Norman Eric Kirk was a New Zealand politician who served as the 29th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in 1974. Kirk joined the New Zealand Labour Party in 1943, he was mayor of Kaiapoi from 1953 until 1957. He became the leader of his party in 1964. Following a Labour victory in the 1972 election, Kirk became Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, he stressed the need for regional economic development and affirmed New Zealand's solidarity with Australia in adopting a foreign policy more independent of the United States. In 1973, he opposed French nuclear tests in the Pacific, he promoted racial equality at abroad. Kirk had a reputation as the most formidable debater of his time and once famously said that people don't want much, just "Someone to love, somewhere to live, somewhere to work and something to hope for." Due to his energy and powerful oratory, as well as his untimely death, Kirk remains one of the most popular New Zealand prime ministers. Born in Waimate, a town in South Canterbury, New Zealand, Norman Kirk came from a poor background, his household could not afford things such as daily newspapers or a radio.
Kirk did not perform well at school, left shortly before he turned thirteen. Despite this, however, he enjoyed reading, visited libraries. In particular, he enjoyed the study of geography. After leaving school, Kirk worked in a number of jobs as an assistant roof-painter and as a stationary engine driver, operating boilers in various factories, his health, however and when the New Zealand Army called him up for military service in 1941 it found him medically unfit. After recovering somewhat, he returned holding a number of different jobs. In 1943, Norman Kirk married Lucy Ruth Miller, known as Ruth, born in Taumarunui; the couple had two daughters. In 1975 Ruth Kirk was named Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In 1974, while her husband was Prime Minister, she became patron of the Society for the Protection of the Unborn Child, she took part in anti-abortion protest marches in Hamilton. She died on 20 March 2000, aged 77. In 1943, Kirk joined the Labour Party's branch in Kaiapoi, where he and his wife had decided to build a house.
Kirk bought a 1,261 m2 section at 12 Carew Street for just NZ£40. Due to a shortage of funds and building materials following World War II, Kirk built the house himself right down to the casting of the bricks; the house still stands today, albeit with an extension at the back and a hipped corrugated iron roof to replace the original leak-susceptible flat malthoid roof. In 1951, Kirk became Chairman of the party's Hurunui electorate committee. In 1953, Kirk led Labour to a surprising victory in elections for Kaiapoi's local council, he became the youngest mayor in the country at age 30; as mayor, Kirk implemented many changes. He surprised officials by studying issues intensely emerging with better knowledge of his options than the people functioning as his advisors, he resigned as mayor on 15 January 1958 and moved his family to Christchurch after being elected MP for the Lyttelton electorate. In 1954, Kirk stood as the Labour candidate for the Hurunui seat. While he increased Labour's share of the vote he did not win.
In 1957, Kirk won the Lyttelton electorate, reclaiming it for Labour after its surprise loss to the National Party in a previous election. In 1969 he transferred to the Sydenham seat. Throughout his political career, Kirk promoted the welfare state, supporting government spending for housing, health and education; as such, Kirk appeared as a champion for ordinary New Zealanders. His working-class background gave him some advantage, as ordinary voters saw many other politicians as out-of-touch and aloof. Kirk began to rise through Labour's internal hierarchy, becoming vice-president of the Party in 1963 and president in 1964. At the end of 1965 he challenged Arnold Nordmeyer for the parliamentary leadership, becoming Leader of the Opposition. Using the slogan "Make things happen", Kirk led Labour into the 1969 general election — the party did not win a majority, but it did increase both its share of the vote and number of seats to 44.2% and 39. In February 1972 Keith Holyoake was replaced by Jack Marshall.
Not this could blunt Labour’s campaign slogan, "It's Time – Time for a change, time for Labour", on 25 November 1972 Kirk led Labour to victory with a majority of 23 seats. Soon after entering office, Kirk acquired a reputation as a reforming figure; the conservative Dominion newspaper bestowed its ‘Man of the Year’ prize on him for "outstanding personal potential for leadership". A few weeks on 6 February 1973, Kirk was photographed at a Waitangi Day event holding the hand of a small Māori boy. Kirk set a frenetic pace implementing a great number of new policies. In particular, the Kirk government had a far more active foreign policy than its predecessor, taking great trouble to expand New Zealand's links with Asia and Africa. After his election as Prime Minister, Kirk withdrew all New Zealand troops from Vietnam, ending that nation's eight-year involvement in the Vietnam War; the Kirk government abolished Compulsory Military Training in New Zealand.
