Southdale Center is a shopping mall located in Edina, Minnesota, a suburb of the Twin Cities. It opened in 1956 and is the oldest enclosed, climate-controlled shopping mall in the United States. Southdale Center comprises 1,297,608 square feet of leasable retail space, contains 106 retail tenants; the mall is anchored by Macy's. Victor Gruen, the center's architect, designed the mall to challenge the "car-centric" America, rising in the 1950s. Since its opening in 1956, Southdale has suffered through high vacancy rates and several store closures, but has been able to recover in recent years. Several additions have been performed on the building, including a 2011 renovation which involved the construction of a brand new food court. Southdale Center continues to use much of its original structure despite these renovations, has been the host of several charity and community events throughout the years. Southdale Center was developed by the Dayton Company and designed by Victor Gruen, an Austrian immigrant and socialist.
Gruen was a European-style socialist. Southdale Center was loosely modeled on the arcades of several populated European cities and purposely included "eye-level display cases" to "lure customers into stores". Gruen imaged that Southdale would include "a medical center and residences, not just a parade of glitzy stores." The first plans unveiled for the shopping center were announced in 1952 by Gruen and Minnesota native, Donald Dayton. Groundbreaking for Southdale took place on October 29, 1954. Due to Minnesota's harsh climate in the winter, Gruen constructed the center with a roof and air-conditioning system capable of maintaining a comfortable temperature of 75 °F year-round; the mall was anchored by Dayton's, Donaldson's, Woolworth, the first of which developed the center. Over 40,000 visitors attended the grand opening ceremony for the center on the morning of October 8, 1956. An additional 188,000 customers visited the mall throughout the following week; the center was constructed to bring the community together by "gathering art and entertainment under one roof with retail."
The Dayton's store was modeled after Dayton's flagship store in Minnesota. In November 1956, organic architect Frank Lloyd Wright visited the mall as part of a tour of new buildings in Minnesota, he unfavorably added that Gruen "should have left downtown, downtown." Over the early years of Southdale, several tenants and restaurants opened in the center. A restaurant called Sidewalk Cafe, was an "outdoor"-themed restaurant though the venue was enclosed. JCPenney, a Plano, Texas-based department store, announced their interest in opening a location at Southdale Center. An addition to the mall was constructed, allowing JCPenney to open a 247,902 square feet store in 1972. Along with the new anchor store came an entire new mall corridor connecting JCPenney to the original structure of the mall. During 1976, construction of a new shopping center directly across the street from Southdale occurred; the construction resulted in an upscale shopping center. In 1987, Donaldson's announced the discontinuation of their chain of stores, which would shut one of the mall's original anchors.
Instead, Donaldson's merged with Chicago-based department chain Carson Pirie Scott. In 1991, Dayton's announced plans to construct a larger store directly north of their current location; these plans included the demolition of the original Dayton's store to be replaced with more stores, plus a larger "garden court", the construction of various multi-level parking garages. On June 30, 1997, Southdale Center was sold to the O'Connor Group, a New York-based real estate company for $125 million. Around this time, Southdale converted their basement into a singular anchor store, which became Marshalls. Dayton's became Marshall Field's in 2001. During the early 2000s, following fear of competition from nearby Eden Prairie Center and Mall of America, Southdale announced further plans to renovate the center again. A complete remodeling of the center occurred in 2001, followed by a large addition to the southern half of the property. "The District on France" included several "upscale" dining options, including California Pizza Kitchen, The Cheesecake Factory, Maggiano's Little Italy.
A renovation of the less-traveled third floor occurred, with the addition of teen-geared stores. Throughout the mid 2000s, Southdale began struggling with maintaining a low vacancy
Bullseye is a Miniature Bull Terrier and the official mascot of Target Corporation. The dog is featured in Target's commercial campaigns and in store sale signage and is used in various marketing campaigns; the dog used in marketing campaigns is female, but is used to play a male dog character. She has a pure white coat, has Target Corporation's bullseye logo painted around her left eye hence her name; the makeup used on Bullseye is all non-toxic. Target offers the dog as a stuffed toy for special events or employee recognition; the original Target dog was American Kennel Club Ch. Kingsmere Moondoggie, affectionately known as "Smudgie." The current mascot is a descendant from the breeder Skyline Bull Terriers, located in Massachusetts. Bullseye lives on a ranch just north of Los Angeles, belonging to her owner and trainer, David McMillan, operator of Worldwide Movie Animals; the ranch is home to the Target dog Nikki, although Target will not reveal whether this is the nickname of the current Bullseye or her predecessor.
