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George Gamow

George Gamow, born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Soviet-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist. He was an early developer of Lemaître's Big Bang theory, he discovered a theoretical explanation of alpha decay via quantum tunneling, invented the first mathematical model of the atomic nucleus, the liquid drop model, worked on radioactive decay, star formation, stellar nucleosynthesis and Big Bang nucleosynthesis, molecular genetics. In his middle and late career, Gamow directed much of his attention to teaching and wrote popular books on science, including One Two Three... Infinity and the Mr Tompkins series of books; some of his books are still in print more than a half-century after their original publication. Gamow was born in Odessa, Russian Empire, his father taught Russian language and literature in high school, his mother taught geography and history at a school for girls. In addition to Russian, Gamow learned to German from a tutor. Gamow learned fluent English in his college years and later.

Most of his early publications were in German or Russian, but he switched to writing in English for both technical papers and for the lay audience. He was educated at the Institute of Physics and Mathematics in Odessa and at the University of Leningrad. Gamow studied under Alexander Friedmann for some time in Leningrad, until Friedmann's early death in 1925, he had to change dissertation advisors. At the University, Gamow made friends with three other students of theoretical physics, Lev Landau, Dmitri Ivanenko, Matvey Bronshtein; the four formed a group known as the Three Musketeers, which met to discuss and analyze the ground-breaking papers on quantum mechanics published during those years. He used the same phrase to describe the Alpher and Gamow group. On graduation, he worked on quantum theory in Göttingen, where his research into the atomic nucleus provided the basis for his doctorate, he worked at the Theoretical Physics Institute of the University of Copenhagen from 1928 to 1931, with a break to work with Ernest Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge.

He continued to study the atomic nucleus, but worked on stellar physics with Robert Atkinson and Fritz Houtermans. In 1931, Gamow was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR at age 28 – one of the youngest in the history of this organization. During the period 1931–1933, Gamow worked in the Physical Department of the Radium Institute headed by Vitaly Khlopin. Europe's first cyclotron was designed under the guidance and direct participation of Igor Kurchatov, Lev Mysovskii and Gamow. In 1932, Gamow and Mysovskii submitted a draft design for consideration by the Academic Council of the Radium Institute, which approved it; the cyclotron was not completed until 1937. In the early 20th century, radioactive materials were known to have characteristic exponential decay rates, or half-lives. At the same time, radiation emissions were known to have certain characteristic energies. By 1928, Gamow in Göttingen had solved the theory of the alpha decay of a nucleus via tunnelling, with mathematical help from Nikolai Kochin.

The problem was solved independently by Ronald W. Gurney and Edward U. Condon. Gurney and Condon did not, achieve the quantitative results achieved by Gamow. Classically, the particle is confined to the nucleus because of the high energy requirement to escape the strong nuclear potential well. Classically, it takes an enormous amount of energy to pull apart the nucleus, an event that would not occur spontaneously. In quantum mechanics, there is a probability the particle can "tunnel through" the wall of the potential well and escape. Gamow solved a model potential for the nucleus and derived from first principles a relationship between the half-life of the alpha-decay event process and the energy of the emission, discovered empirically and was known as the Geiger–Nuttall law; some years the name Gamow factor or Gamow–Sommerfeld factor was applied to the probability of incoming nuclear particles tunnelling through the electrostatic Coulomb barrier and undergoing nuclear reactions. Gamow worked at a number of Soviet establishments before deciding to flee the Soviet Union because of increased oppression.

In 1931, he was denied permission to attend a scientific conference in Italy. In 1931, he married Lyubov Vokhmintseva, another physicist in Soviet Union, whom he nicknamed "Rho" after the Greek letter. Gamow and his new wife spent much of the next two years trying to leave the Soviet Union, with or without official permission. Niels Bohr and other friends invited Gamow to visit during this period, but Gamow could not get permission to leave. Gamow said that his first two attempts to defect with his wife were in 1932 and involved trying to kayak: first a planned 250-kilometer paddle over the Black Sea to Turkey, another attempt from Murmansk to Norway. Poor weather foiled both attempts. In 1933, Gamow was granted permission to attend the 7th Solvay Conference on physics, in Brussels, he insisted on having his wife accompany him saying that he would not go alone. The Soviet authorities relented and issued passports for the couple; the two attended and arranged to extend their stay, with the help of Marie Curie and other physicists.

