuris of Kalyani are descendants of these central Indian dynasties. In the 6th century, before the rise of the Badami Chalukyas, the Kalachuris of Mahishmati had carved out an extensive empire covering areas of Gujarat, Malwa and parts of Maharashtra. However, after their crippling defeat at the hands of Chalukya Mangalesha, they remained in obscurity for a prolonged period of time. Subsequently, the Kalachuris of Tripuri and their branches rose to power in central India. An 1174 CE record says the Kalyani Kalachuri dynasty was founded by one Soma who grew beard and moustache to save himself from the wrath of Parashurama, thereafter the family came to be known as "Kalachuris", Kalli meaning a long moustache and churi meaning a sharp knife.
They made Magaliveda or Mangalavedhe their capital. They titled themselves Kalanjara-puravaradhisvara, their emblem was the golden bull. They must have started as modest feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani, they were referred to as Katachuris and Haihaya. The records of the dynasty claim that they descended from Brahma, the Creator of the universe; the early Kalachuris of the south were Jains and encouraged Jainism in their kingdom. The first notable chief of the Kalachuri family of Karnataka was Uchita. While there were several kings who followed him ruling as feudatories of the Kalyani Chalukyas, it was Jogama who became an influential vassal of Vikramaditya VI, being related to the great Chalukya king by matrimony; the Southern Kaluchuri kingdom went into decline after the assassination of Bijjalla. The rulers who followed were weak and incompetent, with the exception of Sovideva, who managed to maintain control over the kingdom. Western Chalukyas ended the Kalachuri Dynasty. Many Kalachuri families migrated to Kanara districts of Karnataka.
The Kalachuris are the principal characters in the Andhra epic The battle of Palnadu. Uchita Asaga Kannam Kiriyasaga Bijjala I Kannama Jogama Permadi Bijjala II: proclaimed independence in 1162. Sovideva Mallugi --> overthrown by brother Sankama Sankama Ahavamalla Singhana As per the 1163 CE inscription which records a religious offering in the presence of Hampi Lord Virupaksha by Bijjala the Kalachuri King. The Southern Kalachuri kings minted coins with Kannada inscriptions on them. 12th Century Lingayat Religion
Robert William Smith was an American martial artist and writer most noted for his prodigious output of books and articles about the Asian martial arts and their masters. Smith's writing was an important factor in the spread of Asian martial arts such as judo and taijiquan into the postwar United States. Born on a farm in Iowa, he was sent at the age of three to an orphanage due to his family's economic distress. There he became a voracious reader. In high school, he learned wrestling, he joined the U. S. Marines at seventeen. While in the Marines Smith completed his high school requirements through a correspondence course, he was honorably discharged in 1946. Smith attended college on the G. I. Bill earning a M. A. in History from the University of Washington in 1953. Smith's interest in boxing and pursuit of Asian martial arts continued unabated. After a brief stint with the Red Cross, Smith joined the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency as an Intelligence moved to Bethesda, Maryland. From 1959 to 1962 he was posted by the CIA to Taiwan.
The Republican Chinese government led by Chiang Kai-shek had fled to Taiwan after the victory of Mao Zedong and the Communists on the mainland in 1949. Protected by the U. S. Seventh Fleet, Taiwan became the seat of government for the Republic of China - the only Chinese government diplomatically recognized by the U. S. Government until the 1970s. Smith worked as a liaison to the Republican government. While in Taiwan Smith trained and studied with many masters of Chinese martial arts. Most he met Professor Cheng Man-ch'ing, the "master of five excellences" - calligraphy, painting, Chinese medicine, taijiquan. Legend has it that Smith had to keep knocking on Cheng's door for at least six months before Cheng would accept him as his first non-Chinese student. While waiting to study with Cheng, Smith studied with T. T. Liang. Cheng and his students would meet every Sunday in Taiwan for tuishou. Cheng moved to the United States in the mid-1960s and lived and taught in New York City for a number of years before returning to Taiwan in the mid-1970s.
Smith and Cheng kept in close contact until Cheng's death in 1975. Smith returned to Bethesda in 1962 and taught judo at the local YMCA, but concentrated on taijiquan and xingyiquan. Starting in 1962, Smith taught a popular free early Saturday morning taijiquan class at the YMCA; this continued for 26 years. During those years he worked, raised a family and wrote about martial arts. Smith retired from teaching in 1988 and he and his wife Alice moved to the foothills of the Smoky Mountains. Over the years Smith sought many teachers, he was driven by a friendly curiosity that evolved over time into an expertise on Asian martial arts. He was one of the first western writers to introduce Asian martial arts to the West. Beginning in the 1950s, Smith wrote articles for such martial arts magazines as Budokwai Quarterly Bulletin, Judo and Health, Black Belt, the Journal of Asian Martial Arts, served on the editorial board for Taijiquan Journal. Smith's articles whetted the appetite of the American martial arts community, which paved the way for Asian masters to develop followings in the US.
Always written with a flair, Smith's numerous books and articles offer martial techniques, anecdotes, opinions and quotes from his wide-ranging personal training and reading. Smith collaborated with his teacher Cheng Man-ch'ing on one of the earliest English taijiquan books, with Benjamin Lo on a translation of one of the earliest taijiquan books: Chen Weiming's 1929 book T'ai chi ch'uan ta wen—Questions and Answers on T'ai Chi Ch'uan. Smith's memoir, "Martial Musings" was written much as he taught taijiquan, i.e. with a thousand anecdotal stories and a sharp sense of humor. He wrote, co-wrote, edited, co-edited and co-translated fourteen books on the martial arts and over twenty articles with a particular focus on China, he wrote three books under the nom de plume of John F. Gilbey. "Gilbey's" first book, Secret Fighting Arts of the World, was a work of fiction parodying various martial arts tall tales, but was assumed to be non-fiction when it was first released. The second Gilbey book, The Way of a Warrior, was a sequel to Secret Fighting Arts and the third, Western Boxing and World Wrestling, was a non-fictional compilation of boxing and wrestling anecdotes.
Smith edited the first book in English on Shaolin Temple boxing. In addition, he wrote the first books in English on baguazhang and xingyiquan, as well as the above-mentioned T'ai Chi. Smith thus, was a key figure in introducing Western readers to these three "internal" martial arts of China. Smith was a frequent contributor of book reviews and opinion letters to Washington-D. C.-area newspapers. Chen Weiming. T'ai Chi Ch'uan Ta Wen: Questions and Answers on T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Lo, Benjamin and Robert W. Smith, translators. ISBN 0-938190-67-9. Cheng Man-ch'ing and Robert W. Smith. T'ai Chi. 1967. ISBN 0-8048-0560-1. Draeger and Robert W. Smith. Asian Fighting Arts, Kodansha International, 1969. Gilbey, John. Secret Fighting Arts of the World.. Guterman, A. and Robert W. Smith. "Neurological Sequalae of Boxing." Sports Medicine, 4:3, 194–210. Mason, Russ. "Fifty Years in the Fighting Arts: An Interview with Robert W