James Arderne, D. D. was the dean of Chester. Arderne belonged to the family of Arderne, one of great antiquity in Cheshire, whose forty-five quarterings are sufficiently indicative of estate and consideration; the seat of the family was at Harden Hall, near Stockport, at that mansion, now a ruin, son of Ralph Arderne of Harden, was baptised 12 October 1636. He entered Christ's College, Cambridge, 9 July 1636, but afterwards removed to St. John's, took his B. A. in 1656, afterwards his M. A. Two years he went to Oxford University, became M. A. in 1658. He was afterwards resident in London, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1668. The Restoration brought him within sight of preferment. In April 1666 he was curate of St. Botolph and held that post until 1682. Another of his preferments was Thornton-le-Moors. From the double inducement, we are told, of the public library and the society, he became a fellow-commoner of Brasenose College, in 1673 was admitted D. D; this degree he is said to have had from Cambridge University.
He was chaplain to Charles II, his ministrations to that monarch procured him the rectory of Davenham in 1681 and the deanery of Chester In 1682. He is said to have had the promise of succession to the bishopric of Chester, but the events of the revolution prevented James II from giving him any further promotion. Arderne's devotion to the Stuarts is said to have brought him affronts in his own district so vexatious as to have shortened his life, he died in 1691, but the date of his death is variously given, as 18 August, 16 September, 18 September. He was buried in the choir of his cathedral, with a monument on which, in accordance with his will, was inscribed: "Here lies the body of Dr. James Arderne, brother of Sir John Arderne, awhile dean of this church; the particular intention of Arderne in this bequest was the foundation of a public library. The property was not large, but was increased by the reversion to the younger branch of the Ardernes of the property of Mrs. Jane Done. George Ormerod, in printing the dean's will, observes that it is one "which the dean would never have executed if he could have imagined that, from subsequent contingencies, it would have been the means of wresting from his family a large share of one of the most ancient estates in the county, have involved the representatives of two of his brothers in a series of law expenses, which compelled them to alienate a considerable portion of Mrs. Jane Done's bequest, the successive turns of presentation to the rectory of Tarporley".
In the will he desires that the maps of Ortelius should be returned to Sir John Arderne, who had only lent the book for his lifetime. He mentions his collection of the fathers of the first three hundred years, the common-place book which he had made from them of controversies; this he prebendaries. A portrait of him is preserved in the deanery. Directions concerning the Matter and Style of Sermons, written to W. S. a young deacon, by J. A. D. D. London, 1671 True Christian's Character and Crown, a sermon, London, 1671. A Sermon preached at the Visitation of John, Lord Bishop of Chester,' London, 1677 Conjectura circa Έπινομῂν D. Clementis Romani, cui subjiciuntur Castigationes in Epiphanium et Petavium de Eucharistica, de Cœlibatu Clericorum et de Orationibus pro vitâ functis. Autore Jacobo de Ardenna, 1683. Dean of Chester's Speech to his Majesty, August the 27th 1687, London, 1687, one leaf. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Axon, William Edward Armytage.
"Arderne, James". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 2. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Edward Copleston was an English churchman and academic, Provost of Oriel College, Oxford from 1814 til 1828 and Bishop of Llandaff from 1827. Born into an ancient West Country family, Copleston was born at Offwell in Devon, educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, to which he gained a scholarship at the age of 15, he was elected to a tutorship at Oriel College, Oxford in 1797, in 1800 was appointed to St Mary Hall, Oxford. As Oxford Professor of Poetry he gained a reputation by his literary sound latinity. After holding the office of dean at Oriel for some years, he succeeded to the provostship in 1814, owing to his influence the college reached a remarkable degree of prosperity during the first quarter of the 19th century, he was influential in the choice of Fellows who were in due course to become prominent during the Oxford Movement, though he himself was of a more rationalist cast of mind and belonged to the group of so-called Oriel Noetics. In 1826 he was appointed Dean of Chester, in the next year he was consecrated Bishop of Llandaff.
