George Jones

George Glenn Jones was an American musician and songwriter. He achieved international fame for his long list of hit records, including his best-known song "He Stopped Loving Her Today", as well as his distinctive voice and phrasing. For the last twenty years of his life, Jones was referred to as the greatest living country singer. Country music scholar Bill Malone writes, "For the two or three minutes consumed by a song, Jones immerses himself so in its lyrics, in the mood it conveys, that the listener can scarcely avoid becoming involved." Waylon Jennings expressed a similar opinion in his song "It's Alright": "If we all could sound like we wanted to, we'd all sound like George Jones." The shape of his nose and facial features earned Jones the nickname "The Possum". Born in Texas, Jones first heard country music when he was seven and was given a guitar at the age of nine, he married his first wife, Dorothy Bonvillion, in 1950, was divorced in 1951. He served in the United States Marine Corps and was discharged in 1953.

He married Shirley Ann Corley in 1954. In 1959, Jones recorded "White Lightning", written by J. P. Richardson, which launched his career as a singer, his second marriage ended in divorce in 1968. Years of alcoholism compromised his health and led to his missing many performances, earning him the nickname "No Show Jones". After his divorce from Wynette in 1975, Jones married his fourth wife, Nancy Sepulvado, in 1983 and became sober for good in 1999. Jones died in 2013, aged 81, from hypoxic respiratory failure. During his career, Jones had more than 150 hits, both as a solo artist and in duets with other artists. Robert Christgau has called him "honky-tonk's greatest honky". George Glenn Jones was born on September 12, 1931, in Saratoga and was raised in Colmesneil, with his brother and five sisters in the Big Thicket region of southeast Texas, his father, George Washington Jones, worked in a shipyard and played harmonica and guitar while his mother, played piano in the Pentecostal Church on Sundays.

During his delivery, one of the doctors broke his arm. When he was seven, his parents bought a radio and he heard country music for the first time. Jones recalled to Billboard in 2006 that he would lie in bed with his parents on Saturday nights listening to the Grand Ole Opry and insist that his mother wake him if he fell asleep so he could hear Roy Acuff or Bill Monroe. In his autobiography I Lived To Tell It All, Jones explains that the early death of his sister Ethel spurred on his father's drinking problem and, by all accounts, George Washington Jones could be physically and abusive to his wife and children when he drank. In the book George Jones: The Life and Times of a Honky Tonk Legend, Bob Allen recounts how George Washington Jones would return home in the middle of the night with his cronies roaring drunk, wake up a terrified George Glenn Jones and demand that he sing for them or face a beating. In a CMT episode of Inside Fame dedicated to Jones' life, country music historian Robert K. Oermann marveled, "You would think that it would make him not a singer, because it was so abusively thrust on him.

But the opposite happened. He became someone who had to sing." In the same program, Jones admitted that he remained ambivalent and resentful towards his father up until the day he died and observed in his autobiography "The Jones family makeup doesn't sit well with liquor... Daddy was an unusual drinker, he drank to excess but never while working, he was the hardest working man I've known." His father bought him his first guitar at age nine and he learned his first chords and songs at church and there are several photographs of a young George busking on the streets of Beaumont. He left home at 16 and went to Jasper, where he sang and played on the KTXJ radio station with fellow musician Dalton Henderson. From there, he worked at the KRIC radio station. During one such afternoon show, Jones met Hank Williams. In the 1989 video documentary Same Ole Me, Jones admitted, "I couldn't think or eat nothin' unless it was Hank Williams, I couldn't wait for his next record to come out, he had to be the greatest."

He married his first wife Dorothy Bonvillion in 1950, but they divorced in 1951. He was enlisted in the United States Marines until his discharge in 1953, he was stationed in San Jose, for his entire service. Jones married Shirley Ann Corley in 1954, his first record, the self-penned "No Money in This Deal", was recorded on January 19, appeared in February on Starday Records, beginning the singer's association with producer and mentor H. W. "Pappy" Daily. The song was cut in Starday Records' co-founder Jack Starnes' living room and produced by Starnes. Jones worked at KTRM in Beaumont around this time. Deejay Gordon Baxter told Nick Tosches that Jones acquired the nickname "possum" while working there: "One of the deejays there, Slim Watts, took to calling him George P. Willicker Picklepuss Possum Jones. For one thing, he cut his hair short, like a possum's belly, he had a possum's nose and stupid eyes, like a possum." During his early recording sessions, Daily admonished Jones for attempting to sound too much like his heroes Hank Williams and Lefty Frizzell.

