1992 Republican National Convention
The 1992 Republican National Convention was held in the Astrodome in Houston, from August 17 to August 20, 1992. The convention nominated Vice President Dan Quayle for reelection, it was Bush's fourth consecutive appearance as a candidate on a major party ticket. Richard M. Nixon and Roosevelt were nominated five times, but not consecutively; the convention is notable in that it featured the last major address of the long political career of former President Ronald Reagan, Bush's predecessor. In his speech, Reagan told Americans that: Whatever else history may say about me when I'm gone, I hope it will record that I appealed to your best hopes, not your worst fears, to your confidence rather than your doubts. My dream is that you will travel the road ahead with liberty's lamp guiding your steps and opportunity's arm steadying your way. My fondest hope for each one of you—and for the young people here—is that you will love your country, not for her power or wealth, but for her selflessness and her idealism.
May each of you have the heart to conceive, the understanding to direct, the hand to execute works that will make the world a little better for your having been here. As the economy was in a recession and domestic affairs in general had decayed, the GOP lagged in the polls by double digits behind the Bill Clinton–Al Gore Democratic ticket after a successful Democratic Convention, with Ross Perot temporarily out of the race, the Republican Party worked hard to rally its base of social conservatives. Pat Buchanan's opening night "Culture War" speech argued that a great battle of values was taking place in the United States. Republican National Committee chairman Rich Bond claimed that "we are America, they are not America." Marilyn Quayle dismissed Bill Clinton's claim to a new generation of leadership by saying, "Not everyone demonstrated, dropped out, took drugs, joined in the sexual revolution or dodged the draft." Regarding Buchanan's speech, liberal humorist Molly Ivins quipped that it "probably sounded better in the original German."
Twenty years after the convention, the New York Times wrote, "Supporters of Mr. Bush pointed to the tone of the convention as one of the reasons he lost re-election that November to Bill Clinton," as it centered more on Reagan-era values and Bush's international credentials at a time that the main issue was the domestic crisis; the fact that the now-infamous "No new taxes" pledge had haunted the President for the last three years, the economy was mentioned. AIDS activist Mary Fisher, who has HIV, addressed the convention, making an eloquent plea for her cause.. Her 1992 speech was listed as #50 in American Rhetoric's Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century. During his acceptance speech, President Bush thanked former President Richard Nixon for his advice and contributions to the administration's foreign policy; this would be Nixon's last RNC, as he died in 1994. Restaurateur Ninfa Laurenzo delivered the Pledge of Allegiance at the opening session on August 17, 1992; the stadium banned outside food from the convention, but set up a food court in the nearby Astroarena.
The food court operations included Atchafalaya River Cafe, Bambolino's, Frenchy's, Luther's Bar-B-Q, Ninfa's, PeaColes, Tommy's Burgers. Some restaurant owners had connections with the Houston Host Committee, the group in charge of the vendor market of the Astroarena, Republican Party officials; the hot dogs and soft drinks sold by the Astrodome's official caterer, Harry M. Stevens, were not present during the convention. Vendors at the convention paid Stevens a fee so they could sell food at the convention, as specified in Stevens' contract with the Astrodome; the convention energized the Republican base. As the bounce faded, the race returned to a lopsided double-digit Clinton-Gore lead; the race narrowed however, when Ross Perot rebooted his insurgent campaign. Because the Astrodome was their home stadium, the Houston Astros were forced to play 26 consecutive road games from July 27 through August 23; the National Football League's Houston Oilers would be forced to play all their preseason games on the road.
The major parties have avoided hosting their conventions at baseball stadiums since now holding them in non sports venues and venues for teams whose seasons are not in play at the time of the convention. President Bush 21 Patrick J. Buchanan 18 former ambassador Alan Keyes 1 Dan Quayle was renominated by voice vote. Republican Party presidential primaries, 1992 History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention 1991 Libertarian National Convention 1992 Democratic National Convention United States presidential election, 1992 George Bush's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC at C-SPAN George Bush's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC at The American Presidency Project George Bush's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC Video of Quayle nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC Audio of Quayle nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC Transcript of Quayle nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC Republican Party platform of 1992 at The American Presidency Project Ronald Reagan's Address to the 1992 Republican National Convention Patrick Buchanan's Address to the 1992 RNC, the "Culture War" speech.