Minister for Social Development (New Zealand)
The Minister for Social Development is a minister in the government of New Zealand with responsibility promoting social development and welfare, is in charge of the Ministry of Social Development. The position was established in 1972; the present Minister is Carmel Sepuloni. The following individuals have been appointed as Leader of the New Zealand House of Representatives: Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. New Zealand Ministry for Social Development
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; the urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean. Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland with the formation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans; the province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngai Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour, which became a whaling station in the 1830s. In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland.
Between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin became wealthy beginning in the 1860s. In the mid-1860s, between 1878 and 1881, it was New Zealand's largest urban area; the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic and geographic reasons. Dunedin has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing and technology-based industries as well as education and tourism; the city's most important activity centres around tertiary education—Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature. Archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast.
A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied in the 14th century; the population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were Maori settlements at Whareakeake, Purakaunui and Huriawa to the north, at Taieri Mouth and Otokia to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical; the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid-17th century. These migration waves have been represented as'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that.
They were migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the'Kaika Otargo' were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill, he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin; the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the ch
1975 New Zealand general election
The 1975 New Zealand general election was held on 29 November to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament. It was the first general election in New Zealand where 18- to 20-year-olds and all permanent residents of New Zealand were eligible to vote, although only citizens were able to be elected; the incumbent Labour Party, following the sudden death of Labour leader Norman Kirk, was led by Bill Rowling, a leader, characterised as being weak and ineffectual by some political commentators. Labour's central campaign was the so-called "Citizens for Rowling" petition which attacked National leader Robert Muldoon's forthright leadership style; this campaign was seen as having backfired on Labour. The National Party responded with the formation of "Rob's Mob"; as former Minister of Finance in the previous National government, Muldoon focused on the economic impact of Labour's policies. National's campaign advertising suggested that Labour's introduced compulsory personal superannuation scheme would result in the government owning the New Zealand economy by using the workers's money.
Muldoon argued that his New Zealand superannuation scheme could be funded from future taxes rather than an additional tax on current wages. In July 1974, Muldoon as opposition leader had promised to cut immigration and to "get tough" on law and order issues, he criticized the Labour government's immigration policies for contributing to the economic recession and a housing shortage which undermined the New Zealand "way of life." During the 1975 general elections, the National Party had played a controversial electoral advertisement, criticized for stoking negative racial sentiments about Polynesian migrants. The campaign achieved notoriety due to an infamous television commercial featuring "Dancing Cossacks", produced by Hanna Barbera on behalf of National's ad agency Colenso. A consummate orator and a skilled television performer, Muldoon's powerful presence on screen increased his popularity with voters; the final results of election: National won 55 seats, Labour 32 seats. Thus Robert Muldoon replaced Bill Rowling as Prime Minister, ending the term of the Third Labour government, beginning the term of the Third National government.
The party seat numbers were an exact opposite of the 1972 election. No minor parties won seats, though the election saw the best result for New Zealand's first green political party, Values. There were 1,953,050 electors on the roll, with 1,603,733 voting. Notable electorate results included the election of two Māori MPs to general seats; the MPs in question were Rex Austin in Awarua. In Palmerston North and Western Hutt, Labour was first on election night but lost when special votes were counted; the table below shows the results of the 1975 general election: Key National Labour Social Credit Table footnotes: Atkinson, Neill. Adventures in Democracy: A History of the Vote in New Zealand. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. Chapman, George; the Years of Lightning. Wellington: AH & AW Reed. ISBN 0-589-01346-7. Gustafson, Barry; the First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. Levine, Stephen; the New Zealand General Election of 1975. Wellington: Price Milburn for New Zealand University Press.
