Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U. S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, United States territories encompassing parts of the current U. S. states of Oklahoma, Colorado and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians; the region of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas referred to as Mexican Texas declared its independence from Mexico during the Texas Revolution in 1836. The Texas war of independence ended on April 21, 1836, but Mexico refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two states continued into the 1840s; the United States recognized the Republic of Texas in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory. The Republic-claimed borders were based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico.
The eastern boundary had been defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 between the United States and Spain, which recognised the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Spanish Texas and western boundary of the Missouri Territory. Under the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 the United States had renounced its claim to Spanish land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande, which it claimed to have acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; the republic's southern and western boundary with Mexico was disputed throughout the republic's existence. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern boundary, while Mexico insisted that the Nueces River was the boundary. Texas was annexed by the United States on December 29, 1845 and was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on that day, with the transfer of power from the Republic to the new state of Texas formally taking place on February 19, 1846. However, the United States again inherited the southern and western border dispute with Mexico, which became a trigger for the Mexican–American War.
Texas had been one of the Provincias Internas of New Spain, a region known historiographically as Spanish Texas. Though claimed by Spain, it was not formally colonized by them until competing French interests at Fort St. Louis encouraged Spain to establish permanent settlements in the area. Sporadic missionary incursions occurred into the area during the period from the 1690s–1710s, before the establishment of San Antonio as a permanent civilian settlement. Owing to the area's high Native American populations and its remoteness from the population centers of New Spain, Texas remained unsettled by Europeans, although Spain maintained a small military presence to protect Christian missionaries working among Native American tribes, to act as a buffer against the French in Louisiana and British North America. In 1762, France ceded to Spain most of its claims to the interior of North America, including its claim to Texas, as well as the vast interior that became Spanish Louisiana. During the years 1799 to 1803, the height of the Napoleonic Empire, Spain returned Louisiana back to France, which promptly sold the territory to the United States.
The status of Texas during these transfers was unclear and was not resolved until 1819, when the Adams–Onís Treaty ceded Spanish Florida to the United States, established a clear boundary between Texas and Louisiana. Starting in 1810, the territories of New Spain north of the Isthmus of Panama sought independence in the Mexican War of Independence. Many Americans fought on the side of Mexico against Spain in filibustering expeditions. One of these, the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition consisted of a group of about 130 Americans under the leadership of Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara. Gutierrez de Lara initiated Mexico's secession from Spain with efforts contributed by Augustus Magee. Bolstered by new recruits, led by Samuel Kemper, the expedition gained a series of victories against soldiers led by the Spanish governor, Manuel María de Salcedo, their victory at the Battle of Rosillo Creek convinced Salcedo to surrender on April 1, 1813. On April 6, 1813, the victorious Republican Army of the North drafted a constitution and declared the independent Republic of Texas, with Gutiérrez as its president.
Soon disillusioned with the Mexican leadership, the Americans under Kemper returned to the United States. The ephemeral Republic of Texas came to an end following the August 18, 1813 Battle of Medina, where the Spanish Army crushed the Republican Army of the North; the harsh reprisals against the Texas rebels created a deep distrust of the Royal Spanish authorities, veterans of the Battle of Medina became leaders of the Texas Revolution and signatories of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico 20 years later. Along with the rest of Mexico, Texas gained its independence from Spain in 1821 following the Treaty of Córdoba, the new Mexican state was organized under the Plan of Iguala, which created Mexico as a constitutional monarchy under its first Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. During the transition from a Spanish territory to part of the independent country of Mexico, Stephen F. Austin led a group of American settlers known as the Old Three Hundred, who negotiated the right to settle in Texas with the Spanish Royal governor of the territory.