In years, Jones would have little good to say about the music production at Starday, recalling to NPR in 1996 that "it was a terrible sound. We recorded in a small living room of a house on a highway near Beaumont. You could hear the trucks. We had to stop a lot of times because it wasn't soundproof, it was just egg crates nailed on the wall and the big old semi t

Henry Clay (steamboat)

Henry Clay was an American side paddle wheel steamboat. Built in 1851, it caught fire while on a run on the Hudson River between Albany, New York and New York City on July 28, 1852. Nearly fifty of its over 500 passengers died in what became the river's worst steam disaster, near Riverdale, in The Bronx, New York; the Clay operated in competition with other steamships and the Hudson River Railroad, completed along the river's east shore to East Albany by 1851. On the day of the fire she had been racing another steamboat, a common practice of the day, both for sport and the prestige of winning – which those involved believed would attract more passengers. In spite of the huge crowd aboard there were only two lifeboats. Similar to the latter sinking of the famed Titanic, many of the victims came from prestigious families, spurring excited press coverage. Among the known victims was Stephen Allen, a former mayor of New York City. Several inquests and a high-publicity trial were held in the wake. In spite of the maelstrom the media had created, all officers and the owner were acquitted of the charges against them.

However, the New York State Legislature soon thereafter passed a law prohibiting steamship racing on the Hudson, Congress reluctant to regulate steamboats, was forced by the public to push through aggressive new legislation. The Henry Clay was built by Thomas Collyer in 1851. Not much is known about its specifications beyond a length of 198 feet, having a walking beam engine, its promenade deck running the entire length of the boat. Collyer, the builder, owned a five-eighths interest; the Henry Clay ran on routes up and down the Hudson River at various points of departure and varying distances between Albany, New York and New York City. The Armenia, another Collyer built steamship, left Albany with the Clay on July 28, 1852, he was in command of the Clay, while the Armenia was piloted by Captain Isaac Smith. According to Allynne Lange, curator of the Hudson River Maritime Museum, steamboat racing was common between captains. “he idea was the fastest boat would attract the most passengers.” As the Henry Clay passed Yonkers, New York, shortly before 3:00 pm the call of fire on board was heard.

It roared up from the engine room and engulfed the midsection. The pilot, Edward Hubbard, an experienced forty-three-year-old seaman turned the burning ship eastward to travel the mile distance to reach shore. Hubbard crashed the boat bow first onto the sands at Riverdale, New York, hoping to save his passengers; those near the bow were able to jump to shore. However, the passengers aft of the fire blocked from fleeing. Many could not swim and drowned either due to their heavy clothing or pulled below by others seeking to save their own lives. People that remained on the boat were burned to death; the disaster gained notoriety in part due to the great number of prestigious passengers – politicians, professors, wealthy - aboard. Among them were: A. J. Downing – a landscape architect from Newburgh, New York, editor of The Horticulturist, who set in motion the emergence of parks in cities, his home architecture brought people closer to nature. He was designing the grounds of the Smithsonian Institution at the time of his death.

Caroline Amelia DeWindt – the granddaughter of the second President of the United States, John Adams, the mother-in-law of A. J. Downing. Maria Hawthorne – youngest sister of author Nathaniel Hawthorne. Maria Slaughter-Bailey - wife of professor Jacob Whitman Bailey, daughter. Bailey and nine year-old William Whitman Bailey survived. William became a prominent professor. Harriet and Eliza Kinsley - daughters of late West Point graduate and professor Z. J. D. Kinsley. Mrs. John L. Thompson – wife of the District Attorney of Lancaster County and children Mary and Eugene. J. J. Speed, Esq. – a noted attorney from Philadelphia. Stephen Allen – a former Mayor of New York City. Harriet Elizabeth Proctor Colby - sister of U. S Senator Redfield Proctor and wife of Stoddard B. Colby The principal inquest took place in Yonkers, New York. However, because several of the bodies were discovered in other towns, additional inquests were held in Manhattanville, New York, Fort Lee and Hoboken, New Jersey. Survivors and family members were called to identify the dead and testify.