ISBN 0-7055-0624-X. Norton, Clifford. New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946-1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. Mr Nathan the National candidate for Island Bay below a defaced poster
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
George Wood (New Zealand politician)
George Sydney Wood is a former mayor of North Shore City and a former Auckland Councillor. He was the only North Shore City mayor to be elected for three terms and represented North Shore ward on the Auckland Council between 2010 and 2016, he is now the Deputy Chair of the Devonport-Takapuna Local Board. Wood was born in Birkenhead on Auckland's North Shore, he was educated at Northcote Intermediate School and Northcote College. Wood worked for the New Zealand Police as a crime investigations manager; as a Police investigator, he worked on many inquiries and served at various times in Auckland and Palmerston North. In his final years of service, he was the manager of Police services within North Shore City. A graduate of the Royal New Zealand Air Force Command and Staff College and the Australian Institute of Police Management Sydney from where he gained a Graduate Certificate in Applied Management, he is the recipient of a New Zealand Police long service and good conduct medal awarded in 1980.
In October 1998 Wood was elected Mayor of North Shore City following a fiercely contested election. Wood was able to bring together a new style of council administration with only three standing committees and all councillors members of these committees. During his three consecutive terms as mayor, Wood was most successful in melding the council together and pushed through major reforms in relation to sewerage infrastructure improvements, revamping the strategic plan and long term funding programme for North Shore City and developing and building the Northern Busway project. Following the 2001 local government elections Wood was elected to the position of chairman of the Auckland Mayoral Forum. In this role Wood pushed through a major joint programme between the Government and Auckland councils for transport funding; this culminated in the Government passing the Local Government Auckland Amendment Act 2004 and the provision of an additional $1.6 billion of transport funding over the following ten years.
This extra funding has resulted in huge improvements to the Auckland roading and public transport networks. In April 2007, Wood acceded to pressure from Chinese officials not to attend an international cultural show by Divine Performing Arts, which contained scenes depicting the oppression of people who practice the Falun Gong spiritual system. Wood was planning to attend the show with his wife, but after a phone call from the Chinese Consular General's office he backed out, was quoted as saying: I don't want to get involved in internal People's Republic of China politics but I want to maintain a reasonable relationship with the People's Republic of China, they said, involved in Falun Gong, they indicated Falun Gong, I don't know what the true impact of that is, but it has some concerns for them. I had indicated that I would go to the show, but I'm not going to cause an international kerfuffle by going to something that I don't know anything about. I don't know anything about the Falun Gong.
I am a mayor of a city not an international diplomat and I haven't got the time to analyse the thing out. Wood stood for a fourth term as an independent mayoralty candidate in the 2007 North Shore City elections but was defeated by Andrew Williams. In the period since the October 2007 election Wood has worked behind the scenes on a number of projects relating to transport, he is vocal over the need to upgrade or replace the Auckland Harbour Bridge. Wood has strongly urged the improvement of public transport across the Auckland region whilst at the same time warning about the huge escalation in operational costs. In 2009, in the lead up to the formation of Auckland Council, he questioned whether the new Auckland mayor would be able to control the proposed Auckland Transport Agency under the new proposed model. In the 2008 New Year Honours, Wood was appointed a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to local-body affairs. In 2006, Wood indicated his support for the amalgamation of Auckland's seven city councils and boards into one'supercity' Auckland council.
Wood was one of four mayors who asked Prime Minister Helen Clark to reform the Auckland region's local government in September 2006. Subsequently the Royal Commission on Auckland Governance was formed to enquire into the future of local government across the Auckland region. Wood submitted to the Commission with Wyn Hoadley, their submission was well received by the three commissioners and received a positive report in the NZ Herald. Wood and Hoadley called for one Auckland council across the region with a mayor elected at large, 13 elected and 5 appointed specialist councillors and 13 boroughs to replace the existing councils and community boards, they recommended that an Environmental Protection Agency be appointed. The high level of debt that the seven territorial councils and the Auckland Regional Council would bring to the new council, along with the negativity by existing councils, was a major concern to Wood; the figure of $3 billion debt that the new Auckland council will need to deal with has been quoted in the media.