In 2004, American artist Amy Brazil was commissioned to paint an 8-foot by 8-foot portrait of Bullseye, which now hangs at Target corporate headquarters. In July 2015, Bullseye was affectionately called "Gigi" by her photographer during the opening of the new City Target located in Massachusetts; this Bullseye was rumored to have been flown in from Minneapolis for the opening
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Marshall Field's was a department store in Chicago, that grew to become a chain before being acquired by Federated Department Stores in 2005. The former flagship Marshall Field and Company Building location on State Street in the Loop of downtown Chicago was renamed Macy's on State Street in 2006 and is now one of four Macy's flagship stores. Marshall Field & Company traces its antecedents to a dry goods store opened at 137 Lake Street in Chicago, Illinois in 1852 by Potter Palmer, eponymously named P. Palmer & Company. In 1856, 21-year-old Marshall Field moved to the booming midwestern city of Chicago on the southwest shores of Lake Michigan from Pittsfield and found work at the city's then-largest dry goods firm – Cooley, Wadsworth & Company. Just prior to the American Civil War, in 1860, Field and bookkeeper Levi Z. Leiter, became junior partners in the firm known as Cooley, Farwell & Company. In 1864, the firm led by senior partner John V. Farwell, Sr. was renamed Farwell, Field & Company.
Only for Field and Leiter to soon withdraw from the partnership with Farwell when presented with the opportunity of a lifetime. Potter Palmer, plagued by ailing health, was looking to dispose of his thriving business, so on January 4, 1865, Field and Leiter entered into partnership with him and his brother Milton Palmer. So the firm of P. Palmer & Company became Field, Leiter & Company, with Palmer financing much of their initial capital as well as his own contribution. After Field and Leiter's immediate success enabled them to pay him back, Palmer withdrew two years from the partnership in 1867 to focus on his own growing real-estate interests on one of the burgeoning city's important thoroughfares, State Street, his brother, Milton Palmer, left at this time as well. The store was renamed Field, Leiter & Company, sometimes referred to as "Field & Leiter"; the buyout, did not bring an end to Potter Palmer's association with the firm. In 1868, Palmer convinced Field and Leiter to lease a new, six-story edifice he had just built at the northeast corner of State and Washington Streets.
The store was soon referred to as the "Marble Palace" owing to its costly marble stone face. When the Great Chicago Fire broke out on October 8, 1871, news of this, one of the worst conflagrations to strike an American city, reached company officials Henry Willing and Levi Leiter, who decided to load as much of their expensive merchandise as possible onto wagons and take it to Leiter's home, out of the path of the fire; the Company's drivers and teams were ordered out of the barns. Horace B. Parker, a young salesman, rushed to the store's basement, broke up boxes, built a fire in the furnace boiler so that the steam-powered elevators could be operated; these employees worked feverishly through the night to remove vital records and valuable goods to safety. At one point, the gas tank exploded; the men worked on by the glow from the approaching flames. The employees got enough steam up to operate the store's powerful pumps in the basement, volunteers went to the roof and used the store's fire hoses to wet down the roof and the wall on the side of the oncoming fire.
Early in the following morning however, the city's waterworks burned, thus ending the water supply and making further efforts useless. The last employee had scarcely exited the building when it burst into flames, shooting fire from every window; the store burned to the ground. However, as a result of the employees' herculean efforts, so much merchandise was saved that the store was able to reopen in only a few weeks in a temporary location. Six months in April 1872, Field & Leiter reopened in an unburned building at Madison and Market Streets. Salesman Parker stayed on with the Company for 45 more years, rising to the level of General Sales Manager. Two years in October 1873, Field and Leiter returned to State Street at Washington, opening in a new five-story store at their old location they now leased from the Singer Sewing Machine Company, Palmer having sold the land site to finance his own rebuilding activities; this store was expanded in 1876, only to be destroyed by fire again in November 1877.
Tenacious and Leiter had a new temporary store opened by the end of the month at a lakefront exposition hall they leased temporarily from the city, located at what is now the site of the present Art Institute of Chicago. Meanwhile, the Singer company had speculatively built a new larger, six-story building on the ruins of their old 1873 store, after some contention, was bought by Field and Leiter. Field, Leiter & Company now reclaimed their traditional location at the northeast corner of State and Washington for the last time in April 1879. In January 1881, with the support of his junior partners, bought out Levi Z. Leiter, renaming the business "Marshall Field & Company"; as Palmer had before, Leiter retired to tend his significant real estate investments, which included commissioning a department store, Second Leiter Building in 1891 at State Street and Van Buren to house Siegel, Cooper & Company. In 1932, this building was leased to the famous nationwide mail-order firm Sears, Roebuck & Company.