Over the next year, Gamow obtained temporary work at the Curie Institute, University of London, the University of Michigan. In 1934, Gamow and

Bill Rammell

William Ernest Rammell is a British Labour Party politician, the Member of Parliament for Harlow from 1997 until 2010, served as a Minister of State in several departments from 2002. In August 2012, he took up his new role as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Bedfordshire, he is chair of the university consortium MillionPlus. Rammell went to Burnt Mill Comprehensive on First Avenue in Harlow and was an occasional roadie for fellow Burnt Mill Alumni, Harlow musician Murray Torkildson. At the University of Wales, Cardiff, he studied for a BA in French, gaining a degree in 1982, he was president of Cardiff University Students' Union from 1982 to 1983. He was a management trainee at British Rail from 1983 to 1984. From 1984 to 1987, he was a Regional Officer at the National Union of Students. Rammell was a member of Harlow District Council from 1985 to 1997. From 1987 to 1989, he was head of youth services for Basildon Borough Council, he was general manager of King's College London Students' Union from 1990 to 1994, business manager of the University of London Union from 1994 to 1997.

Rammell joined Tony Blair's government in October 2002 as an assistant whip but was promoted two weeks to be a spokesperson for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Rammell, a pro-European, was supportive of joining the Single European Currency, as until 2002 he was Chair of Labour Movement for Europe. In September 2004, he was the first British government minister. In the 2005 general election, Rammell had the third smallest majority of any Labour MP, at just 97 votes; the result was so close that the final declaration had to be delayed until two days after voting, to give exhausted counting officials time to rest. In May 2005, Rammell was made Minister of State for Higher Education, he was supportive of top-up fees, claiming that without the income from such fees, estimated to be £1.4 billion, it would be necessary to put "3p or 4p on the standard rate of tax" or "put up income tax by 3%". In September 2007, he withdrew funding from some adult and continuing education courses in universities.

In February 2008, Rammell announced plans to create a national database of children's school records and exam results which would make up a publicly-owned CV. The CV and "Learner Number" would stay with the child throughout adult life until retirement and only the British government would be able to remove records from their database entry; the plan would only have applied with education being a devolved matter. In October 2008, Rammell returned to the Foreign Office, this time in the role of Minister of State, in June 2009, was moved again to the Ministry of Defence as Minister of State for the Armed Forces, he defended the Brown government's levels of spending on equipment in Afghanistan, following a soldier's death because of a lack of available helicopters. In September 2009, Rammell confirmed he had told Libya that the Prime Minister did not want to see convicted Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, serving a life sentence, die in prison. In October 2009, following Sir Thomas Legg's audit, Rammell was ordered to repay £2,782 of wrongful expenses claims.

In the 2010 general election, Rammell was defeated in Harlow by Conservative candidate Robert Halfon, who gained the seat with a majority of 4,925 votes. On 13 April 2012, it was announced Rammell was to become the new Vice-Chancellor of the University of Bedfordshire, taking up his post in August 2012 for the start of the new academic year, he had worked for Plymouth University as Deputy Vice-Chancellor with responsibility for student experience and internationalisation. Rammell married Beryl Jarhall on 1 January 1983, they have a daughter. How Rammell voted on key issues since 2001: Has never voted on a transparent Parliament. Voted for introducing a smoking ban. Voted for introducing ID cards. Voted for introducing foundation hospitals. Voted for introducing student top-up fees. Voted for Labour's anti-terrorism laws. Voted for the Iraq war. Voted against investigating the Iraq war. Voted for replacing Trident. Voted for the hunting ban. Voted for homosexual marriage. Ministerial responsibilities – DIUS Guardian Unlimited Politics – Ask Aristotle: Bill Rammell MP Bill Rammell MP BBC Politics page Visiting Israel in June 2007 Getting poor people to university in November 2006 Visiting Cuba in March 2005 Visiting North Korea in September 2004 Talking to BBC Breakfast about Harlow in July 2002

Meeting house

A meeting house is a building where religious and sometimes public meetings take place. The colonial meeting house in America was the first public building built as new villages sprang up. A meeting-house had a dual purpose as a place of worship and for public discourse, but sometimes only for "...the service of God." As the towns grew and the separation of church and state in the United States matured the buildings which were used as the seat of local government were called a town-house or town-hall. Many nonconformist Christian denominations distinguish between a Church, a body of people who believe in Christ Meeting house or chapel, a building where the church meetsThe nonconformist meeting houses do not have steeples, with the term "steeplehouses" being used to describe traditional or establishment religious buildings. Christian denominations which use the term "meeting house" to refer to the building in which they hold their worship include: Anabaptist congregations Amish congregations Mennonite congregations Congregational churches with their congregation-based system of church governance.

