Niels Henrik Abel
Niels Henrik Abel was a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields. His most famous single result is the first complete proof demonstrating the impossibility of solving the general quintic equation in radicals; this question was one of the outstanding open problems of his day, had been unresolved for over 350 years. He was an innovator in the field of elliptic functions, discoverer of Abelian functions, he made his discoveries while died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis. Most of his work was done in seven years of his working life. Regarding Abel, the French mathematician Charles Hermite said: "Abel has left mathematicians enough to keep them busy for five hundred years." Another French mathematician, Adrien-Marie Legendre, said: "quelle tête celle du jeune Norvégien!". The Abel Prize in mathematics proposed in 1899 to complement the Nobel Prizes, is named in his honour. Niels Henrik Abel was born in Nedstrand, Norway, as the second child of the pastor Søren Georg Abel and Anne Marie Simonsen.
When Niels Henrik Abel was born, the family was living at a rectory on Finnøy. Much suggests that Niels Henrik was born in the neighboring parish, as his parents were guests of the bailiff in Nedstrand in July / August of his year of birth. Niels Henrik Abel's father, Søren Georg Abel, had a degree in theology and philosophy and served as pastor at Finnøy. Søren's father, Niels's grandfather, Hans Mathias Abel, was a pastor, at Gjerstad Church near the town of Risør. Søren had spent his childhood at Gjerstad, had served as chaplain there; the Abel family came to Norway in the 17th century. Anne Marie Simonsen was from Risør. Anne Marie had grown up with two stepmothers, in luxurious surroundings. At Gjerstad rectory, she enjoyed arranging social gatherings. Much suggests she was early on an alcoholic and took little interest in the upbringing of the children. Niels Henrik and his brothers were given their schooling by their father, with handwritten books to read. An addition table in a book of mathematics reads: 1+0=0.
With Norwegian independence and the first election held in Norway, in 1814, Søren Abel was elected as a representative to the Storting. Meetings of the Storting were held until 1866 in the main hall of the Cathedral School in Christiania; this is how he came into contact with the school, he decided that his eldest son, Hans Mathias, should start there the following year. However, when the time for his departure approached, Hans was so saddened and depressed over having to leave home that his father did not dare send him away, he decided to send Niels instead. In 1815, Niels Abel entered the Cathedral School at the age of 13, his elder brother Hans joined him there a year later. They had classes together. Hans got better grades than Niels, he gave the students mathematical tasks to do at home. He saw Niels Henrik's talent in mathematics, encouraged him to study the subject to an advanced level, he gave Niels private lessons after school. In 1818, Søren Abel had a public theological argument with the theologian Stener Johannes Stenersen regarding his catechism from 1806.
The argument was well covered in the press. Søren was given the nickname "Abel Treating". Niels' reaction to the quarrel was said to have been "excessive gaiety". At the same time, Søren almost faced impeachment after insulting Carsten Anker, the host of the Norwegian Constituent Assembly, he began drinking and died only two years in 1820, aged 48. Bernt Michael Holmboe supported Niels Henrik Abel with a scholarship to remain at the school and raised money from his friends to enable him to study at the Royal Frederick University; when Abel entered the university in 1821, he was the most knowledgeable mathematician in Norway. Holmboe had nothing more he could teach him and Abel had studied all the latest mathematical literature in the university library. During that time, Abel started working on the quintic equation in radicals. Mathematicians had been looking for a solution to this problem for over 250 years. In 1821, Abel thought; the two professors of mathematics in Christiania, Søren Rasmussen and Christopher Hansteen, found no errors in Abel's formulas, sent the work on to the leading mathematician in the Nordic countries, Carl Ferdinand Degen in Copenhagen.
He too found no faults but still doubted that the solution, which so many outstanding mathematicians had sought for so long, could have been found by an unknown student in far-off Christiania. Degen noted, Abel's unusually sharp mind, believed that such a talented young man should not waste his abilities on such a "sterile object" as the fifth degree equation, but rather on elliptic functions and transcendence. Degen asked Abel to give a numerical example of his method. While trying to provide an example, Abel found a mistake in his paper; this led to a discovery in 1823 that a solution to a fifth- or higher-degree equation was impossible. Abel graduated in 1822, his performance was exceptionally high in average in other matters. A
Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now accepted, considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.
Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, his five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority, he was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.
Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, his research on plants was published in a series of books, in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Since 2008, a statue of Charles Darwin occupies the place of honour at London's Natural History Museum. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount, he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists.