Text and video. Mary Fisher's A Whisper of AIDS Speech to the 1992 Republican National Convention Text and vid
Unified Task Force
The Unified Task Force was a US-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force, which operated in Somalia between 5 December, 1992 – 4 May 1993. A United States initiative, UNITAF was charged with carrying out United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 to create a protected environment for conducting humanitarian operations in the southern half of the country. After the killing of 20-25 Pakistani peacekeepers, the Security Council changed UNITAF's mandate issuing the Resolution 837 that establishes that UNITAF troops could use "all necessary measures" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. Faced with a humanitarian disaster in Somalia, exacerbated by a complete breakdown in civil order, the United Nations had created the UNOSOM I mission in April 1992. However, the complete intransigence of the local faction leaders operating in Somalia and their rivalries with each other meant that UNOSOM I could not be performed; the mission never reached its mandated strength.
Over the final quarter of 1992, the situation in Somalia continued to worsen. Factions were splintering into smaller factions, splintered again. Agreements for food distribution with one party were worthless when the stores had to be shipped through the territory of another; some elements were opposing the UNOSOM intervention. Troops were shot at, aid ships attacked and prevented from docking, cargo aircraft were fired upon and aid agencies and private, were subject to threats and extortion. By November, General Mohamed Farrah Aidid had grown confident enough to defy the Security Council formally and demand the withdrawal of peacekeepers, as well as declaring hostile intent against any further UN deployments. In the face of mounting public pressure and frustration, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali presented several options to the Security Council. Diplomatic avenues having proved fruitless, he recommended that a significant show of force was required to bring the armed groups to heel.
Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations allows for "action by air, sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security." Boutros-Ghali believed the time had come for moving on from peacekeeping. However, Boutros-Ghali felt that such action would be difficult to apply under the mandate for UNOSOM. Moreover, he realised that solving Somalia’s problems would require such a large deployment that the UN Secretariat did not have the skills to command and control it. Accordingly, he recommended that a large intervention force be constituted under the command of member states but authorised by the Security Council to carry out operations in Somalia; the goal of this deployment was "to prepare the way for a return to peacekeeping and post-conflict peace-building". Following this recommendation, on 3 December 1992 the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 794, authorizing the use of "all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia".
The Security Council urged the Secretary-General and member states to make arrangements for "the unified command and control" of the military forces that would be involved. UNITAF has been considered part of a larger state building initiative in Somalia, serving as the military arm to secure the distribution of humanitarian aid. However, UNITAF cannot be considered a state building initiative due to its ‘specific and palliative aims, which it nonetheless exercised forcefully’; the primary objective of UNITAF was security rather than larger institution building initiatives. Prior to Resolution 794, the United States had approached the UN and offered a significant troop contribution to Somalia, with the caveat that these personnel would not be commanded by the UN. Resolution 794 did not identify the U. S. as being responsible for the future task force, but mentioned "the offer by a Member State described in the Secretary-General's letter to the Council of 29 November 1992 concerning the establishment of an operation to create such a secure environment".
Resolution 794 was unanimously adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 3 December 1992, they welcomed the United States offer to help create a secure environment for humanitarian efforts in Somalia. President George H. W. Bush responded to this by initiating Operation Restore Hope on 4 December 1992, under which the United States would assume command in accordance with Resolution 794. CIA Paramilitary Officer Larry Freedman from their Special Activities Division became the first US casualty of the conflict in Somalia when his vehicle struck an anti-tank mine, he had been inserted prior to official US presence on a special reconnaissance mission, serving as a liaison between the U. S. Embassy and the arriving military forces. Freedman was a former Army Delta Force operator and Special Forces soldier and had served in every conflict that the US was involved in both and unofficially since Vietnam. Freedman was awarded the Intelligence Star for extraordinary heroism; the first Marines of UNITAF landed on the beaches of Somalia on 9 December 1992 amid a media circus.