They use the term "mouth-houses" to emphasize their use as a place for discourse and discussion. Christadelphians The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses the term "meetinghouse" for the building where congregations meet for weekly worship services, recreational events, social gatherings. A meetinghouse differs from an LDS temple, reserved for special forms of worship. Provisional Movement Religious Society of Friends, see Friends meeting houses Spiritual Christians from Russia Some Unitarian congregations, although some prefer the term "chapel" or "church"; the Unification Church The Oxford English Dictionary states that a meeting house in England is always a "...nonconformist or dissenting place of worship..." Moot hall Congdon, Herbert Wheaton. Old Vermont Houses 1763–1850. William L. Bauhan: 1940, 1973. ISBN 978-0-87233-001-6. Duffy, John J. et al. Vermont: An Illustrated History. American Historical Press: 2000. ISBN 978-1-892724-08-3. Media related to Category:Meeting houses at Wikimedia Commons

Ernie Halter

Ernie Halter is an American singer/songwriter known as the "Cuboslavian". He was signed to Rock Ridge Music. Born in Inglewood, CA in 1974 and raised in Orange County, Halter started playing piano when he was 8, guitar when he was 14, writing his own songs when he was 16, his first disc Lo-Fidelity came out in 2005, followed by Congress Hotel in 2007. Halter's music is influenced by artists such as Beatles, Otis Redding, Stevie Wonder and The Go-Go's. Burial sampled from Halter's song'Whisper' in his 2007 album Untrue. Justin Bieber covered Halter's song "Come Home to Me" in 2011, he toured through much of the United States. Lo Fidelity Congress Hotel Christmas Starting Over Ernie Halter: Live Franklin & Vermont Labor of Love Catbird Soul 4U Official website

White Towns of Andalusia

The White Towns of Andalusia, or Pueblos Blancos, are a series of whitewashed towns and large villages in the northern part of the provinces of Cádiz and Málaga in southern Spain within the Sierra de Grazalema Natural Park. The area has been settled since prehistoric times, some of the local caves have ancient rock paintings. Iberian people, Visigoths or Arabs are some of the settlers before Modern Era that left their print. All of the villages are characterised by red or brown tiled roofs, they commonly present narrow alleyways, steep earrings, picturesque town centers with an square and town hall. Local institutions manage archeological museums with roman or arab artifacts, as well as others dedicated to local customs, crafts or trades; the reasons for the white color has been postulated to be a chemical result of the limestone used. There are proposed routes to visit some of the villages. Of special interest are the ones close to Ronda and Arcos de la Frontera. Ronda's White Towns route: Ronda, including the ancient Roman settlement of Acinipo archeological site.

Setenil de las Bodegas, some parts of the village use the rocky mountains as walls and roof of the houses. Torre Alháquime Olvera Algodonales, 16th-century town with some Roman ruins Zahara de la Sierra, it is in the Sierra de Grazalema Natural Park next to a reservoir. Grazalema Benaocaz, small village with a fortressArcos de la Frontera's White Towns route: Alcalá de los Gazules Medina Sidonia, including the Roman settlement of Asido. Arcos de La Frontera, perched on a cliff, remarkable are its Baroque churches. Bornos and Villamartín - reservoir, Roman ruins Ubrique, largest of the White Towns, high quality leather crafts among other features. Casares Jimena de la Frontera Castellar de la FronteraOther interesting villages and places to visit include: Mijas Pueblo - Burro Taxi, Old Cathedral - typical Spanish white village Garganta Verde and Ermita de la Garganta - caves with stalactites and stalagmites Puerto de las Palomas - splendid views Villaluenga del Rosario - highest of the White Towns and one of the prettiest Benamahoma - contains the Fuente de Nacimiento of Majaceite river El Bosque - trout fishing and hang gliding from here Prado del Rey - a more modern village Puerto Serrano - nice quiet town El Gastor - Balcón de los Pueblos Blancos with an interesting church Alcalá del Valle - pretty town - megalithic standing stones nearby Algar - up a mountain road Espera - panoramic views Vejer de la Frontera Frigiliana - musk wine and olive oil Bornos The climate is mild and the surrounding countryside is green and pleasant.