In 1887, the landmark seven-story Henry Hobson Richardson-designed, Romanesque-styled, Marshall Field's Wholesale Store opened on Fran
A Sunday school is an educational institution Christian in character. They were first set up in the 1780s in England to provide education to working children. Today, Sunday school has become the generic name for many different types of religious education pursued and conducted on Sundays by various denominations. William King started a Sunday school in 1751 in Dursley and suggested that Robert Raikes start a similar one in Gloucester. Raikes was editor of the Gloucester Journal, he wrote an article in his journal, as a result many clergymen supported schools, which aimed to teach the youngsters reading, cyphering and a knowledge of the Bible. In 1785, 250,000 English children were attending Sunday school. There were 5,000 in Manchester alone. By 1835, the Society for the Establishment and Promotion of Sunday Schools had distributed 91,915 spelling books, 24,232 Testaments and 5,360 Bibles; the Sunday school movement was cross-denominational. Financed through subscription, large buildings were constructed that could host public lectures as well as provding classrooms.
Adults would attend the same classes as the infants. In some towns, the Methodists built their own; the Anglicans set up their own National schools that would act as day schools. These schools were the precursors to a national system of education; the role of the Sunday schools changed with the Education Act 1870 which provided universal elementary education. In the 1920s they promoted sports, ran Sunday School Leagues, they became social centres hosting amateur dramatics and concert parties. By the 1960s, the term Sunday school could refer to the building and to education classes. By the 1970s the largest Sunday school had been demolished; the first recorded Sunday school opened in 1751 in Nottingham. Hannah Ball made another early start, founding a school in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire,in 1769. However, the pioneer of Sunday schools is said to be Robert Raikes, editor of the Gloucester Journal, who in 1781, after prompting from William King, recognised the need of children living in the Gloucester slums.
He opened a school in the home of a Mrs Meredith, operating it on a Sunday - the only day that the boys and girls working in the factories could attend. Using the Bible as their textbook, the children learned to write. In 18th-century England, education was not compulsory; the wealthy educated their children at home, with hired governesses or tutors for younger children. Boys of that class were sent away to boarding schools, hence these fee-based educational establishments were known as public schools; the town-based middle class may have sent their sons to grammar schools, while daughters were left to learn what they could from their mothers or from their fathers' libraries. The children of factory workers and farm labourers received no formal education, worked alongside their parents six days a week, sometimes for more than 13 hours a day. By 1785 over 250,000 children throughout England attended schools on Sundays. In 1784 many new schools opened, including the interdenominational Stockport Sunday School, which financed and constructed a school for 5,000 scholars in 1805.
In the late-19th century this was accepted as being the largest in the world. By 1831 it was reported. Robert Raikes's schools were seen as the precursors of the English state education system; the first Sunday school in London opened at Surrey Chapel under Rowland Hill. By 1831 1,250,000 children in Great Britain, or about 25 per cent of the eligible population, attended Sunday schools weekly; the schools provided basic lessons in literacy alongside religious instruction. In 1833, "for the unification and progress of the work of religious education among the young", the Unitarians founded their Sunday School Association, as "junior partner" to the British and Foreign Unitarian Association, with which it set up offices at Essex Hall in Central London; the work of Sunday schools in the industrial cities was supplemented by "ragged schools", by publicly-funded education under the terms of the Elementary Education Act 1870. Sunday schools continued alongside such increasing educational provision, new forms developed such as the Socialist Sunday Schools movement, which began in the United Kingdom in 1886.