Since Mexican independence had been ratified by Spain shortly thereafter, Austin traveled to Mexico City to secure the support of the new country for his right to settle. The establishment of Mexican Texas coincided with the Austin-led settleme
1841 Republic of Texas presidential election
The Republic of Texas presidential election of 1841 was the third presidential election. It was held on September 6, 1841. Former President Sam Houston defeated incumbent Vice President and former Interim President David G. Burnet to win a second non-consecutive term in office. Edward Burleson was elected vice-president with 6,141 votes while his competitor Mennican Hunt received 4,336 votes
Childress is a city in Childress County, United States. The population was 6,905 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Childress County. The city and county were named in honor of George Campbell Childress, a native of Nashville, the principal author of the Texas Declaration of Independence; the county and city were incorporated more than four decades after Childress's death. In December 2015, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer voted Childress ninth among the ten "most conservative" cities in the United States in regard to political contributions. Other West Texas communities in the most conservative lineup are Hereford and Dalhart in Dallam County in the far northwestern Texas Panhandle. Princeton in Collin County north of Dallas ranked No. 2. In contrast, Vashon Island, Washington was named the "most liberal" city in the nation in terms of political donations. Childress developed from two rival townships and Henry, which were about four miles apart on the former OX Ranch. Childress County was organized in February 1887 with the arrival of the Fort Worth and Denver Railway.
An election was held on April 11, 1887 to determine which town would be the county seat with Childress prevailing. A temporary wooden courthouse was constructed under the supervision of the prominent attorney Amos J. Fires. However, the Donley County court, to which Childress County was still attached for judicial purposes, declared the election illegal. R. E. Montgomery, the right-of-way and townsite agent for the railroad, favored the Henry location because it had a smoother terrain than Childress, a situation which would make the erection of a depot easier. Montgomery had purchased half of the property in Henry; when Henry was chosen county seat in another election and Fires compromised. The name of "Henry" was changed to "Childress", the businesses and residences were relocated by September 1887; the railroad built the Dwight Hotel, the section house, the depot. The Childress Lumber Company followed. J. H. Christler became the first practicing physician in Childress. Amos Fires was elected a combined judicial and administrative position.
He initiated the county's public school system. In 1888, James S. Harrison launched the Childress County Index, the first newspaper in the community. By 1889, Baptist and Church of Christ congregations had been organized; the city was incorporated in 1890 with a population of 621. It had a post office, a restaurant, a livery stable, a boardinghouse, three stores, a Young Men's Christian Association facility, a theater. There were several saloons in Childress until 1904, when a fatal shooting prompted Childress to adopt local prohibition of alcoholic beverages. In 1901, when the Fort Worth and Denver City railroad began considering Childress as a division point, Childress voters approved bonds and donated land to build shops and terminal facilities; these businesses, in addition to the influx of farmers and homesteaders, provided more jobs and resulted in a considerable increase in population—to 5,003 by 1910. Future automobile tycoon Walter P. Chrysler served as general foreman of the Childress railroad shops from 1905 to 1906.
He relocated to Iowa, where he worked as a master mechanic before he founded Chrysler Motor Corporation. After a fire destroyed the first Childress County courthouse in 1891, a new stone building was constructed and used until 1939, when the present structure was built. On the courthouse grounds is a memorial to 20th century military veterans, a tribute paid in many Texas counties. For decades, a large windmill on Main Street provided municipal water; the railroad remained the economic center of Childress into the 1940s. Extension of the Fort Worth and Denver railroad to Pampa, the seat of Gray County in the Panhandle, ameliorated the hardships of the Great Depression in Childress. In 1941, citizens appealed to the Interstate Commerce Commission to stop the railroad from closing its shops in Childress. In the 1920s a brick high school building was completed. In 1929, the Childress News appeared in competition with the Childress Index. In 1942, the News was leased by the Index. In 1947, the Childress Reporter was established.
After the depression and Dust Bowl era, modern farm machinery and improved highways reduced the rate of growth in Childress. The population was 6,464 in 1940; the railroad closed several shops, which were razed. Lanchart Industries, Royal Park Fashions, Fiberglass Corporation of America supplanted the railroad as the economic anchor of Childress; the population decreased from 6,399 in 1960 to 5,817 by 1980. Childress remains an agribusiness center with cotton gins and grain elevators; the first successful oil well in the area was not drilled until 1961. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.3 square miles, of which 8.2 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Childress is bordered on the west by Hall County, on the southeast by Hardeman County, on the northeast by Harmon County, Oklahoma, on the north by Collingsworth County, on the south by Cottle County. Childress is situated 110 miles from Amarillo on the west, 155 mi from Lubbock, Texas to the southwest, 110 miles from Wichita Falls on the east.