Both families were Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chad's Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother; the eight-year-old Charles had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies, he learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest.
In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science. He assisted Robert Edmond Grant's investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jameson's natural-history course, which covered geology—including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism, he learned the classification of plants, assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time. Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson.
As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred shooting to studying, his cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, quantity, space and change. One of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. The number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was "All is number", it was the Pythagoreans who coined the term "mathematics", with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins. The first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria, she succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote many works on applied mathematics. Because of a political dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked and scraping off her skin with clamshells.
Science and mathematics in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages followed various models and modes of funding varied based on scholars. It was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas. Funding for translation of scientific texts in other languages was ongoing throughout the reign of certain caliphs, it turned out that certain scholars became experts in the works they translated and in turn received further support for continuing to develop certain sciences; as these sciences received wider attention from the elite, more scholars were invited and funded to study particular sciences. An example of a translator and mathematician who benefited from this type of support was al-Khawarizmi. A notable feature of many scholars working under Muslim rule in medieval times is that they were polymaths. Examples include the work on optics and astronomy of Ibn al-Haytham; the Renaissance brought an increased emphasis on science to Europe.
During this period of transition from a feudal and ecclesiastical culture to a predominantly secular one, many notable mathematicians had other occupations: Luca Pacioli. As time passed, many mathematicians gravitated towards universities. An emphasis on free thinking and experimentation had begun in Britain's oldest universities beginning in the seventeenth century at Oxford with the scientists Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle, at Cambridge where Isaac Newton was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics & Physics. Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities all across Europe evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag productive thinking.” In 1810, Humboldt convinced the King of Prussia to build a university in Berlin based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas. Thus and laboratories started to evolve. British universities of this period adopted some approaches familiar to the Italian and German universities, but as they enjoyed substantial freedoms and autonomy the changes there had begun with the Age of Enlightenment, the same influences that inspired Humboldt.
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge emphasized the importance of research, arguably more authentically implementing Humboldt’s idea of a university than German universities, which were subject to state authority. Overall, science became the focus of universities in the 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge; the German university system fostered professional, bureaucratically regulated scientific research performed in well-equipped laboratories, instead of the kind of research done by private and individual scholars in Great Britain and France. In fact, Rüegg asserts that the German system is responsible for the development of the modern research university because it focused on the idea of “freedom of scientific research and study.” Mathematicians cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level.
In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of a student's understanding of mathematics. Mathematicians involved with solving problems with applications in real life are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their specialized knowledge and professional methodology, approach many of the imposing problems presented in related scientific fields. With professional focus on a wide variety of problems, theoretical systems, localized constructs, applied mathematicians work in the study and formulation of mathematical models. Mathematicians and applied mathematicians are considered to be two of the STEM careers; the discipline of applied mathematics concerns
Royal Astronomical Society
The Royal Astronomical Society is a learned society and charity that encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science and related branches of science. Its headquarters are on Piccadilly in London; the society has over 4,000 members, termed Fellows, most of them professional researchers or postgraduate students. Around a quarter of Fellows live outside the UK. Members of the public who have an interest in astronomy and geophysics but do not qualify as Fellows may become Friends of the RAS; the society holds monthly scientific meetings in London, the annual National Astronomy Meeting at varying locations in the British Isles. The RAS publishes the scientific journals Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and Geophysical Journal International, along with the trade magazine Astronomy & Geophysics; the RAS maintains an astronomy research library, engages in public outreach and advises the UK government on astronomy education. The society recognises achievement in astronomy and geophysics by issuing annual awards and prizes, with its highest award being the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society.
The RAS is the UK adhering organisation to the International Astronomical Union and a member of the UK Science Council. The society was founded in 1820 as the Astronomical Society of London to support astronomical research. At that time, most members were'gentleman astronomers' rather than professionals, it became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving a Royal Charter from William IV. A Supplemental Charter in 1915 opened up the fellowship to women. One of the major activities of the RAS is publishing refereed journals, it publishes two primary research journals, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society in astronomy and the Geophysical Journal International in geophysics. It publishes the magazine A&G which includes reviews and other articles of wide scientific interest in a'glossy' format; the full list of journals published by the RAS, with abbreviations as used for the NASA ADS bibliographic codes is: Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society: 1822–1977 Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Since 1827 Geophysical Supplement to Monthly Notices: 1922–1957 Geophysical Journal: 1958–1988 Geophysical Journal International: Since 1989 Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society: 1960–1996 Astronomy & Geophysics: Since 1997 Full members of the RAS are styled Fellows, may use the post-nominal letters FRAS.