Tourist activities available include hiking, rock-climbing, pot-holing, horseback riding, just ambling about, enjoying nature and the local food

Sergey Zuev

Sergey Zuev is a Russian futsal player. He plays as a goalkeeper for the Moscow club Dina Moscow, played in the Russian national futsal team. Following the results of eight seasons he was voted the best goalkeeper of the Russian championship, after 2008 he was voted world’s best goalkeeper. Master of Sports. Zuev was born in Severouralsk - a small town in the Sverdlovsk region; when he was seven years old, his parents took him to a local hockey club. For a long time, Sergei played hockey as a goalkeeper, took part in various regional competitions; when I was 14-15 years old I played in the adult team in the hockey championship. The team was about to leave for a competition, there were no goalies, one was drunk, another had feaver. That's. We lost either 1: 4, or 1: 5... After that I was afraid of nothing; when playing hockey, Sergey played futsal at training sessions. Being a part of futsal club "Smena" from his native city, he won the championship of Russia among the teams of his age. On his way home, his head coach of the futsal team UPI Sergey Bannikov, who offered Zuev to become part of the OIP and to pursue a career in his club, was waiting for Sergey at the Yekaterinburg railway station.

Zuev’s debut for the students’ team within the Premier League of the Russian mini-football took place in 1997/98. That season he took part in only two games, but in the following season he took part in 25 matches and scored a goal to the gate of Ugra TSH. Sergey won a place of the first goalkeeper and was changed at the gate with his colleague, his roommate - Nicholas Bezruchenko. In 2000 Zuev became a member of Russian national team at Student World Cup in Brazil. My knees trembled once - in 2000 we went to Brazil with a student; the rival played with its strongest composition: Vander Carioca, Tobias... And in the third match I went to the field within the starting lineup, there were 9 and a half thousand people on the tribunes – I had never seen that much fans before. That's; the Russian team won bronze at that tournament, that success brought to Sergei the title of Master of Sports. In summer 2001, Zuev moved to another club of Yekaterinburg - VIZ; that club applied to the highest positions. Young goalkeeper took his place in the goal.

Due to his game VIZ took the second place in the regular championship and reached the play-off semifinal. According to the final results the Yekaterinburg club became only the fourth, but Zuev had a bright season and was recognized the best goalkeeper of the tournament. On March 20, 2002 Zuev first played in the Russian national futsal team in an exhibition game against Argentina. In August, Sergey once again became a member of a student team at the Student World Cup, but this time the Russians won the champion’s title. Zuev was keeping the goal in most of the games, including the final against Italy, and at the end of the same year Sergei debuted in official matches of the first national team, replacing Alexei Yevteyev in an qualifying game of the European Championship 2003 against Israel. In the next season Zuev helped "Viz-Sinara" to win the bronze medal and was again voted the best goalkeeper of the championship. A similar situation repeated in the next two seasons. Yekaterinburg club won silver twice, in 2007 it won its first trophy after beating Moscow club Dinamo in the final of the Cup of Russia.

Zuev was keeping the goal of "Viz-Sinara" in the penalty shootout. While working on improving himself in the club Sergei took the position of the first goalkeeper of Russia, he became the part of the European Championship 2003, but he ended badly for the Russians. But in 2005 and 2007 the Russian team won the silver and bronze European Championship, it was her first Zuev goalkeeper at these tournaments. In the season 2007/08, "Viz-Sinara" held its debut in the UEFA Cup on mini-football. At the first dash the Ekaterinburg club managed to get out of the group stage. In the semifinal Yekaterinburg competed with Kazakhstan "Kairat" and reached the final of the tournament, where they met with the Spanish "El Pozo"; the overtime did not reveal the winner, he had to be determined in a penalty shootout. Sergey Zuev became the hero of that series, repulsing three penalties and bringing to his team the title of the strongest in Europe. In the end of 2008, Zuev as a part of the national team took part in the World Cup of his career.

The Russian team took the fourth place, Sergei was the first goalkeeper of the team. It was for his play in the tournament, as well as in the victorious UEFA Cup mini-football, that he was named the best goalkeeper of the world in 2008, according to the «UMBRO Futsal Awards». In the 2008/09 season, "Viz-Sinara" managed to break the hegemony of the Moscow "Dinamo" club and to become the champion of Russia in mini-football. Yekaterinburg repeated its success a year later. Following the results of the two championship seasons Zuev was recognized as the best goalkeeper of the championship of Russia, he was declared the best in the 2010/11 season. That made Sergei the eight-time winner of the award, a record result. UEFA Cup Winner 2007/08 Champion of Russia: 2008/09, 2009/10 Russian Cup Winner: 2007 Silver medalist of UEFA Futsal Championship: 2005, 2012 Bronze medalist of UEFA Futsal Championship, 2007 Semifinalist of FIFA Futsal World Cup, 2008 Winner of the student FIFA Futsal World Cup, 2002 The best goalkeeper of Russian League: of the championship of Russia: 2001/02, 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05, 2007/08, 2008/09, 2009/10, 2010/11 AMFR profile MFK Dina Moskva profile Sergey