The press "seemed to know the exact time and place of the Marines' arrival" and waited on the airport runway and beaches to capture the moment. Critics of US involvement argued that the US government was intervening so as to gain control of oil concessions for American companies, with a survey of Northeast Africa by the World Bank and UN ranking Somalia second only to Sudan as the top prospective producer. However, no US and UN troops were deployed in proximity to the major oil explora
Director of Central Intelligence
The Director of Central Intelligence was the head of the American Central Intelligence Agency from 1946 to 2005, acting as the principal intelligence advisor to the President of the United States and the United States National Security Council, as well as the coordinator of intelligence activities among and between the various U. S. intelligence agencies. The office existed from January 1946 to April 21, 2005. After the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act it was replaced by the Director of National Intelligence as head of the Intelligence Community and the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency as head of the CIA; the post of DCI was established by President Harry Truman on January 23, 1946, with Admiral Sidney Souers being the first DCI, followed by General Hoyt Vandenberg who served as DCI from June 1946 to May 1947. The DCI ran the Central Intelligence Group, a predecessor of the CIA; the office of DCI thus predates the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency. The CIA was created by the National Security Act of 1947, which formally defined the duties of the Director of Central Intelligence.
This 1947 Act created the National Security Council. Until April 2005, the DCI was referred to colloquially as the "CIA Director," though he was head of both the CIA and the broader Intelligence Community. After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States and the subsequent investigation by the 9/11 Commission, a movement grew to re-organize the Intelligence Community; that movement prompted the passage of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act in December 2004, which split the DCI's duties among two new offices. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence would serve as head of the Intelligence Community and advise the NSC on intelligence matters; the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency would serve as chief administrator of the CIA. The reorganization took effect on April 21, 2005; the 19th and last DCI, Porter J. Goss became the first director of the CIA, while John Negroponte became the first DNI. Status As of April 2019, there are six living former Directors of Central Intelligence, the oldest being William H. Webster.
The most recent Director to die was George H. W. Bush, on November 30, 2018. Living former Directors of Central Intelligence Rear Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter was the third Director of Central Intelligence, but the first who served as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. During his tenure, a National Security Council Directive on Office of Special Projects, June 18, 1948, further gave the CIA the authority to carry out covert operations "against hostile foreign states or groups or in support of friendly foreign states or groups but which are so planned and conducted that any US Government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons." Those operations, were conducted by other agencies such as the Office of Policy Coordination. See Approval of Clandestine and Covert Operations and Clandestine HUMINT and Covert Action for details of the eventual merger of these operations with the CIA, as well as how the equivalent functions were done in other countries. During the first years of its existence, other branches of the U.
S. Federal government did not exercise much supervision over the Central Intelligence Agency. Justified by the desire to match and defeat Soviet actions throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, it undertook a task that many believed could be accomplished only through an approach similar to the Soviet intelligence agencies, under names including NKVD, MVD, NKGB, MGB, KGB; those Soviet organizations had domestic responsibilities. The rapid expansion of the CIA, a developed sense of independence under the Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles exacerbated the problem of the U. S. Intelligence Community's freedom from independent review. After the armed landing of Cuban exiles in the Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961, President Kennedy discharged and replaced Dulles. Dulles had been an O. S. S. Veteran from World War II, his autobiography is more noteworthy for giving insight into the mindset of key people in the field than it is in giving a detailed description of the CIA and its operations. President John F. Kennedy exercised greater supervision, he appointed a Republican with a general engineering background, John McCone.