It is situated at the intersection of United States Highways 287, 62, 83, which extends from Brownsville to Laredo in South Texas to North Dakota. Because of its location, Childress is known as the "Gateway to the Panhandle". Childress is only a few miles from the Oklahoma state boundary, but because of the routing of Highways 83 and 62, the one-way d
Mirabeau B. Lamar
Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar was an attorney born in Georgia, who became a Texas politician, poet and soldier. He was a leading Texas political figure during the Texas Republic era, he was elected as the second President of the Republic of Texas after Sam Houston. He was known for waging war against bands of Cherokee and Comanche peoples to push them out of Texas, for establishing a fund to support public education. Lamar was born in 1798 in Louisville and grew up at Fairfield, his father's cotton plantation near Milledgeville the state capital, his father's family were descended from French Huguenot Thomas Lamar, who had settled in Maryland in 1660. They had connections with other families throughout Georgia and the South; as a child, Lamar loved to educated himself through books. Although he was accepted to Princeton College, he chose not to attend, he started work as a merchant and ran a newspaper, but both of those enterprises failed. In 1823, Lamar's family connections helped him to gain a position as the private secretary to newly elected Georgia Governor George M. Troup.
In this position, Lamar issued press releases and toured the state giving speeches on behalf of the governor. On one of his trips, he met Tabitha Burwell Jordan, whom he married in 1826, they had a daughter together. When Troup lost his reelection bid in 1828, Lamar moved with his family to Columbus, where he established the Columbus Enquirer; this venture was much more successful than his previous business attempts. In 1830 his wife Tabitha died of tuberculosis. Lamar was affected and took time to recover his drive, he withdrew his name from consideration for re-election to the Georgia Senate, in which he had served one term. After traveling, Lamar began to study law, he was admitted to the bar in 1833 and ran an unsuccessful campaign for a seat in the U. S. Congress. Lamar's brother Lucius committed suicide in 1834. A grief-stricken Lamar began traveling again to ease his sorrow. In the summer of 1835, he reached Texas part of Mexico, he decided to stay. The friend had settled there and was working as a slave trader in Velasco.
After a trip back to Georgia, Lamar returned to Texas. Learning of a battle for independence, he traveled with his horse and sword to join Sam Houston's army in spring 1836, distinguished himself with bravery at the Battle of San Jacinto. On the eve of the battle, Lamar courageously rescued two surrounded Texans, an act that drew a salute from the Mexican lines. One of those rescued was Thomas Jefferson Rusk appointed as Texas Secretary of War. Lamar was promoted that night from private to Colonel and given command of the cavalry during the battle the following day. Houston noted in his battle report: "Our cavalry, 61 in number, commanded by Mirabeau B. Lamar, placed on our right, completed our line..."After Texas achieved independence from Mexico, Lamar was appointed as the Secretary of War in the interim Texian government. In 1836, he was elected to the position. Lamar, the unanimous choice as nominee of the Democratic Party for president to succeed Houston, was elected, he was inaugurated on December 1, 1838.
Houston talked for three hours in his farewell address, "which so unnerved Lamar that he was unable to read his inaugural speech." It was given by Algernon P. Thompson. Lamar's vice president was David G. Burnet. Several weeks in his first formal address to the Texas Congress, Lamar urged that the Cherokee and Comanche tribes be driven from their lands in Texas if the tribes had to be destroyed, he proposed to secure a loan from either the United States or Europe. He stated his opposition to potential annexation to the United States and desire to gain recognition of the Republic of Texas by European nations, he ordered attacks against the Indian tribes. In 1839 Texan troops drove the Cherokee bands from the state. Houston's friend, Chief Bowles, was killed in battle, Houston was furious with Lamar; the government conducted a similar campaign against the Comanche. Although losing many lives, the Comanche resisted leaving the area. Lamar believed the "total extinction" of the Indian tribes was necessary in order to make the lands available to whites.
He drove the Indians out at the Battle of the Neches, where 500 Texans attacked 800 American Indians of several different tribes. Of these 800 Indians, between 400–500 were women and elders; the Texans and Rangers that attacked the tribes were armed, while the Indians had an estimated 16–24 rifles and pistols. Before the attack, Gatunwali, Big Mush, other chiefs and leaders asked for time to gather their crops they would go in peace, but Lamar would not wait. Lamar ordered the Secretary of War, Albert Sydney Johnston, General Thomas J. Rusk to run them out of Texas. Lamar appointed a commission to select a permanent site for the capital of the Republic. After two months of debate, they recommended the small town of Waterloo, along the Colorado River toward the center of the state; the town was renamed Austin after the pioneer. By October 1839, all of the records and employees were relocated there from Houston; that same year, Lamar founded the Texas State Library. During his administration, Lamar sent three separate agents to Mexico to negotiate a peace settlement.