Here he gave his support to the new movement for church restoration in Wales, during his occupation of the see more than twenty new churches were built in the diocese. The political problems of the time interested him and his writings include two letters to Sir Robert Peel, one dealing with the'Variable Standard of Value', the other with the'Increase of Pauperism'; the palace of the Bishops of Llandaff had been sold so Copleston resided at Llandough Castle near Cowbridge and passed his life between the Deanery of St. Paul's and Hardwick House in Chepstow; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Copleston, Edward". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 101. "Archival material relating to Edward Copleston". UK National Archives
Christ's College, Cambridge
Christ's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college includes the Master, the Fellows of the College, about 450 undergraduate and 170 graduate students; the college was founded by William Byngham in 1437 as God's House. In 1505, the college was granted a new royal charter, was given a substantial endowment by Lady Margaret Beaufort, changed its name to Christ's College, becoming the twelfth of the Cambridge colleges to be founded in its current form; the college is renowned for educating some of Cambridge's most famous alumni, including Charles Darwin and John Milton. Within Cambridge, Christ's has a reputation for highest academic standards and strong tutorial support, it has averaged 1st place on the Tompkins Table from 1980–2006 and third place from 2006 to 2013, returning to first place in 2018. Christ's College was founded by William Byngham in 1437 as God's House, on land, soon after sold to enable the enlargement of King's College. Byngham obtained the first royal licence for God's House in July 1439.
The college was founded to provide for the lack of grammar-school masters in England at the time, the college has been described as "the first secondary-school training college on record". The original site of Godshouse was surrendered in 1443 to King's College, about three quarters of King's College Chapel stands on the original site of God's House. After the original royal licence of 1439, three more licences, two in 1442 and one in 1446, were granted before in 1448 God's House received the charter upon which the college was in fact founded. In this charter, King Henry VI was named as the founder, in the same year the college moved to its current site. In 1505, the college was endowed by Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, was given the name Christ's College at the suggestion of her confessor, the Bishop John Fisher; the expansion in the population of the college in the seventeenth century led to the building, in the 1640s, of the Fellows' Building in what is now Second Court.
The original 15th/16th century college buildings now form part of First Court, including the chapel, Master's Lodge and Great Gate tower. The gate itself is disproportionate: the bottom has been cut off to accommodate a rise in street level, which can be seen in the steps leading down to the foot of L staircase in the gate tower; the college hall built at the start of the 16th century, was restored in 1875–1879 by George Gilbert Scott the younger. The lawn of First Court is famously round, a wisteria sprawls up the front of the Master's lodge. Second Court is built up on only three sides, one of, formed by the 1640s Fellows' Building; the fourth side backs onto the Master's garden. The Stevenson Building in Third Court was designed by J. J. Stevenson in the 1880s and was extended in 1905 as part of the College's Quadcentenary. In 1947 Professor Albert Richardson designed a new cupola for the Stevenson building, a second building, the neo-Georgian Chancellor's Building, completed in 1950. Third Court's Memorial Building, a twin of the Chancellor's building by Richardson, was completed in 1953 at a cost of £80,000.
Third Court is noted for its display of irises in May and June, a gift to the college in 1946. The controversial tiered concrete New Court was designed in the Modernist style by Sir Denys Lasdun in 1966–70, was described as "superb" in Lasdun's obituary in the Guardian. Design critic Hugh Pearman comments "Lasdun had big trouble relating to the street at the overhanging rear", it appears distinctively in aerial photographs, forming part of the northern boundary of the college. An assortment of neighbouring buildings have been absorbed into the college, of which the most notable is The Todd Building Cambridge's County Hall. Through an arch in the Fellows' Building is the Fellows' Garden, it includes two mulberry trees, of which the older was planted in 1608, the same year as Milton's birth. Both trees have toppled sideways, the younger tree in the Great Storm of 1987, are now earthed up round the trunks, but continue to fruit every year. Christ's College is one of only 5 colleges in Cambridge to have its own swimming pool.