Fellowship is open to anyone over the age of 18, considered acceptable to the society. As a result of the society's foundation in a time before there were many professional astronomers, no formal qualifications are required. However, around three quarters of fellows are professional geophysicists; the society acts as the professional body for astronomers and geophysicists in the UK and fellows may apply for the Science Council's Chartered Scientist status through the society. The fellowship passed 3,000 in 2003. In 2009 an initiative was launched for those with an interest in astronomy and geophysics but without professional qualifications or specialist knowledge in the subject; such people may join the Friends of the RAS, which offers popular talks and social events. The Society organises an extensive programme of meetings: The biggest RAS meeting each year is the National Astronomy Meeting, a major conference of professional astronomers, it is held over 4-5 days each spring or early summer at a university campus in the United Kingdom.
Hundreds of astronomers attend each year. More frequent smaller'ordinary' meetings feature lectures about research topics in astronomy and geophysics given by winners of the society's awards, they are held in Burlington House in London on the afternoon of the second Friday of each month from October to May. The talks are intended to be accessible to a broad audience of astronomers and geophysicists, are free for anyone to attend. Formal reports of the meetings are published in The Observatory magazine. Specialist discussion meetings are held on the same day as each ordinary meeting; these are aimed at professional scientists in a particular research field, allow several speakers to present new results or reviews of scientific fields. Two discussion meetings on different topics take place at different locations within Burlington House, prior to the day's ordinary meeting, they charge a small entry fee for non-members. The RAS holds a regular programme of public lectures aimed at a non-specialist, audience.
These are held on Tuesdays once a month, with the same talk given twice: once at lunchtime and once in the early evening. The venues have varied, but are in Burlington House or another nearby location in central London; the lectures are free. The society hosts or sponsors meetings in other parts of the United Kingdom in collaboration with other scientific societies and universities; the Royal Astronomical Society has a more comprehensive collection of books and journals in astronomy and geophysics than the libraries of most universities and research institutions. The library receives some 300 current periodicals in astronomy and geophysics and contains more than 10,000 books from popular level to conference proceedings, its collection of astronomical rare books is second only to that of the Royal Obser
Downe is a village in Greater London, located within the London Borough of Bromley and beyond London urban sprawl. Downe is 3.4 miles south 14.2 miles south east of Charing Cross. Downe lies on a hill, much of the centre of the village is unchanged; the word Downe originates from the Anglosaxon word dūn, latterly down, hence the South and North Downs. The village was part of Kent until April 1965 when it was subsumed into the new London Borough of Bromley; when Charles Darwin moved there in 1842, the village was known as Down. Its name was changed to Downe. Charles Darwin lived in Down House for 40 years, from 1842 until he died there in 1882, he became a close friend of Sir John Lubbock, 3rd Baronet, whose lived nearby at the Lubbock's High Elms estate on the other side of the village. A favourite place of Darwin's was Downe Bank, now a nature reserve and Site of Special Scientific Interest, several members of his family are buried in the graveyard of St Mary's Church. Down House and the surrounding area has been nominated by the Department of Culture and Sport to become a World Heritage Site.
However, this decision has been deferred. Downe is the location of Buckston Browne Farm, built in 1931 as a surgical research centre by the Royal College of Surgeons. In the 1980s, the farm caused controversy because of its use of vivisection techniques, in August 1984 it was raided by anti-vivisection activists; the farm has now been made into four houses. There are two scout campsites in the Downe area: The Downe Scout Activity Centre consisting of 86 acres of woodland and open fields is just outside the village; the Greenwich District campsite is nearby. Downe, being in county of Greater London, is still under Transport for London remit despite being outside the metropolis, is served by several London Buses bus services from London but overall has limited connections into London. There are no rail links to the village, but it is served by two 1 hourly bus routes: 146 - Bromley North to Downe via Old Hayes and Keston, he is chair of the EFDD group. Cudham Farnborough Keston Orpington Audio tour of Downe and Down House Downe Bank Nature Reserve Darwin at Downe - World Heritage Site nomination Homepage of Stage Door Theatre Group, Downe
Emma Darwin was an English woman, the wife and first cousin of Charles Darwin. They were married on 29 January 1839 and were the parents of ten children, seven of whom survived to adulthood. Emma Wedgwood was born at the family estate of Maer Hall in Maer, the youngest of seven children of Josiah Wedgwood II and his wife Elizabeth "Bessie", her grandfather Josiah Wedgwood had made his fortune in pottery, like many others who were not part of the aristocracy, they were nonconformist, belonging to the Unitarian church. Charles Darwin was her first cousin, she was close to her sister Fanny, the two being known by the family as the "Doveleys", was charming and messy, accounting for her nickname, "Little Miss Slip-Slop". She helped her older sister Elizabeth with the Sunday school, held in Maer Hall laundry, writing simple moral tales to aid instruction and giving 60 village children their only formal training in reading and religion; the Wedgwoods visited Paris for six months in 1818. Though Emma was only 10 at the time, the strangeness and interest of arriving in France remained in her memory.
