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South African Class 16DA 4-6-2 1928

The South African Railways Class 16DA 4-6-2 of 1928 was a steam locomotive. In 1928, the South African Railways placed six Class 16DA steam locomotives with a 4-6-2 Pacific type wheel arrangement in passenger train service. Eight more entered service in 1929. Further orders for locomotives similar to the Class 16D Pacific type locomotive were placed for the South African Railways in 1928; the design of the earlier engines was modified by the Chief Mechanical Engineer, Colonel F. R. Collins DSO, along the same lines as his design of the Class 15CA Mountain type; this consisted of a locomotive bar frame, shorter to end at the front of the firebox, with a bridle casting to create a widened frame extension below the firebox and the cab to the rear dragbox to gain more ashpan room under the firebox. These redesigned locomotives were designated Class 16DA and were built by two manufacturers in 1928 and 1929; the first six, numbered in the range from 868 to 873, were built in Germany by Hohenzollern Locomotive Works and entered service in 1928.

Another eight locomotives, numbered in the range from 843 to 850, were built in the United States of America by Baldwin Locomotive Works and entered service in 1929. The Hohenzollern and Baldwin-built Class 16DA locomotives differed from the predecessor Class 16D only by virtue of its shortened frame and bridle casting, the Class 16D having had a frame extending all the way from the front buffer beam to the rear dragbox, they used the same Type KT tenders with a coal capacity of 14 long tons and a water capacity of 6,000 imperial gallons. As delivered, they had 60 inches diameter coupled wheels and their cylinders were of 22 inches bore and 26 inches stroke, their boiler operating pressure was set at 195 pounds per square inch. During the 1940s six of these locomotives, three from each manufacturer group, were retyred with 63 inches diameter tyres on their coupled wheels. To not have their tractive effort reduced by the larger coupled wheels, their cylinders were reamed from a bore of 22 to 23 inches and their operating boiler pressure was raised to 205 pounds per square inch.

All the modified locomotives remained classified as Class 16DA. When the larger tyres were fitted, the old tyres were left in position and turned down on the wheel centres to serve as liners and the new tyres were shrunk on over the liners; the practice of increasing the diameter of coupled wheels, wheel spacing and other considerations permitting, was begun by A. G. Watson was continued by his successors; the reduction of tractive effort caused by the larger wheels was made up by increasing boiler pressures or by fitting larger cylinders or both, as required. This policy resulted in more mileage between heavy repairs, less cost-per-mile on repairs and locomotives capable of higher speeds; the Class 16DA Pacifics were placed in passenger service between Johannesburg and Kimberley where they worked trains like the Union Express and Union Limited, which became the Blue Train after the Second World War. From 1930 the new Henschel-built wide-firebox Class 16DA took over this duty. In 1939-1940, when new air-conditioned rolling stock was placed in service on the Union Limited and Union Express services between Cape Town and Johannesburg, all the Class 16DA and Class 16E locomotives were transferred to Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State.

From here, they continued to work passenger trains north and south, including the Orange Express, until the Class 15F replaced them and they were relegated to suburban and local passenger train work. By the early 1950s, the suburban trains to Lynchfield and Melorane were handled by narrow-firebox Class 16DA locomotives which only worked mainline passenger trains by then, they were withdrawn from service in 1973. Four of the Baldwin-built locomotives were sold into industrial service. No. 844 went to Hlobane Colliery in Natal and to Umgala Colliery. Numbers 845, 847 and 848 went to Wankie Colliery in Rhodesia, where they became numbers 5 to 7 in reverse order. After they were withdrawn in 1982, one of these three was plinthed alongside the main North road at Hwange. Another of the Baldwin-built locomotives, no. 850, is plinthed at Theunissen in the Free State. The table lists the Hohenzollern and Baldwin Class 16DA engine numbers, years built, works numbers and variations in coupled wheel sizes