McCone, despite a lack of intelligence agency background, is considered one of the most competent DCIs, an excellent manager. The agency stepped up its activity in Southeast Asia under President Lyndon Johnson. McCone resigned from his position of DCI in April 1965, believing himself to have been unappreciated by President Johnson. McCone's final policy memorandum to Johnson argued that expansion of the War in Vietnam would arouse national and world discontent over the war, before it defeated the North Vietnamese regime. Raborn, a distinguished naval officer who directed the design and development of the entire Polaris ballistic missile submarine system, had a somewhat short and unhappy tenure as the DCI, his background included no foreign relations experience, intelligence experience only concerning naval operations. CIA historians have said "Raborn did not'take' to the DCI job", in their opinion. Raborn resigned as the DCI on June 1966, having served for only fourteen months, he was replaced by his deputy, Richard Helms.
Helms was an OSS and CIA veteran, the first DCI to have risen through the ranks at CIA. Helms became the Director of the OSO after the CIA's disastrous role in the attempted Bay of Pigs In
Ronald Reagan Freedom Award
The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award is the highest civilian honor bestowed by the private Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. The award is given to "those who have made monumental and lasting contributions to the cause of freedom worldwide."Until her death, the award was given by Former First Lady Nancy Reagan on behalf of her husband, who died in June 2004. The award was first given in 1992, by President Ronald Reagan himself, as well as in 1993, but in 1994 Mrs. Reagan presented the award instead of her husband. Ronald Reagan had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease a few months before, was not able to attend the ceremony. In order to receive the award, the potential recipient must "have made monumental and lasting contributions to the cause of freedom worldwide," as well as "embody President Reagan's lifelong belief that one man or woman can make a difference." Former President George H. W. Bush, awarded the medal on February 6, 2007, which would have been Ronald Reagan's 96th birthday, remarked, "I wish I had a little Ronald Reagan in me when it came to communicating with the American people.
Had I been blessed with my predecessor's remarkable skill, who knows? I might still be employed." On a more serious note, he said in the speech: "Working with Ronald Reagan was one of the greatest joys of my life." Bush served as Reagan's Vice President for the eight years. On September 17, 2008, the award was presented to former Soviet dissident Natan Sharansky by former first lady Nancy Reagan. 1992 – Mikhail Gorbachev, former General Secretary of the Soviet Union 1993 – General Colin Powell, former National Security Advisor to President Reagan 1994 – Yitzhak Rabin, former Prime Minister of Israel 1995 – King Hussein I King of Jordan 1997 – Bob Hope, former entertainer. 1998 – Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 2000 – The Reverend Billy Graham, evangelical minister 2002 – Rudy Giuliani, former mayor of New York 2007 – George H. W. Bush, former President of the United States, served under Reagan as Vice President of the United States 2008 – Natan Sharansky, former KGB prisoner, human rights activist, Israeli politician.
2011 – Lech Wałęsa, former Solidarity leader and former president of Poland
Republican National Committee
The Republican National Committee is a U. S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy, it is responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U. S. state and most U. S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman; the RNC's main counterpart is the Democratic National Committee. The 1856 Republican National Convention appointed the first RNC, it consisted of one member from each territory to serve for four years. Each national convention since has followed the precedent of equal representation for each state or territory, regardless of population. From 1924 to 1952, there was a national committeeman and national committeewoman from each state and U.
S. possession, from Washington, D. C.. In 1952, committee membership was expanded to include the state party chairs of states that voted Republican in the preceding presidential election, have a Republican majority in their congressional delegation, or have Republican governors. By 1968, membership reached 145; as of 2011, the RNC has 168 members. The only person to have chaired the RNC and become U. S. president is George H. W. Bush. A number of the chairs of the RNC have been state governors. In 2013, the RNC began an outreach campaign toward American youth and minority voters, after studies showed these groups perceived that the Republican Party did not care about their concerns. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewMerrill and Norcross both dropped out after the fifth round, giving the chairmanship to Nicholson by acclamation.