All failed. Lamar failed to gain official recognition for Texas from Great Britain and Belgium, he did succeed in getting the three nations to send observers, who w
Texas Centennial Exposition
The Texas Centennial Exposition was a world's fair presented June 6 – November 29, 1936, at Fair Park in Dallas, Texas. A celebration of the 100th anniversary of Texas's independence from Mexico in 1836, it celebrated Texas and Western American culture. More than 50 buildings were constructed for the exposition, many remain today as notable examples of Art Deco architecture. Attracting more than six million people including President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the exposition was credited with buffering Dallas from the Great Depression; the Texas Centennial Exposition was held at Fair Park in Dallas, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Texas's independence from Mexico in 1836. It was a celebration of Texas and Western culture. Three Texas cities — Dallas and San Antonio — competed to host the exposition, with Dallas receiving the nod from the Texas Centennial Commission because it offered the largest cash commitment, the existing facilities of the State Fair of Texas, a strong group of leaders.
George Dahl was director general of a group of architects who designed the more than 50 buildings constructed for the exposition at Fair Park, a landscaped expanse comprising 178 acres. Some 30 of the structures remain, representing one of the largest intact groupings of world's fair buildings and open spaces remaining in the United States. Chief among these buildings is the Texas Hall of State, not completed until after the opening of the exposition; the Texas Centennial Exposition was held at Fair Park in Dallas, June 6 – November 29, 1936. The event attracted 6,353,827 visitors, cost around $25 million; the exposition was credited for buffering Dallas from the Great Depression, creating over 10,000 jobs and giving a $50 million boost to the local economy. The Cavalcade of Texas, a historical pageant covering four centuries of Texas history, was one of the most popular attractions at the Exposition; the Hall of Negro Life was another popular attraction and is believed to be the first recognition of African-American culture at a world's fair.
The Texas Centennial Olympics, held in the Cotton Bowl, hosted the first integrated public athletic competition in the history of the South. Universal produced a newsreel of preparations for the Centennial beauty pageant, which shows models attempting to fit into life-sized cutouts of the Texas Centennial Committee's concept of the "perfect figure."The celebrated Federal Theatre Project production of Macbeth and directed by Orson Welles with an all-black cast, was featured August 13–23 in the new band shell and 5,000-seat open-air amphitheatre. The production was one of the most talked-about features of the exposition and drew large, enthusiastic audiences. For many it was their first opportunity to see a professional dramatic performance by African American actors. Integrated seating was a unique experience for theatergoers in Dallas. President Franklin D. Roosevelt visited the exposition in a publicized event on June 12. Gene Autry's film The Big Show was filmed on location and shows many of the buildings and events of the event.
The Centennial Exposition required a massive publicity effort, but the promotion department was stymied by a lack of photographs. Never before had the state been photographed for advertising purposes; the Centennial Exposition hired Polly Smith to travel the state and tell the story of Texas through photos. After a successful five-month run, the Texas Centennial Exposition was closed; the exhibits reopened the following year as the Greater Texas & Pan-American Exposition. The Fair Park Texas Centennial Buildings were designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986. In October 2010, the National Building Museum in Washington, D. C. opened an exhibition titled Designing Tomorrow: America’s World’s Fairs of the 1930s. This exhibition, available for view until September 2011, prominently featured the Texas Centennial Exposition. Fair Park Hall of State History of Dallas, Texas Videos of archival film footage of the Texas Centennial Exposition at the Texas Archive of the Moving Image Photos of the Texas Centennial Exposition hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
"Light and Color Magic at Texas Exposition" Popular Mechanics, December 1935 — pp. 846–847
History of Texas
The recorded history of Texas begins with the arrival of the first Spanish conquistadors in the region of North America now known as Texas in 1519, who found the region populated by numerous Native American tribes. The Native Americans' ancestors had been there for more than 10,000 years as evidenced by the discovery of the remains of prehistoric Leanderthal Lady. During the period of recorded history from A. D. 1519 to 1848, all or parts of Texas were claimed by five countries: France, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the United States of America. The first European base was established in 1680, along the upper Rio Grande river, near modern El Paso, Texas with the exiled Spaniards and Native Americans from the Isleta Pueblo during the Pueblo Revolt known as Popé's Rebellion, from today's northern New Mexico. In 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, established a French colony at Fort Saint Louis, after sailing down and exploring the Mississippi River from New France and the Great Lakes.