Fernando Núñez de Lara

Fernando Núñez de Lara was a count of the House of Lara. He spent most of career in the service of the Kingdom of Castile, but at times served the neighbouring Kingdom of León as well, he was a courtier permanently present at court late in the reign of Alfonso VIII, whom he twice served as alférez, the highest military post in the kingdom fighting, with his brothers Álvaro and Gonzalo in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. Fernando was the son of Nuño Pérez de Lara and Teresa Fernández de Traba, who after Nuño's death in 1177 married King Ferdinand II of León, taking her children from her first marriage to live at the court. Sometime before 1202 he married Mayor. Fernando and Mayor had four children: Fernando; the breadth of Fernando's power and influence is an apparent in a lists of territories he is known to have governed. Between 1173 and 1190 Fernando held the tenencias of Aguilar de Campoo, Amaya, Carrión, Avia, he held those of Ubierna, Ordejón, Saldaña. Among the tenencias that he appear to have held only for brief periods were Asturias de Santillana, Liébana, Monzón, Cuenca de Campos, Moratinos, Toroño, Asturias de Tineo and Medina del Campo.

The large region of Asturias de Oviedo, once the heartland of the kingdom, was held by Fernando on three separate occasions, that of Bureba, a Castilian district fronting Navarre, his rule there being interrupted by Diego López II de Haro. There is evidence that Fernando sought to consolidate his lands in the region around Burgos, the capital of Castile, his daughters sold important estates in and around Burgos to the Diocese of Burgos during the 1240s, his wife made a donation to the Cathedral of Burgos. His son Álvaro donated the church of Boadilla del Camino in the Burgos region to the Diocese of Palencia. On 22 January 1189 Fernando was the recipient of royal largesse for his faithful service, receiving estates at Huerta and Carabanchel from Alfonso VIII, his career after this date was marked less by faithfulness than by opportunism, he shifted allegiance between the Castilian court and the Leonese. Between 15 January 1191 and 17 July 1194 he is traceable at the court of Alfonso IX of León, again from 24 June 1199 to 6 January 1200.

On 8 December 1199 Alfonso IX granted his new wife, Berenguela of Castile, as part of her arras a number of castles to be held by Fernando as her vassal. While the total number of royal castles thus given away was thirty, those to be kept by Fernando were located in the Asturias: Aguilar, Gozón, Buanga, Santa Cruz de Tineo, Tudela. Fernando's future stays at the Leonese court were more brief, in 1208, 1217, 1219. Fernando favoured the Benedictine house of San Salvador de Oña with a donation in 1183 and the Praemonstratensian monastery at Aguilar de Campóo in 1205, his other relations with the Church were more economic in nature, disputes. In 1208 he came to an agreement with the monastery of Sobrado in a property dispute. In 1215 he made an exchange of properties with the diocese of Palencia. In July 1216 he sold an estate at Berlanga de Duero to the convent of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos for 1,000 maravedís, at the same time was involved in a legal dispute with the prior of San Juan de Burgos in the same city.

Fernando made donations to the military orders. The Order of Calatrava, a native Castilian order, received one in 1182 and in 1193 the Hospitallers also, he had had on 8 August 1183, exchanged properties with the latter. In 1203 he made a grant to the Leonese Order of Santiago, with which probably between 1184 and 1186, he had been involved in a series of lawsuits over property at Villalón. Fernando is last mentioned on 28 April 1219. For reasons unknown, he went into exile in Africa and died at Marrakesh after being received into the Hospitaller Order on his deathbed, his body was brought back for burial at the Hospitallers' hospital founded by his parents in Puente Itero. His widow was alive as late as 1232. Barton, Simon; the Aristrocracy in Twelfth-century León and Castile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 239–40. ISBN 978 0521497275. Martínez Díez, Gonzalo. "Orígenes familiares de Santo Domingo, los linajes de Aza y Guzmán". In Aniz Iriarte, Cándido. Santo Domingo de Caleruega, en su contexto socio-político, 1170–1221.