On November 24, 2008, Steele launched his campaign for the RNC chairmanship with the launching of his website. On January 30, 2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, with 91 votes to Dawson's 77. Source: CQPolitics, Poll Pundit. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewOn announcing his candidacy to succeed RNC Chairman Duncan, former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele described the party as being at a crossroads and not knowing what to do. "I think I may have some keys to open the door, some juice to turn on the lights," he said. Six people ran for the 2009 RNC Chairmanship: Steele, Ken Blackwell, Mike Duncan, Saul Anuzis, Katon Dawson and Chip Saltsman. After Saltsman's withdrawal, there were only five candidates during the hotly contested balloting January 30, 2009. After the third round of balloting that day, Steele held a small lead over incumbent Mike Duncan of Kentucky, with 51 votes to Duncan's 44.
Shortly after the announcement of the standings, Duncan dropped out of contention without endorsing a candidate. Ken Blackwell, the only other African-American candidate, dropped out after the fourth ballot and endorsed Steele, though Blackwell had been the most conservative of the candidates and Steele had been accused of not being "sufficiently conservative." Steele picked up Blackwell's votes. After the fifth round, Steele held a ten-vote lead over Katon Dawson, with 79 votes, Saul Anuzis dropped out. After the sixth vote, he won the chairmanship of the RNC over Dawson by a vote of 91 to 77. Mississippi Governor and former RNC chair Haley Barbour has suggested the party will focus its efforts on congressional and gubernatorial elections in the coming years rather than the next presidential election. "When I was chairman of the Republican National Committee the last time we lost the White House in 1992 we focused on 1993 and 1994. And at the end of that time, we had both houses of Congress with Republican majorities, we'd gone from 17 Republican governors to 31.
So anyone talking about 2012 today doesn't have their eye on the ball. What we ought to worry about is rebuilding our party over the next year and in 2010," Barbour said at the November 2008 Republican Governors conference. Michael Steele ran for re-election at the 2011 RNC winter meeting. Other candidates were Reince Priebus, Republican Party of Wisconsin Chairman, Ann Wagner, former Ambassador to Luxembourg, Saul Anuzis, former Republican Party Chairman of Michigan, Maria Cino, former acting Secretary of Transportation under George W. Bush. Steele's critics called on him to step down as RNC Chair when his term ended in 2011. A debate for Chairman hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3 at the National Press Club; the election for Chairman took place January 14 at the RNC's winter meeting with Reince Priebus winning on the seventh ballot after Steele and Wagner withdrew. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Priebus won re-election with near unanimity in the party's 2013 meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina.
He was re-elected to a third term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. After winning in November 2016, President-Elect Donald Trump designated Priebus as his White House Chief of Staff, to begin upon his taking office in January 2017. Trump recommended Ronna Romney McDaniel as RNC Chairwoman and she was elected to that role by the RNC
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations in the economic sphere. It is the repeal of governmental regulation of the economy, it became common in advanced industrial economies in the 1970s and 1980s, as a result of new trends in economic thinking about the inefficiencies of government regulation, the risk that regulatory agencies would be controlled by the regulated industry to its benefit, thereby hurt consumers and the wider economy. Economic regulations were promoted during the Gilded Age, in which progressive reforms were touted as necessary to limit externalities like corporate abuse, unsafe child labor, pollution, to mitigate boom and bust cycles. Around the late 1970s, such reforms were deemed as burdensome on economic growth and many politicians espousing neoliberalism started promoting deregulation; the stated rationale for deregulation is that fewer and simpler regulations will lead to raised levels of competitiveness, therefore higher productivity, more efficiency and lower prices overall.