It is fed by water from Hobson's Conduit. Refurbished, it is now known as the'Malcolm Bowie Bathing Pool', is thought to be the oldest outdoor swimming pool in the UK, dating from the mid 17th century; the other four swimming pools within colleges belong to Girton College, Corpus Christi College, Emmanuel College and Clare Hall. With a deserved reputation within Cambridge for the highest academic standards, Christ's came first in the Tompkins Table's twentieth anniversary aggregate table, between 2001 and 2007, it had a mean position of third. Academic excellence continues at Christ's, with 91% of students in 2013 gaining a first class degree or an upper second; this is higher than the University average of 70%. Christ's is noted for educating two of Cambridge's most famous alumni, the poet John Milton and the naturalist Charles Darwin, during the celebrations for the 800th anniversary of the University, were both placed at the foreground as two of the four most iconic individuals in the University's history.
The college has educated Nobel Laureates including Martin Evans, James Meade, Alexander R. Todd, Baron Todd and Duncan Haldane, it is the University's 6th largest producer of Nobel Prize winners. Some of the college's other famous alumni include comedians Sacha Baron Cohen, John Oliver and Andy Parsons, Lord Louis Mountbatten of Burma, South African Prime Minister Jan Smuts, historian Simon S
Francis Jeune or François Jeune was a Jersey-born academic and churchman who served as Dean of Jersey Master of Pembroke College and Bishop of Peterborough. Born at Saint Aubin and educated at Rennes, Jeune proceeded to Pembroke College, Oxford as a scholar in 1822, graduating BA in 1827, BCL and DCL in 1834, he was a Fellow of Pembroke 1830–1837. In 1832 Jeune travelled to Canada as secretary to Sir John Colborne, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, as tutor to Colborne's sons. Jeune was Chief Master of King Edward's School, Birmingham from 1835 to 1838, rebuilding the school buildings and reforming the curriculum. Since 1951 Jeune House has been named after him, competing in the school's annual Cock House Championship. In 1838 Jeune was appointed Dean of Rector of the Parish Church of St Helier, he participated in the founding of Victoria College, Jersey. Jeune returned to Oxford as Master of Pembroke College in 1844, he was instrumental in academic reforms at Oxford, from 1850 served on the seven-man Royal Committee of Inquiry into the state of Oxford and its colleges, the committee's report leading to the reforming Oxford University Act 1854.
He was Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University from 1858 to 1862. Appointed Dean of Lincoln in January 1864, Jeune soon vacated that office when appointed Bishop of Peterborough. Jeune was consecrated as bishop on St Peter's Day 1864, by Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury at Canterbury Cathedral, his son Francis Henry Jeune became Baron St Hélier. Boase, G. C.. "Jeune, Francis". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 29. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British Royal Family since the 17th century, is the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, Princess Eugenie and her husband Jack Brooksbank, the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, the Duke and Duchess of Kent, Prince and Princess Michael of Kent. Today, the State Rooms are open to the public and managed by the independent charity Historic Royal Palaces, a nonprofit organisation that does not receive public funds; the offices and private accommodation areas of the Palace remain the responsibility of the Royal Household and are maintained by the Royal Household Property Section. The palace displays many paintings and other objects from the Royal Collection. Kensington Palace was a two-storey Jacobean mansion built by Sir George Coppin in 1605 in the village of Kensington; the mansion was purchased in 1619 by Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham and was known as Nottingham House.