He planted this early French presence at Fort Saint Louis near Matagorda Bay, along the Gulf of Mexico coast before the establishment of New Orleans on the lower Mississippi River. The colony was killed off by Native Americans after three years, but Spanish authorities felt pressed to establish settlements to keep their claim to the land. Several Roman Catholic missions were established in East Texas. Twenty years concerned with the continued French presence in neighboring Louisiana, Spanish authorities again tried to colonize Texas. Over the next 110 years, Spain established numerous villages and missions in the province. A small number of Spanish settlers arrived, in addition to soldiers. Spain signed agreements with colonizers from the United States, bordering the province to the northeast since their Louisiana Purchase from the Emperor Napoleon I and his French Empire in 1803; when Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican Texas was part of the new nation. To encourage settlement, Mexican authorities allowed organized immigration from the United States, by 1834, over 30,000 Anglos lived in Texas, compared to 7,800 Mexicans.
After Santa Anna's dissolution of the Constitution of 1824 and his political shift to the right, issues such as lack of access to courts, the militarization of the region's government, self-defense issues resulting in the confrontation in Gonzales, public sentiment in Mexican and Anglo Texans turned towards revolution. Santa Anna's invasion of the territory after putting down the rebellion in Zacatecas provoked the conflict of 1836; the Texian forces fought and won the Texas Revolution in 1835–1836. Although not recognized as such by Mexico, Texas declared itself an independent nation, the Republic of Texas. Attracted by the rich lands for cotton plantations and ranching, tens of thousands of immigrants arrived from the U. S. and from Germany as well. In 1845, Texas joined the United States, when the United States annexed it. Only after the conclusion of the Mexican–American War, with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, did Mexico recognize Texan independence. Texas declared its secession from the United States in 1861 to join the Confederate States of America.
Only a few battles of the American Civil War were fought in Texas. When the war ended, the enslaved African Americans were freed. Texas was subject to Reconstruction, a process, they regained political dominance and passed laws in the late 19th century creating second-class status for blacks in a Jim Crow system of segregation and disenfranchising them in 1901 through passage of a poll tax. Blacks were excluded from the formal political system until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Cotton and farming dominated the economy, with railroad construction after 1870 a major factor in the development of new cities away from rivers and waterways. Toward the end of the 19th century, timber became an important industry in Texas as well. In 1901 a petroleum discovery at Spindletop Hill, near Beaumont, was developed as the most productive oil well the world had seen; the wave of oil speculation and discovery that followed came to be known as the "Oil Boom", permanently transforming and enriching the economy of Texas.
Agriculture and ranching gave way to a service-oriented society after the boom years of World War II. Segregation ended in the 1960s due to federal legislation. Politically, Texas changed from the one-party Democratic state achieved following disenfranchisement, to a contested political scene, until 2000 when it was solidly Republican; the economy of Texas has continued to grow becoming the second-largest state in population in 1994, became economically diversified, with a growing base in new technology. Texas lies at the juncture of two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America, the Southwestern and the Plains areas; the area now covered by Texas was occupied by three major indigenous cultures, which had reached their developmental peak before the arrival of European explorers and are known from archaeology. These are: the Pueblo from the upper Rio Grande region, centered west of Texas; the influence of Teotihuacan in northern Mexico peaked around AD 500 and declined over the 8th to 10th centuries.
The Paleo-Indians who lived in Texas between 9200 – 6000 BC
James Walker Fannin Jr. was a 19th-century American military figure in the Texas Army and leader during the Texas Revolution of 1835–36. After being outnumbered and surrendering to Mexican forces at the Battle of Coleto Creek, Colonel Fannin and nearly all his 344 men were executed soon afterward at Goliad, under Santa Anna's orders for all rebels to be executed, he was memorialized in several place names, including a military training camp and a major city street of Houston. Different sources say his year of birth as either 1804 or 1805, he was born in Georgia to Isham Fannin, a veteran of the War of 1812. His mother's last name was Walker. Although she was not married to his father, the Walker family raised him, his ancestors, who spelled the family name Fanning, lived in America during the Revolutionary War, a family with divided loyalties during the conflict. Isham's father James W. Fannin settled in Georgia. Fannin enrolled in the United States Military Academy at West Point on July 1, 1819.