Opposition to deregulation may involve apprehension regarding environmental pollution and environmental quality standards, financial uncertainty, constraining monopolies. Regulatory reform is a parallel development alongside deregulation. Regulatory reform refers to organized and ongoing programs to review regulations with a view to minimizing and making them more cost effective; such efforts, given impetus by the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, are embodied in the United States Office of Management and Budget's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the United Kingdom's Better Regulation Commission. Cost–benefit analysis is used in such reviews. In addition, there have been regulatory innovations suggested by economists, such as emissions trading. Deregulation can be distinguished from privatization, where privatization can be seen as taking state-owned service providers into the private sector. Argentina underwent heavy economic deregulation and had a fixed exchange rate during the Menem administration.
In December 2001, Paul Krugman compared Enron with Argentina, claiming that both were experiencing economic collapse due to excessive deregulation. Two months Herbert Inhaber claimed that Krugman confused correlation with causation, neither collapse was due to excessive deregulation. Having announced a wide range of deregulatory policies, Labor Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced the policy of "Minimum Effective Regulation" in 1986; this introduced now familiar requirements for "regulatory impact statements", but compliance by governmental agencies took many years. The labour market under the Hawke/Keating Labor governments operated under an accord. John Howard's Liberal Party of Australia in 1996 began deregulation of the labor market, subsequently taken much further in 2005 through their WorkChoices policy. However, it was reversed under the following Rudd Labor government. Natural gas is deregulated in most of the country, with the exception of some Atlantic provinces and some pockets like Vancouver Island and Medicine Hat.
Most of this deregulation happened in the mid-1980s. There is price comparison service operating in some of these jurisdictions Ontario, Alberta and BC; the other provinces have not attracted suppliers. Customers have the choice of purchasing from a deregulated supplier. In most provinces the LDC is not allowed to offer a term contract, just a variable price based on the spot market. LDC prices are changed either monthly or quarterly; the province of Ontario began deregulation of electricity supply in 2002, but pulled back temporarily due to voter and consumer backlash at the resulting price volatility. The government is still searching for a stable working regulatory framework; the current status is a regulated structure in which consumers have received a capped price for a portion of the publicly owned generation. The remainder of the price has been market price based and there are numerous competitive energy contract providers. However, Ontario is installing Smart Meters in all homes and small businesses and is changing the pricing structure to Time of Use pricing.
All small volume consumers are to be shifted to the new rate structure by the end of 2012. There is price comparison service operating in these jurisdictions; the province of Alberta has deregulated their electricity provision. Customers are free to choose which company they sign up with, but there are few companies to choose from and the price of electricity has increased for consumers because the market is too small to support competition. If they choose they may remain with the utility at the Regulated Rate Option. Former Premier Ralph Klein based the entire deregulation scheme on the Enron model, continued with it after the publicized and disastrous California electricity crisis 2003 Corrections to EU directive about software patents Deregulation of the air industry in Europe in 1992 gave carriers from one EU country the right to operate scheduled services between other EU states; the taxi industry was deregulated in Ireland leading to an influx of new taxis. This was due to the price of a licence dropping overnight.
The number of taxis increased dramatically. The Conservative government led by Margaret Thatcher started a programme of deregulation and privatisation after their victory at the 1979 general election; these included express coach, British Telecom, privatisation of London bus services, local bus services (Trans
HOK Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, is an American worldwide design, architecture and urban planning firm. Since its formation in 1955, the firm has designed over 200 structures worldwide; as of 2018, HOK is the largest U. S.-based architecture-engineering firm and the fourth-largest interior design firm. The firm maintains more than 1,700 professional staff across a global network of 24 offices and is active in all major architectural specialties, its senior leaders are located in several different locations across the world. HOK was established in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1955; the firm's name is derived from the surnames of its three founding partners: George Hellmuth, Gyo Obata and George Kassabaum, all graduates of the School of Architecture at Washington University in St. Louis; the design firm started with its three founders. The practice's first building designs were schools in St. Louis suburbs, St. Thomas Aquinas High School in Florissant was the first private/parochial school designed by the firm.