Editorial San Esteban. Pp. 173–228. Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de León, Margarita Cecilia. Linajes nobiliarios de León y Castilla: Siglos IX-XIII. Salamanca: Junta de Castilla y León, Consejería de educación y cultura. ISBN 84-7846-781-5

Shark (American TV series)

Shark is an American legal drama television series created by Ian Biederman that aired on CBS from September 21, 2006 to May 20, 2008. The series stars James Woods. On May 10, 2008, CBS cancelled the series after two seasons; the show revolves around Sebastian Stark, a notorious Los Angeles defense attorney who becomes disillusioned with his career after his successful defense of a wife-abuser results in the wife's death. Stark's relationship with the Los Angeles District Attorney's office, his staff, his daughter, forms the central plot for the series. James Woods as Sebastian Stark Deputy DA, is the protagonist of the series and head of the mayor's special unit. At the beginning he does not get along well with his team. Jeri Ryan as Jessica Devlin District Attorney first season, Assistant DA second season, District Attorney and Starks supervisors. At first she is against Stark as a prosecutor. Still, she does not always agree with Stark's methods. After her failed reelection, she is a member of Stark's team in Season 2.

Danielle Panabaker as Julie Stark, Sebastian Stark's daughter. Because her parents divorced, she moves to her father in the first episode as she decided to stay with him after her custody hearing, because "he needs her more than he'll know." Her mother went to New York City with her new partner. Sarah Carter as Madeleine Poe Assistant DA, is a prosecutor and in the first episode she joins Stark's special unit voluntarily to learn from him, she had the highest conviction rate of the entire DA's office in the last two years prior to the show's start, arguably the best lawyer of Stark's original team. She and Casey sleep together which does not burden or complicate the work. Sophina Brown as Raina Troy Assistant DA, is a prosecutor. Troy is passionate and tough, described by Stark as "brilliant" but "a contempt citation waiting to happen." Midway through the first season she begins a relationship with Stark's investigator Isaac Wright. Samuel Page as Casey Woodland Assistant DA, is a prosecutor after his father and senator gave him this post.

Only Jessica Devlin knows about it and blackmails him in the third episode so he has to provide her with information about Stark's contacts. A young, handsome lawyer from an influential family, Casey finds himself having to prove his worth to those who think he bought his way into the job, he begins a sexual relationship with Madeline Poe in spite of their disdain for each other. He left the team at the end of the first season to devote himself to his father's election campaign. Henry Simmons as Isaac Wright DA Investigator, is a former police officer, dismissed for false testimony. Stark's offer to work for him as an investigator, he takes only after much hesitation. Over time, he establishes a relationship with Raina. Kevin Alejandro as Danny Reyes Assistant DA, is a prosecutor, he joined the team in the first episode of the second season. He worked in the Department of Organized Crime in L. A. where he worked with Eastern European gangs. He has had the highest conviction rate among his peers in his six-year career.

At first he dislikes Stark, but he learns to appreciate him because he can work well with him over the law. Alexis Cruz as Martin Allende Assistant DA, is a prosecutor. In episode 11, he gets shot, he dies in the hospital. Carlos Gómez as Manuel "Manny" Delgado Mayor, is the acting mayor. In the first episode, he persuades Stark to change to the prosecutor, he sometimes opposes him to enforce his own interests. Shaun Sipos as Trevor Boyd, Julie's boyfriend Billy Campbell as Wayne Robert Callison Guest star, a ruthless serial killer, creative writing teacher and Stark's personal nemesis throughout season 1, he targeted damaged women in their 20s and tortured them to death by cutting them. After he is acquitted, Stark becomes obsessed with putting him behind bars. Kevin Pollak as Leo Cutler, is district attorney and thus Starks superior from season 2, he has since held her post. Stark and he dislike each other from the beginning - Stark considers him as an "incompetent ass crawler" in his own words Paula Marshall as Jordan Westlake a young and driven state prosecutor who helps Stark when Jessica has to leave town to help her ill father.

Trial is War. Second place is death. Truth is relative. Pick one that works. In a jury trial, there are only 12 opinions that yours is not one of them; the show first aired in the 10:00 p.m. Eastern Thursday night slot. On October 20, 2006, it was announced. CBS announced on May 16, 2007 that Shark would return for a second season to consist of 18 episodes, but to the writer's strike, it was shortened to 16 episodes. In Shark's second season, it moved to Sunday night at 10:00 p.m. switching time slots with Without a Trace and thereby competing against another rated series, ABC'