He resigned November 1821, from the school. Although he seems to have been academically deficient, was tardy or absent from classes, he had received a letter from a cousin urging his immediate return to Georgia to attend to ailing grandparents, he married Minerva Fort. Their daughter, Missouri Pinckney, was born on July 17, 1829. A second daughter, nicknamed Eliza, was born mentally ill in 1832. While living in Columbus, Georgia, he worked as a merchant. In Muscogee County, he was a member of the Temperance Society and served for a short time as a judge. By 1832, Fannin was involved in the business of transporting slaves. In 1834, Fannin settled his family at Velasco, in colonial Tejas, where he owned a plantation and was a managing partner in a slave-trading syndicate. By 1835, Fannin was involved in the growing Anglo-American resistance to the Mexican government in Texas, he wrote letters seeking financial assistance and volunteers to help Texas. By September, Fannin was an active volunteer in the Texas Army.
He took part in the Battle of Gonzales on October 2 and urged Stephen F. Austin to send aid to Gonzales. Fannin worked with James Bowie, First Battalion, First Division, under Austin's orders to secure supplies and determine the conditions in and around Gonzales and San Antonio de Bexar. Fellow citizens... We urge as many as can leave their homes to repair to Gonzales "armed and equipped for war to the knife."... If Texas will now act promptly, she will soon be redeemed from that worse than Egyptian bondage which now cramps her resources and retards her prosperity. Under the command of Bowie, Fannin fought in the Battle of Concepción on October 28, 1835. In November 1835, Austin ordered Fannin and William B. Travis and about 150 men to cut off any Mexican supply party. On November 13, Houston offered Fannin the post of inspector general to the regular army. Fannin wrote back requesting a field appointment of brigadier general and a "post of danger". On November 22, 1835, Fannin was honorably discharged from the volunteer army by Austin and began campaigning for a larger regular army for Texas.
He went home to spend time with his family. Sam Houston, supported by Governor Henry Smith, commissioned Fannin as a colonel in the regular army on December 7, 1835. By January 7, 1836, the provisional government had appointed Fannin "military agent", to answer only to the council and not Houston, he began recruiting forces and supplies for the forthcoming and confusing Matamoros campaign against the Mexican city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas. Fannin had difficulty leading the volunteers in his charge, he tried to institute regular Army discipline. Many of his men thought he was aloof, several historians believe that he was an ineffective commander because of it; the majority of the men serving under Fannin had been in Texas only a short time. Governor James W. Robinson "... among the rise of 400 men at, near this post, I doubt if 25 citizens of Texas can be mustered in the ranks...". In early February, Fannin sailed from Velasco and landed at Copano with four companies of the Georgia Battalion, moving to join a small band of Texians at Refugio.
Mexican reinforcements under General Jose Urrea arrived at Matamoros, complicating the Texian plans to attack that city. Fannin withdrew 25 miles north to Goliad. Appeals from Travis at the Alamo prompted Fannin to launch a relief march of more than 300 men and four pieces of artillery on February 25, 1836. After some delay and his men moved out on the 28th for the journey to San Antonio, a distance of more than 90 miles; the relief mission was a failure. The troops had crossed the San Antonio River when wagons broke down, prompting the men to camp within sight of Goliad, they had little or no food, some men were barefooted, the oxen teams wandered off during the night. On March 6, 1836, the Battle of the Alamo was fought, with all the Alamo's defenders being killed by Mexican forces; the Mexican forces under General José de Urrea were now approaching the Texan stronghold in Goliad. They defeated Texian forces at the Battle of San Patricio on February 27, where 20 were killed and prisoners were taken.
Frank W. Johnson and four other Texians were captured, but managed to escape and rejoin James Fannin's command at Goliad; the Battle of Agua Dulce was fought on March 2. Dr. James Grant, Robert C. Morris and 12 others were killed, with prisoners taken. Plácido Benavides and six others escaped to notify Fannin of the situation. On March 12, Fannin sent Captain Amon B. King and about 28 men to take wagons to Refugio to help e