Another prominent school they designed was the Saint Louis Priory School. By the mid-1960s, the firm was winning commissions across the United States and began to open additional offices, starting with San Francisco in 1966 for the design of a library at Stanford University and Dallas in 1968 for the master planning and design of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. In 1968, HOK launched its interior design practice. HOK expanded into Washington, DC, after winning the commission to design the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. In 1973, HOK established a presence in New York by acquiring Kahn & Jacobs, designers of many New York City skyscrapers. By the 1970s, the firm was operating internationally and in 1975 the firm was named as architect of the $3.5 billion King Saud University in Riyadh, at the time the single largest building project in the world. In 1979, George Kassabaum was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician. In 1983, HOK formed HOK Sport Venue Event, which became a leader in designing sport stadiums and convention centers.
In January 2009, the Board of HOK Group, Inc. and managers of HOK Sports Facilities, LLC transferred ownership of HOK Sport to leaders of that practice. The company became an independent firm, rebranded itself as Populous. HOK's first office outside the United States opened in Hong Kong in 1984. In 1987, the firm opened a London office and in 1995, expanded this London practice by merging with renowned UK architectural practice Cecil Denny Highton. In November 1994, HOK acquired CRSS Architects, Inc. based in Houston, adding offices in Houston and Atlanta. HOK established its first offices in Canada in 1997 with the acquisition of Urbana Architects. In 2004, George Hellmuth's nephew, William Hellmuth, was named president of the firm. By 2007, international work represented more than 40% of HOK's annual revenue. In 2008, HOK opened an office in India. In 2010, it established an office in Washington. In 2012, HOK Chairman Bill Valentine retired after 50 years with the firm. HOK Chief Executive Officer Patrick MacLeamy, FAIA, assumed the role of chairman.
In 2013, HOK acquired the New York and Shanghai offices of hospitality design firm BBG-BBGM, creating one of the largest interior design firms. BBG-BBGM's office in Washington, D. C. continues to operate as BBGM. In 2014, ORO Editions published “HOK Tall Buildings,” a 300-page book exploring the design of the contemporary high-rise. On January 13, 2015, HOK announced that it had completed its acquisition of 360 Architecture, a 200-person, Kansas City-based firm specializing in the design of stadiums, arenas and wellness centers, mixed-use entertainment districts; the acquisition enabled HOK to launch a new global Sports + Recreation + Entertainment design practice and to open new offices in Kansas City and Columbus, Ohio. On May 15, 2015, the firm announced a multi-year partnership with the United Soccer League in the USA to lead a stadium development and standards initiative to help house all USL clubs in soccer-specific stadiums across North America by the end of the decade. In January 2016, HOK announced that Bill Hellmuth, the firm's president, would succeed Patrick MacLeamy as CEO, effective April 19, 2016.
In April 2017, HOK announced that Carl Galioto, FAIA, had been appointed president, with former president and current CEO Bill Hellmuth assuming the role of chairman. In 1983, HOK introduced HOK Draw, computer-aided drafting software products that specialized in conceptual architectural design. In the early 2000s, HOK began using Building Information Modeling to streamline the design and construction process. In 2012, Building Design + Construction ranked HOK the No. 1 BIM Architecture Firm. In 2013, DesignIntelligence magazine, based in part on the firm's leadership in buildingSMART and BIM, ranked HOK the No. 1 Design Firm for Technology Expertise. HOK is a leader in sustainable design. Professionals in the firm authored one of the industry's most respected resources on the topic, "The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design," published in 2000 by John Wiley & Sons. A second edition of the book was published in 2005. In September 2008, to better integrate nature's innovations into the design of buildings and cities worldwide, HOK announced an alliance with the Biomimicry Group, co-founded by Janine Benyus.
In 2010, HOK and energy and daylighting consultant The Weidt Group completed design of Net Zero Court, a 170,735-square-foot, market-rate, zero-emissions class A commercial office building in St. Louis. In 2013, HOK and Biomimicry 3.8 released the Genius of Biome report, a textbook for how to apply biomimicry design principles. In 2015, for the sixth consecutive year, the DesignIntel