The earliest recorded Sunday school programme in Ireland goes back to 1777 when Roman Catholic priest Daniel Delany - Bishop Daniel Delany of Kildare and Leighlin - started a school in Tullow, County Carlow. This was a sophisticated system which involved timetables, lesson plans and various teaching activities; this system spread to other parishes in the diocese. By 1787 in Tullow alone there were 700 students and girls, men and women, 80 teachers; the primary intent of this Sunday School system was the teaching of the Catholic faith. With the coming of Catholic Emancipation in Ireland and the establishment of the National Schools system, which meant that the Catholic faith could be taught in school, the Catholic Sunday School system became unnecessary; the Church of Ireland Sunday School Society was founded in 1809. The Sabbath School Society of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland was founded in 1862; the American Sunday school system was first begun by Samuel Slater in his textile mills
Lakewood Cemetery is a large private, non-sectarian cemetery located in Minneapolis, United States. It is located at 3600 Hennepin Avenue at the southern end of the Uptown area, it is noted for its chapel, on the National Register of Historic Places and was modeled after the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. About 250 acres in size, Lakewood memorializes the dead with more than 100,000 monuments and markers. Long considered one of the most beautiful cemeteries in the country, it was modeled after the rural cemeteries of 19th-century France, such as Père-Lachaise in Paris; when Lakewood was established in 1871 rural cemeteries were becoming more popular as part of a growing trend away from churchyard burials in the heart of the city. In July 1871 Colonel William S. King, local businessman and newspaper publisher, proposed to community leaders of the city that they work together to establish a cemetery "on some of the beautiful locations out near the lakes, where the encroachments of the city would never interfere."
In August of the same year a meeting was held for establishing the Lyndale Cemetery Association. According to the minutes of the original meeting recorded by Thomas Lowry, "that after an examination of various localities they had chosen the land owned by William S. King lying between Lakes Calhoun and Harriet." Colonel King agreed to sell his land for the purpose at a cost of $21,000, "to be paid back over a year at 7 percent interest." The first trustees voted to raise $25,000 to purchase the land and make improvements at a time when the cost of a home in Minneapolis was about $500. The money was raised by selling 250 shares of stock at $100 a piece, two-thirds of, purchased by the trustees themselves; the remaining balance was sold to other local investors. In April 1872 Superintendent A. B. Barton and the board of trustees employed C. W. Folsom, Superintendent of Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts to develop plans for the new cemetery. In October 1872 the Association reacquired all stocks, sold to the public.
The public dedication of Lakewood was held on September 16, 1872, with "a large number of lots being selected at the close of the exercise by the citizens present." Many of the earliest lots sold in the 1870s-1880s remained unused until 1972 when they were reclaimed for resale to the public. The first person buried in Lakewood Cemetery was Maggie Menzel who died on January 24, 1872 at the age of nineteen. Architect Harry Wild Jones designed the cemetery's chapel which began construction in August 1908. Built of the finest materials, the chapel seats about 200 and is renowned for its beauty and superb acoustics; the dome is 65 feet high with 24 stained glass windows inset its full circumference. Charles R. Lamb of New York orchestrated the design of the chapel's interior mosaic artwork. Six skilled artists of Italy were enlisted to create 10 million tessellae in Venice, which were shipped to Lakewood where those same artists performed the arduous task of assembling them in the chapel's interior.
Completed in 1910, the chapel's total cost of construction was $150,000. Lakewood Chapel was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 20, 1983. Cremation services have continued to the present day. In 1965-67 a community mausoleum and columbarium was built with enough space for over 5000 crypts and niches. One of the building's more notable features are the 24 eight-foot stained glass windows by Willet Stained Glass Studios of Philadelphia. A large reflecting pool just outside the mausoleum's east side extends toward the garden crypt area and Lakewood's historic chapel nearby. In 2012, a new Garden Mausoleum, designed by HGA Architects of Minneapolis, was opened alongside the reflecting pool, adding a further 879 crypts and 4,620 cremation niches. Since its inception in 1872 Lakewood has continued to operate as a non-profit, non-denominational cemetery providing funeral services to the public. Many Minneapolis streets and monuments bear the names of the Lakewood's original founders — Thomas Lowry, William D. Washburn, Charles M. Loring, to name a few.