Shortly after William and Mary assumed the throne as joint monarchs in 1689, they began searching for a residence better suited for the comfort of the asthmatic William, as Whitehall Palace was too near the River Thames, with its fog and floods, for William's fragile health. In the summer of 1689, William and Mary bought Nottingham House from Secretary of State Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham for £20,000, they instructed Sir Christopher Wren, Surveyor of the King's Works to begin an immediate expansion of the house. In order to save time and money, Wren kept the structure intact and added a three-storey pavilion at each of the four corners, providing more accommodation for the King and Queen and their attendants; the Queen's Apartments were in the King's in the south-east. Wren re-oriented the house to face west, building north and south wings to flank the approach, made into a proper cour d'honneur, entered through an archway surmounted by a clock tower; the palace was surrounded by straight cut solitary lawns, formal stately gardens, laid out with paths and flower beds at right angles, after the Dutch fashion.
The royal court took residence in the palace shortly before Christmas 1689, for the next seventy years, Kensington Palace was the favoured residence of British monarchs, although the official seat of the Court was and remains at St. James's Palace, which has not been the actual royal residence in London since the 17th century. Additional improvements soon after included Queen Mary's extension of her apartments by building the Queen's Gallery and, after a fire in 1691, the King's Staircase was rebuilt in marble and a Guard Chamber was constructed, facing the foot of the stairs. William had constructed the South Front, to the design of Nicholas Hawksmoor, which included the Kings' Gallery where he hung many works from his picture collection. Mary II died of smallpox in the palace in 1694, in 1702, William suffered a fall from a horse at Hampton Court and was brought to Kensington Palace, where he died shortly afterwards from pneumonia. After William III's death, the palace became the residence of Queen Anne.
She had Christopher Wren complete the extensions that William and Mary had begun, resulting in the section known as the Queen's Apartments, with the Queen's Entrance, the plainly decorated Wren designed staircase, that featured shallow steps so that Anne could walk down gracefully. These were used by the Queen to give access between the private apartments and gardens. Queen Anne's most notable contribution to the palace were the gardens, she commissioned the Hawksmoor designed Orangery, modified by John Vanbrugh, built for her in 1704. The level of decoration of the interior, including carved detail by Grinling Gibbons, reflects its intended use, not just as a greenhouse, but as a place for entertaining. A magnificent 30 acre baroque parterre, with sections of clipped scrolling designs punctuated by trees formally clipped into cones, was laid out by Henry Wise, the royal gardener. Kensington Palace was the setting of the final argument between Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough and Queen Anne; the Duchess, known for being outspoken and manipulative, was jealous of the attention the Queen was giving to Abigail Masham, Baroness Masham.
Along with the previous insensitive acts of the Duchess at the death of Anne's husband, Prince George of Denmark, who had died at Kensington Palace in October 1708, the friendship came to an abrupt end on 6 April 1710, with the two seeing each other for the last time after an argument in the Queen's Closet. Queen Anne died at Kensington Palace on 1 August 1714. George I spent lavishly on new royal apartments, creating three new state rooms known as the Privy Chamber, the Cupola Room and the Withdrawing Room, he hired the unknown William Kent in 1722 to decorate the state rooms, which he did with elaborately painted trompe l'oeil ceilings and walls. The Cupola Room was Kent's first commission for the King; the octagonal coffering in the domed ceiling was painted in gold and blue, terminated in a flat panel decorated with the Star of the Order of the Garter. The walls and woodwork were painted brown and gold to contrast with the white marble pilasters and niches which were surmounted with gilded statuary.
George I was pleased with his work, between 1722, 1727, Kent oversaw the decoration and picture hanging for all of the royal apartments at Kensington Palace. Kent's final commission was the King's Grand Staircase which he painted with 45 intriguing courtiers from the Georgian court, including the King's Turkish servants Mahomet and Mustapha, Peter'the wild boy' as well as himself along with his mistress. King George I
Loughborough Grammar School
Loughborough Grammar School founded in 1495 by Thomas Burton, is an independent school for boys in Loughborough, England. The school has 910 day boys and 60 boarders, it is one of four schools known as the Loughborough Endowed Schools, along with Loughborough High School, Fairfield Preparatory School and Loughborough Amherst School. The Schools Foundation are separate independent schools in their own right but share a board of governors. In line with the charitable intent of its founders, Loughborough Grammar School and Loughborough High School offer a number of means-tested bursaries, called School Assisted Places, which cover up to 100% of fees. LGS was founded after Thomas Burton, a prosperous wool merchant from Loughborough, left money for priests to pray for his soul upon his death in 1495. Loughborough is one of England's oldest schools, pre-dating similar institutions such as Harrow and Stowe by a number of centuries. Alongside Winchester College, Harrow School, Monmouth School, Eton College, Dulwich College and Radley College, it is one of a small number of independent boarding schools in Britain that remain for boys only.