Old American Songs

Old American Songs are two sets of songs arranged by Aaron Copland in 1950 and 1952 after research in the Sheet Music Collection of the Harris Collection of American Poetry and Plays, in the John Hay Library at Brown University. Scored for voice and piano, they were reworked for baritone and orchestra. Set 1 was first performed by Peter Pears and Benjamin Britten on June 1950 at Aldeburgh; the version of Set 1 for baritone and orchestra was premiered on January 7, 1955, by William Warfield and the Los Angeles Philharmonic, conducted by Alfred Wallenstein. Set 2 was first performed by William Warfield and Aaron Copland on 25 May 1958 in Ipswich, in its orchestral form, by Grace Bumbry and the Ojai Festival Orchestra, conducted by the composer, in Ojai, California. Set 2 was recorded by Warfield and Copland on August 18, 1953, for Columbia Records but not publicly performed until the above-mentioned date in Ipswich. Set 1 The Boatman's Dance The Dodger Long Time Ago Simple Gifts I Bought Me a Cat Set 2 The Little Horses Zion’s Walls The Golden Willow Tree At the River Ching-A-Ring Chaw Both sets are published by Boosey & Hawkes.

The voice and piano versions are transposed to any register. Old American Songs have been recorded by many singers, notably mezzo-soprano Marilyn Horne and the baritones Sherill Milnes, Thomas Hampson, Bryn Terfel, Thomas Quasthoff. William Warfield's recording is with the composer himself at the piano; the songs have been arranged for chorus: by Irving Fine, Raymond Wilding-White and Glenn Koponen. The third song can be sung by a chorus in unison; these transcriptions went unrecorded until 1985, when a CD featuring the Mormon Tabernacle Choir and the Utah Symphony Orchestra conducted by Michael Tilson Thomas was released. Library of Congress Video - Aaron Copland - "Old American Songs". Video - Aaron Copland - "Old American Songs"

Terrorism in Colombia

Terrorism in Colombia has occurred for the last several decades in part due to the ongoing armed conflict the country has been involved in since 1964. Perpetrators of terrorist acts in the country range from leftist guerilla forces such as the FARC, ELN and M-19, to drug cartels such as the Medellín Cartel, to right-wing paramilitary forces such as the AUC. Notable groups involve in terror attacks include: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia National Liberation Army 19th of April Movement Medellin Cartel AUC In recent years, the number of known and suspected terrorists killed, captured, or surrendered fell as terror groups changed their tactics, while casualties rose; the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia reverted to hit and run attacks rather than engage in large unit encounters. In November, 2011, security forces killed FARC leader Guillermo León Sáenz Vargas known as "Alfonso Cano." Colombia has employed a multi-agency approach to countering radicalization and discouraging violent extremism.

The government's program focuses on encouraging individual members units of the FARC and ELN to demobilize and reintegrate into society. Demobilization and reintegration programs provide medical care, psychological counseling, education benefits, job placement assistance. Recidivism rates were estimated at between 10 and 20 percent by the Colombian Agency for Reintegration. Additionally, the Ministry of Defense has organized a number of public festivals and social events with celebrity participation to discourage the recruitment of vulnerable youth. In 2013, a total of 1,350 FARC and ELN members had demobilized. February 11, 2011 – Five civilians were killed in San Miguel, Putumayo in a mortar attack; the mortar was landed near a police post along with a baby. June 25, 2011 – Suspected ELN rebels attacked a police outpost in Colon Genova, using explosives and small-arms fire. Eight civilians were killed. September 18, 2011 – Several mortars were launched at a Colombian Army base in La Macarena, Meta Department.

The attack resulted in several civilians injured. October 30, 2011 – The armored convoy of Albeiro Vanegas, Vice President of the House of Representatives was attacked by suspected ELN terrorists. Vanegas was unharmed. June 17, 2017 – An explosion at the Andino shopping mall center killed 3 people; the attack was condemned as a terrorist attack and the authors remain unknown. January 27, 2018 – Two hand grenades were thrown at the police stations of Barranquilla and Santa Rosa del Sur killing seven officers and one perpetrator; the ELN was responsible for the attack. January 17, 2019 – The guerrilla rebel group ELN took the responsibility of the explosion of a car bomb inside the General Santander National Police Academy; the attack resulted in several more injured. Crime in Colombia Narcoterrorism in Colombia Colombian conflict Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia List of violent acts related to the internal conflict in Colombia Right-wing terrorism in Colombia