The cemetery itself memorializes many notable persons, including former Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey, Civil War General Lewis A. Grant, Senator Paul Wellstone, killed in a plane crash in 2002. Albert Abdallah SR, founder of Abdallah Candies Cedric Adams and radio personality of Minnesota Buzz Arlett, American baseball player, sometimes known as the "Babe Ruth of the minor leagues." Curt Carlson, founder of Radisson Hotels H. David Dalquist, inventor of the Bundt pan, founder of Nordic Ware Ron Daws, one of three USA 1968 Mexico Olympic Marathon racers. S. Secretary of War Barton S. Hays, artist Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the United States, U. S. Senator Muriel Humphrey, Second Lady of the United States, U. S. Senator Isaac Wilson Joyce, Methodist bishop William S. King, Republican U. S. Representative for Minnesota and journalist Robert Koehler, German-bor
Target Corporation is the eighth-largest retailer in the United States, is a component of the S&P 500 Index. Founded by George Dayton and headquartered in Minneapolis, the company was named Goodfellow Dry Goods in June 1902 before being renamed the Dayton's Dry Goods Company in 1903 and the Dayton Company in 1910; the first Target store opened in Roseville, Minnesota in 1962 while the parent company was renamed the Dayton Corporation in 1967. It became the Dayton-Hudson Corporation after merging with the J. L. Hudson Company in 1969 and held ownership of several department store chains including Dayton's, Hudson's, Marshall Field's, Mervyn's. Target established itself as the highest-earning division of the Dayton-Hudson Corporation in the 1970s; the company has found success as a cheap-chic player in the industry. The parent company was renamed the Target Corporation in 2000 and divested itself of its last department store chains in 2004, it suffered from a massive and publicized security breach of customer credit card data and the failure of its short-lived Target Canada subsidiary in the early 2010s but experienced revitalized success with its expansion in urban markets within the United States.
As of February 2, 2019, Target operates 1,844 stores throughout the United States. The company is ranked No. 39 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Their retail formats include the discount store Target, the hypermarket SuperTarget, "flexible format" stores named CityTarget and TargetExpress before being consolidated under the Target branding. Target is recognized for its emphasis on "the needs of its younger, image-conscious shoppers", whereas its rival Walmart more relies on its strategy of "always low prices"; the Westminster Presbyterian Church in downtown Minneapolis burned down during the Panic of 1893. Without insurance coverage to cover the financial loss, the congregation found itself unable to rebuild; the church appealed to parishioner George Dayton to purchase an empty corner lot adjacent to the original church in its possession. Dayton convinced the Reuben Simon Goodfellow Company to move its nearby Goodfellows department store into the newly erected building in 1902, although its owner retired altogether and sold his interest in the store to Dayton.
The store was renamed the Dayton Dry Goods Company in 1903, was shortened to the Dayton Company in 1910. The company made its first expansion with the acquisition of the Minneapolis-based jeweler J. B. Hudson & Son right before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Dayton died in 1938 and was succeeded by his son Nelson as the president of the $14 million business. Nelson died in 1950 and was replaced by his own son Donald, who with his cousins replaced the Presbyterian guidelines set by his predecessors with a more secular approach; the company acquired the Lipman's department store company during the 1950s and operated it as a separate division. John F. Geisse developed the concept of upscale discount retailing while working for the Dayton Company. Using his concepts, the company opened its first Target discount store at 1515 West County Road B in the Saint Paul suburb of Roseville, Minnesota; the name "Target" originated from publicity director Stewart K. Widdess, was intended to prevent consumers from associating the discount store with the department store.
It opened three additional units in the first year, reported its first gain in 1965 with sales reaching $39 million. That decade, B. Dalton Bookseller was formed as a subsidiary of the Dayton Company; the parent company acquired the jewelers Shreve & Co. and J. E. Caldwell, the Pickwick Book Shops, the electronics and appliances chain Lechmere, it went public with its first offering of common stock, built its first distribution center in Fridley, Minnesota. In 1969, the Dayton Company itself merged with the Detroit-based J. L. Hudson Company, together formed the Dayton-Hudson Corporation; the new company, at the time the 14th-largest retailer in the United States, consisted of Target and the department stores Dayton's, Diamond's, Hudson's, John A. Brown, Lipman's. Target reached $200 million in sales while Dayton-Hudson acquired Team Electronics and the jewelers C. D. Peacock, Inc. and Jessop and Sons in the 1970s. Target reported a decrease in profits in 1972, due to the rapid pace of expansion with the purchase and conversion of several former Arlan's department store locations.
New management marked down merchandise to reduce its overstock and only opened one new location that year, Target became Dayton-Hudson's top revenue producer in 1975. Dayton-Hudson was established as the seventh-largest general merchandise retailer in the United States with its acquisition of Mervyn's in 1978. Dayton-Hudson sold Lipman's to Marshall Field's and acquired the discount store chain Ayr-Way in 1980, expanded into the West Coast market with the purchase and conversion of several FedMart stores in 1982, it sold the Dayton-Hudson Jewelers subsidiary to Henry Sons of Montreal. The company founded the Plums off-price clothing store with four locations in the Los Angeles area in 1983. In 1985, the company started R. G. Branden's, a chain that