Notable old boys include: Sir Thomas Abney. Former masters include author Colin Dexter; the school was founded in the Parish Church in the centre of Loughborough in 1495, but was moved by the trustees of the Burton Charity to its present location in 1852. A purpose-built site on Burton Walks became its permanent home consisting of the main school building, lodgings and a gatehouse at the Leicester Road entrance; these buildings were Grade II Listed in the 1980s. The school celebrated its quincentenary in 1995, when it was visited by HM Queen Elizabeth II. During her visit the Queen opened the new English block, the "Queen's Building", which includes a state of the art drama studio. LGS is based on a multi-acre campus on the south side of Loughborough town centre. Our Lady's Convent School is situated on Gray Street, about 5 minutes' walk away from the main campus; the core of the LGS campus is the quadrangle, on the eastern side of Burton Walks. Dating from 1850, the Tower, consisting of the Victorian Gothic tower, original gymnasium and hall are at the head of the quadrangle, nowadays accommodating the History department and Sixth Form common room, are the oldest buildings on the current site.
The quadrangle is completed by School House, the Queen's Building, the Barrow Building, the Cope Building on the north side and the Library and old laboratory buildings on the south side. The Tower and School House are both grade II listed, as is the gatehouseOn the western side of Burton Walks are located the Ireland Building, the Norman Walter Building, Murray Building, Pullinger Building as well as the Hodson Hall, where most school functions and assemblies are held, the Burton Hall a dining hall, the Art and Design department, Sports Hall, swimming pool and the Combined Cadet Force's buildings. A number of houses on this side of the Walks are now owned by the School, including Buckland House, the administrative hub of the School, containing the Headmaster and Deputy Headmasters' offices as well as the general office. Other houses include Red House used for music lessons but now occupied by the Business Studies and Politics departments as well as reprographics. Both the Headmaster of the Grammar School and the Headmistress of the High School traditionally reside in properties on the Walks.
The astroturf tennis and hockey pitches are not part of the Grammar School, but are shared with the High School, although a new hockey pitch purely for the Grammar School was opened in January 2019. The Music School, is another of these shared buildings, it includes a recital hall as well as practice rooms and recording facilities. In addition to the main campus, the School owns a 70-acre site at the nearby village of Quorn, consisting of sports facilities, including rugby, cricket pitches and athletics; the Burton Chapel is located in Loughborough's Parish Church, school services are held in both this chapel and a second chapel located in the School's quadrangle. There is a public right of way along Burton Walks connecting the council estate of Shelthorpe with Loughborough town centre. Candidates sit an entrance examination to gain admission to the school, in January of Year 6, so as to enter Year 7 at the age of 11. However, the middle school system that still prevails in North West Leicestershire led the School to introduce a smaller Year 6 intake for pupils leaving their primary schools after Year 5, as happens in a middle school system.
There is a 13+ exam, for those wishing to enter at Year 9, 16+ entrance based on GCSE performance for boys wishing to enter at Sixth Form level. In keeping with many other Independent Schools, the choice of subjects at the school tends to be more traditional; the most popular subjects at A Level
Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, with a population of 196,640 in 2015. Part of Northamptonshire, it is 75 miles north of London, on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea 30 miles to the north-east; the railway station is an important stop on the East Coast Main Line between Edinburgh. The city is 70 miles east of Birmingham, 38 miles east of Leicester, 81 miles south of Kingston upon Hull and 65 miles west of Norwich; the local topography is flat, in some places the land lies below sea level, for example in parts of the Fens to the east of Peterborough. Human settlement in the area began before the Bronze Age, as can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the current city centre with evidence of Roman occupation; the Anglo-Saxon period saw the establishment of a monastery, which became Peterborough Cathedral. The population grew after the railways arrived in the 19th century, Peterborough became an industrial centre noted for its brick manufacture.