In January 1822 the 13-year-old Emma and her sister Fanny were taken by their mother for a year at Mrs Mayer's school at Greville House, on Paddington Green, London, at what was the semi-rural village of Paddington. Emma was by "one of the show performers on the piano", to the extent that on one occasion she was invited along to play for George IV's Mrs Fitzherbert. After this time, Emma was taught by her elder sisters as well as tutors in some subjects. For the rest of her life Emma continued to be a fine pianist, with a tendency to speed up slow movements, she had piano lessons from Moscheles, "two or three" from Chopin. In 1825 Josiah took his daughters on a grand tour of Europe, via Paris to near Geneva to visit their Aunt Jessie and on In the following year the Sismondis visited Maer took Emma and her sister Fanny back to near Geneva to stay with them for eight months; when her father went to collect them he was accompanied by their cousin, Caroline Darwin, took Charles Darwin, Caroline's brother, as far as Paris, where they all met up again before returning home in July 1827.
She became a "Dragoness" at archery. At Maer on 31 August 1831 she was with her family when they helped Charles Darwin to overturn his father's objections to letting Charles go on an extended voyage on the Beagle. During the voyage Charles' sisters kept him informed of news including the death of Emma's sister Fanny at the age of 26, the gossip that his brother Erasmus Alvey Darwin was "paired off" with Emma to avert "an action in the Papers" over his "carrying on" with Hensleigh Wedgwood's wife, Frances "Fanny" Mackintosh; when Charles returned he was quick to visit Maer. Emma herself had turned down several offers of marriage, after her mother suffered a seizure and became bedridden Emma had to nurse her, as well as care for her elder sister Elizabeth, who suffered from dwarfism and severe spinal curvature. Emma Wedgwood accepted Charles' marriage proposal on 11 November 1838 at the age of 30, they were married on 29 January 1839 at St. Peter's Anglican Church in Maer, their cousin, the Reverend John Allen Wedgwood, officiated the marriage.
After a brief period of residence in London, they moved permanently to Down House, located in the rural village of Down, around 16 miles from St Paul's Cathedral and about two hours by coach and train to London Bridge. The village was renamed Downe. Charles and Emma raised their 10 children in a distinctly non-authoritarian manner, several of them achieved considerable success in their chosen careers: George and Horace became Fellows of the Royal Society. Emma Darwin is remembered for her patience and fortitude in dealing with her husband's long-term illness, she nursed her children through frequent illnesses, endured the deaths of three of them: Anne and Charles Waring. By the mid-1850s she was known throughout the parish for helping in the way a parson's wife might be expected to, giving out bread tokens to the hungry and "small pensions for the old, dainties for the ailing, medical comforts and simple medicine" based on Dr. Robert Darwin's old prescription book. Emma played the piano for Charles, in Charles' 1871 The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, Darwin spent several pages on the evolution of musical ability by means of sexual selection.
Emma's religious beliefs were founded on Unitarianism, which emphasizes inner feeling over the authority of religious texts or doctrine. Her views were not simple and unwavering, were the result of intensive study and questioning. Darwin was open about his scepticism before they became engaged, she discussed with him the tension between her fears that differences of belief would separate them, her desire to be close and share ideas. Following their marriage, they shared discussions about Christianity for several years, she valued his openness, his genuine uncertainty regarding the existence and nature of God, which developed into agnosticism. This may have been a bond between them, without resolving the tensions between their views. By early 1837 Charles Darwin was speculating on transmutation of species. Having decided to marry, he told her of his ideas on transmutation. On 11 November 1838
Ladies Dining Society
The Ladies Dining Society was a private women's dining and discussion club, based at Cambridge University. It was founded in 1890 by the women's activist Kathleen Lyttelton, its members, most of whom were married to Cambridge academics, were believers in women’s education and were active in the campaign to grant women Cambridge degrees. Most were strong supporters of female suffrage; the society remained active until the First World War. It has been stated that the Society stands "as a testament to friendship and intellectual debate at a time when women’s voices went unheard"; until the late 1870s all college fellows had been prohibited from marrying, with only a few exceptions such as University professors and Heads of Houses. The revision of the University statutes in 1878 ushered in the establishment of the first women's colleges and an era of greater participation of women in university life, although dining in college remained the norm for male fellows with wives being excluded from high tables.