Wood was concerned as to how the report of the Royal Commissioners on Auckland Governance would be implemented. He believed it should be a report delivered on a broad front and not implemented in a piecemeal manner. Wood was a councillor on the Auckland Council from its inception in 2010 until 2016, he joined the Citizens and Ratepayers Association and was elected to the council on the Citizens and Ratepayers–North Shore ticket to represent the North Shore ward. He topped the poll for this ward in the election. In his inaugural speech to the council, Wood made particular reference to the need to
New Zealand National Party
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party. National was formed in 1936 through amalgamation of conservative and liberal parties and United and is New Zealand's second-oldest extant political party. National's predecessors had formed a coalition against the growing labour movement. National governed for five periods during the 20th and 21st centuries, has spent more time in government than any other party. After the 1949 general election, Sidney Holland became the first prime minister from the National Party, remained in office until 1957, he was succeeded by Keith Holyoake, soon defeated at a general election by the Labour Party in 1957. Holyoake was in office for a second period from 1960 to 1972; the party's policy platform shifted from moderate economic liberalism to increased emphasis on state interventionism under the National government of Robert Muldoon, in office from 1975 to 1984.
In 1990, Jim Bolger formed another National government, which continued the radical free-market reforms initiated by the preceding Labour government. The party has since advocated free enterprise, reduction of taxes, individual rights. After the first MMP election in 1996, the National Party governed in a coalition with the populist New Zealand First. National Party leader Jenny Shipley became New Zealand's first female prime minister in 1997; the National Party was most in government from 2008 to 2017 under John Key and Bill English. At the 2017 general election, the party gained 44.4 percent of the party vote and won 56 seats, making it the largest caucus in the House of Representatives. National was unable to form a government following the election and is the Official Opposition. Simon Bridges has been the leader of the National Party and leader of the Opposition since 27 February 2018; the National Party was formed in May 1936, but its roots go further back. The party came about as the result of a merger between the Reform Party.
The United Party gained its main support from the cities, drew upon businesses for money and upon middle class electors for votes, while the Reform Party had a rural base and received substantial support from farmers, who formed a substantial proportion of the population. The Liberal and Reform parties had competed against each other, but from 1931 until 1935 a United–Reform Coalition held power in New Zealand; the coalition went into the 1935 election under the title of the "National Political Federation", a name adopted to indicate that the grouping intended to represent New Zealanders from all backgrounds. However, because of the effects of the Great Depression and a perception that the existing coalition government had handled the situation poorly, the National Political Federation lost in 1935 to the Labour Party, the rise of which had prompted the alliance; the two parties were cut down to 19 seats between them. Another factor was a third party, the Democrat Party formed by Albert Davy, a former organiser for the coalition who disapproved of the "socialist" measures that the coalition had introduced.
The new party aided Labour's victory. In hopes of countering Labour's rise and Reform decided to turn their alliance into a single party; this party, the New Zealand National Party, was formed at a meeting held in Wellington on 13 and 14 May 1936. Erstwhile members of the United and Reform parties made up the bulk of the new party; the United Party's last leader, George Forbes, Prime Minister from 1930 until 1935, opened the conference. Hamilton led the party into its first election in 1938, he got the top job because of a compromise between Forbes and Reform leader Gordon Coates, neither of whom wished to serve under the other. Hamilton, failed to counter Labour's popular Prime Minister, Michael Joseph Savage effectively; because of this, perceptions that he remained too much under the control of Coates and because he lacked real support from his party colleagues, Hamilton failed to prevent Labour's re-election in 1938. In 1940 Sidney Holland replaced Hamilton. William Polson "acted as Holland's deputy".
One former Reform MP Herbert Kyle resigned in 1942 in protest at the "autocratic" behaviour of Holland and the new party organisation. In the 1943 election Labour's majority was reduced. In the 1946 election, National failed to unseat Labour. However, in the 1949 election, thirteen years after the party's foundation, National won power, Holland became Prime Minister. In 1949 National had campaigned on "the private ownership of production and exchange". Once in power the new Holland Government proved decidedly administratively conservative, for instance, the welfare state set up by the previous Labour Government. In 1951 the Waterfront Dispute broke out, lasting