After the Second World War, growth was limited until designation as a New Town in the 1960s. Housing and population are expanding and a £1 billion regeneration of the city centre and surrounding area is under way; as in much of the United Kingdom, industrial employment has fallen, with a significant proportion of new jobs in financial services and distribution. EtymologyThe town's name changed to Burgh from the late tenth century after Abbot Kenulf had built a defensive wall around the abbey, developed into the form Peterborough; the contrasting form Gildenburgh is found in the 12th century history of the abbey, the Peterborough version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and in a history of the abbey by the monk Hugh Candidus. Present-day Peterborough is the latest in a series of settlements which have at one time or other benefited from its site where the Nene leaves large areas of permanently drained land for the fens. Remains of Bronze Age settlement and what is thought to be religious activity can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the city centre.
The Romans established a fortified garrison town at Durobrivae on Ermine Street, five miles to the west in Water Newton, around the middle of the 1st century AD. Durobrivae's earliest appearance among surviving records is in the Antonine Itinerary of the late 2nd century. There was a large 1st century Roman fort at Longthorpe, designed to house half a legion, or about 3,000 soldiers. Peterborough was an important area of ceramic production in the Roman period, providing Nene Valley Ware, traded as far away as Cornwall and the Antonine Wall, Caledonia. Peterborough is shown by its original name Medeshamstede to have been an Anglian settlement before AD 655, when Sexwulf founded a monastery on land granted to him for that purpose by Peada of Mercia, who converted to Christianity and was ruler of the smaller Middle Angles sub-group, his brother Wulfhere murdered his own sons converted and finished the monastery by way of atonement. Hereward the Wake rampaged through the town in 1069 or 1070. Outraged, Abbot Turold erected a fort or castle, from his name, was called Mont Turold: this mound, or hill, is on the outside of the deanery garden, now called Tout Hill, although in 1848 Tot-hill or Toot Hill.
The abbey church was rebuilt and enlarged in the 12th century. The Peterborough Chronicle, a version of the Anglo-Saxon one, contains unique information about the history of England after the Norman conquest, written here by monks in the 12th century; this is the only known prose history in English between the conquest and the 14th century. The burgesses received their first charter from "Abbot Robert" – Robert of Sutton; the place suffered materially in the war between King John and the confederate barons, many of whom took refuge in the monastery here and in Crowland Abbey, from which sanctuaries they were forced by the king's soldiers, who plundered the religious houses and carried off great treasures. The abbey church became one of Henry VIII's retained, more secular, cathedrals in 1541, having been assessed at the Dissolution as having revenue of £1,972.7s.0¾d per annum. When civil war broke out, Peterborough was divided between supporters of King Charles I and the Long Parliament; the city lay on the border of the Eastern Association of counties which sided with Parliament, the war reached Peterborough in 1643 when soldiers arrived in the city to attack Royalist strongholds at Stamford and Crowland.
The Royalist forces were defeated within a few weeks and retreated to Burghley House, where they were captured and sent to Cambridge. While the Parliamentary soldiers were in Peterborough, they ransacked the cathedral, destroying the Lady Chapel, chapter house, high altar and choir stalls, as well as mediaeval decoration and records. Housing and sanitary improvements were effected under the provisions of an Act of Parliament passed in 1790. After the dissolution the dean and chapter, who succeeded the abbot as lords of the manor, appointed a high bailiff and the constables and other borough officers were elected at their court leet. Among the privileges claimed by the abbot as early as the 13th century was that of ha