It was against this background that Kathleen Lyttelton suggested to her friend Louise Creighton that they should start a ladies dining club. In 1890, the pair invited a select group of nine of their married friends to join their society, "not without an idea of retaliating on the husbands who dined in College". Several of their friends’ husbands were members of an elite society, the Cambridge Apostles, which may have provided inspiration; the society was one of a growing number of women's associations which were formed in Britain during the 1880s and 1890s, it has been said that at that date "even to form a ladies’ social club was a mild assertion of women’s right to public space". The society members were believers in women’s education, were active in the campaign to grant women Cambridge degrees. Most were strong supporters of female suffrage; the members took it in turn to host once or twice a term, leaving their husbands either to dine at their colleges or to eat a solitary meal in their studies.
The hostess not only provided a good dinner but a suitable topic of conversation, if needed. The hostess was allowed to introduce a guest for dinner. Conversation was to be kept general, Louise Creighton having strong views against what she called'sub-committees', it was one black ball being enough to exclude a proposed new member. Although the group nominated one of their member to act as secretary, no records of their discussions are believed to survive. Louise Creighton, author Kathleen Lyttelton, women's activist Eleanor Sidgwick and Principal of Newnham College Margaret Verrall and lecturer at Newnham Ellen Wordsworth Darwin, past lecturer at Newnham Mary Jane Ward, lecturer at Newnham Mary Marshall and lecturer at Newnham The Hon. Emma Cecilia Darwin, mental health campaigner Martha Haskins Darwin, American socialite and campaigner for the introduction of women police officers Caroline Jebb, American socialite Mary Frances Prothero Baroness Eliza von Hügel, promoter of Roman Catholic education.
Louise Creighton and women's activist, was married to Mandell Creighton, Professor in ecclesiastical history. In 1885, she had founded the National Union of Women Workers with Lady Laura Ridding and Emily Janes in order to co-ordinate the voluntary efforts of women across Great Britain, she was its first president. Kathleen Lyttelton and women's activist, was married to Arthur Lyttelton, first master of Selwyn College. In 1884 she had founded The Cambridge Association For Women's Suffrage along with Millicent Fawcett, had joined the Executive of The Central Society For Women’s Suffrage, she was active with the Cambridge Women's Refuge, helping to raise funds for what would become the Cambridge Association for the Care of Girls which aimed to provide poor local girls with practical help with domestic economy and literacy. Eleanor Sidgwick, psychic researcher and Principal of Newham College, was married to Henry Sidgwick, Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy, she was said to have been a reserved, rather aloof figure but Louise Creighton recalled her shining on these occasions: "I have never anywhere else seen her more alive & interested.
She used to quite flush with excitement". Other members had connections with Newnham, too. Margaret Verrall was a classicist and lecturer at the college who, according to a friend "was easily bored and disliked stale or fruitless controversy". Ellen Wordsworth Darwin was a cousin of Henry Sidgwick who had taught English literature at Newnham from 1878 until 1883, but had given it up after her marriage to the botanist Francis Darwin and the birth of their daughter Frances, she was agnostic and took her discussions a friend observing "It was at once distracting and delightfully amusing to hear her say, as she not infrequently did,'I know I’m right'". Mary Jane Ward was married to the philosopher James Ward. In 1879 she had been the first woman to be awarded a Class I in the Moral Sciences Tripos, she was a promoter of women’s education at Cambridge and was active in the suffrage movement, her play Man and Woman featuring on suffrage programmes for a number of years. She acted as honorary secretary of the Cambridge Women’s Suffrage Association from 1905 until 1915.
It was said of her. Life was full of the urge of things to fight for". Mary Marshall was an economics lecturer at Newnham College and was married to Alfred Marshall, professor of politic