As the days passed and details of the disaster emerged unrest among citizens and politicians, fueled by newspaper editorials, rose. The Inquest Panel charged its owner Thomas Collyer with murder. More than a year a trial commenced at the Circuit Court in New York City. Through political maneuvering the federal government had seized jurisdiction, deeming it regulated national waterways. Since there was no proof of premeditation on the part of the officers, the original charge of murder was reduced to manslaughter. For two weeks the newspapers covered the trial testimony. Among the topics: who may have been in charge on the steamboat, that there were only two lifeboats on board, had there been enough water buckets on board in case of a fire, had the boat been overcrowded, had there been previous fires on the Henry Clay, the possibility that the boiler safety valves were tied down to allow for more speed; the trial determined that while there had been racing it had occurred much farther upriver from the scene of the fire.

In question was the pilot Hubbard's action of running the steamboat bow first rather than coming along parallel to shore. Witnesses at the trial spared lives. In s

Ali Amhaouch

Sidi Ali Amhaouch was a Moroccan religious leader who opposed the French rule of Morocco. Amhaouch was descended from a long line of marabouts who were influential religious figures in Morocco from 1700. Amhaouch backed two rebellions against the Moroccan government and fought against the French occupying forces, he declared a defensive jihad against France during the Zaian War but died of natural causes in 1918, three years before the war ended in the tribesmen's defeat. His son, Sidi El Mekki Amhaouch, continued to fight the French until his defeat in 1932. Amhaouch's descendant is a leader of religion in modern-day Morocco. Amhaouch was a member of a dynasty of marabouts that dominated Morocco from around 1700 to the present day; the Amhaouchs were renowned for their "Koranic-inspired teaching, magic rites and doomsday prophecies". One of his ancestors was responsible for the capturing of Sultan Mulay Slimane in 1818. Ali Amhaouch was born in 1844 and became known as a religious figure who commanded respect across Morocco and was one of the few people capable of bringing peace to warring tribes.

He made his own prophecies and considered the Jbel Toujjit mountain, the source of the Moulouya River, to be a sacred site. Amhaouch supported the Ait Sokhman tribe against the rival Zaian Confederation in intermittent warfare lasting from 1877 to 1909. Amhaouch was a key backer of Si Mhand Laârbi, a member of the Alaouite dynasty, against Moroccan government forces in the 1880s. Laârbi's men were able to defeat a force commanded by Moulay Srou, the uncle of Sultan Hassan I, in battle in 1888. Amhaouch met with the French explorer René de Segonzac in 1904-5 and gave him documents detailing the mountains and tribes of Aghbala and a Tamazight prophecy; the prophecy was written in the 12th century of Islam by Amhaouch's great uncle, Bou Beker, was said to foretell the 1818 victory over Sultan Hassan. Segonzac described Amhaouch as a strong and influential man, one of the "great spiritual leaders of Morocco" and the "most powerful religious personality of the south east". Amhaouch supported another revolt against the Moroccan sultan in 1908, leading troops of the Melwiya to join the uprising led by Moulay Lahssen el Sabaâ in the east of the country until forced to return home due to Sabaâ's defeat at the hands of the French troops in Menhaba and Boudenib.

Following the declaration of the French protectorate over Morocco after the signing of the Treaty of Fez in 1912 French troops began occupying the inland portion of Morocco. Following the 1914 fall of Khénifra he joined forces with his former enemy, Mouha ou Hammou Zayani, tribal leader Moha ou Said to form a "powerful Berber trinity" that contested the Zaian War against the French. Amhaouch declared a defensive jihad against the French upon the outbreak of the First World War; this extended from the Dades Gorges to the desert beyond the Anti-Atlas mountains and was part of a plan to exploit the withdrawal of French troops from Morocco for the defence of France. Amhaouch's men were engaged and defeated by French columns commanded by Colonels Noël Garnier-Duplessix and Henri Claudel in late 1914. Amhaouch himself died of natural causes in 1918. Hammou and Said continued to fight the French and, though they lost the Zaian War in 1921, pacification of Morocco was not completed until 1934 - years after their deaths.

Amhaouch's eldest son, Sidi Lmekki Amhaouch, said to have inherited a magical rifle cartridge from his father fought against the French. In August/September 1932 he held out for more than a month with just 1,000 tribesmen against two French columns. Amhaouch's descendant, Sidi Mohand Amhaouch, is a religious leader in modern Morocco. O jackal of Anergui, you, companion of Mourik, carry yourselves to Tafza.