Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Sandra Annette Bullock is an American actress and philanthropist. She was the highest paid actress in the world in 2010 and 2014. In 2015, Bullock was chosen as People's Most Beautiful Woman, was included in Time's 100 most influential people in the world in 2010. Bullock is the recipient including an Academy Award and a Golden Globe Award. After making her acting debut with a minor role in the thriller Hangmen, Bullock received early attention for her supporting work in the action film Demolition Man, her breakthrough came in the action thriller Speed. She established herself in the 1990s, with leading roles in the romantic comedies While You Were Sleeping and Hope Floats, thrillers The Net and A Time to Kill. Bullock achieved further success in the following decades with the comedies Miss Congeniality, Two Weeks Notice, The Proposal, The Heat, Ocean's 8, the drama Crash, the thrillers Premonition and Bird Box. Bullock was awarded the Academy Award for Best Actress and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Drama for portraying Leigh Anne Tuohy in the biographical drama The Blind Side.
She was nominated in the same categories for playing an astronaut stranded in space in the science fiction thriller Gravity, her highest-grossing live-action release. In addition to her acting career, Bullock is the founder of the production company Fortis Films, she has produced some of the films in which she has starred, including Miss Congeniality 2: Armed and Fabulous and All About Steve. She was an executive producer of the ABC sitcom George Lopez and made several appearances during its run. Bullock was born in Arlington, Virginia, on July 26, 1964, the daughter of John W. Bullock, an Army employee and part-time voice coach from Birmingham and Helga Mathilde Meyer, an opera singer and voice teacher from Germany. Bullock's maternal grandfather was a German rocket scientist from Nuremberg. John, in charge of the Army's Military Postal Service in Europe, was stationed in Nuremberg when he met Helga, they married in Germany and moved to Arlington, where John worked with the Army Materiel Command before becoming a contractor for The Pentagon.
Bullock has a younger sister, Gesine Bullock-Prado, who served as president of Bullock's production company Fortis Films. Bullock was raised in Germany and Austria for 12 years, grew up speaking German, she had a Waldorf education in Nuremberg. As a child, while her mother went on European opera tours, Bullock stayed with her aunt Christl and cousin Susanne, the latter of whom married politician Peter Ramsauer. Bullock studied ballet and vocal arts as a child and accompanied her mother, taking small parts in her opera productions. In Nuremberg, she sang in the opera's children's choir. Bullock has a scar above her left eye, caused by a fall into a creek when she was a child. While she maintains her American citizenship, Bullock applied for German citizenship in 2009. Bullock attended Washington-Lee High School, where she was a cheerleader and performed in school theater productions. After graduating in 1982, she attended East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina, where she received a BFA in Drama in 1987.
While at ECU, she performed in multiple theater productions including Three Sisters. She moved to Manhattan, New York, where she supported herself as a bartender, cocktail waitress, coat checker while auditioning for roles. While in New York, Bullock took acting classes with Sanford Meisner, she appeared in several student films, landed a role in an Off-Broadway play No Time Flat. Director Alan J. Levi was impressed by Bullock's performance and offered her a part in the made-for-television film Bionic Showdown: The Six Million Dollar Man and the Bionic Woman; this led to her being cast in a series of small roles in several independent films as well as in the lead role of the short-lived NBC television version of the film Working Girl. She went on to appear in several films, such as Love Potion No. 9, The Thing Called Love and Fire on the Amazon, before rising to early prominence with her supporting role in the sci-fi action film Demolition Man. Bullock's big breakthrough came in 1994, when she starred as one of the passengers of a city bus containing a bomb in the action thriller Speed alongside actor Keanu Reeves.
She was required to read for Speed to make sure there was the right chemistry between her and Reeves. She recalls that they had to do "all these physical scenes together, rolling around on the floor and stuff." Speed garnered acclaim from critics who, according to Rotten Tomatoes, asserted it was a "terrific popcorn thriller outstanding performances from Keanu Reeves, Dennis Hopper, Sandra Bullock". It took in US$350 million worldwide. After the success of Speed, Bullock established herself as a Hollywood leading actress. In the romantic comedy While You Were Sleeping, she portrayed a lonely Chicago Transit Authority token collector who saves the life of a man. While the film made US$182 million globally, it received positive reviews, with Rotten Tomatoes' critical consensus reading: "While You Were Sleeping is built wholly from familiar ingredients, but assembled with such skill—and with such a charming performance from Sandra Bullock—that it gives formula a good name." She received her first Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.
In 1995, Bullock starred in the thriller The Net as a computer programmer who stumbles upon a conspiracy that puts h
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
George Edward Lopez is a Mexican-American comedian and actor. He is known for starring in his self-produced ABC sitcom, his stand-up comedy examines race and ethnic relations, including Mexican American culture. Lopez has received several honors for his work and contributions to the Latino community, including the 2003 Imagen Vision Award, the 2003 Latino Spirit Award for Excellence in Television and the National Hispanic Media Coalition Impact Award, he was named one of "The Top 25 Hispanics in America" by Time magazine in 2005. Lopez was born on April 23, 1961, in Mission Hills, Los Angeles, the son of Frieda and Anatasio Lopez, a migrant worker, he is of Mestizo Mexican descent. He was deserted by his father when he was two months old and by his mother when he was 10 years old, but was raised by his maternal grandmother, Benita Gutierrez, a factory worker, step-grandfather, Refugio Gutierrez, a construction worker. Lopez attended San Fernando High School, graduating in 1979. In 2000, after several years of performing stand-up comedy, Lopez was approached by actress Sandra Bullock for Lopez to produce and star in a comedy.
Bullock was concerned about the lack of Hispanic-oriented sitcoms on American television and pushed to get a sitcom on television that starred Hispanics without being about the Hispanic American community. Long criticized by Hispanic American groups for lack of Latinos on their television shows, ABC picked up the television series. In 2002, Lopez became one of the few Latinos to star in a television comedy series, following in the footsteps of Desi Arnaz, Freddie Prinze, John Leguizamo. George Lopez is an American situation comedy that aired on ABC from 2002 to 2007. Lopez is the co-creator, writer and star of the show. On March 8, 2007, it was announced, it first aired on Nick at Nite on September 10, 2007. On May 15, 2007, ABC announced; the show last aired on ABC September 7, 2007. The show entered syndication in the fall of 2007. Never a big Nielsen hit in prime-time, the show became a surprise success in syndication. After receiving the news that his show was canceled in 2007, Lopez criticized president of ABC Entertainment Steve McPherson for using racially motivated reasons for his decision.
The actor told the Los Angeles Times that "TV just became really white again," and lashed out against ABC by saying, "So a chicano can't be on TV, but a caveman can?" in reference to the short-lived sitcom Cavemen, replacing George Lopez on the schedule. Cavemen garnered a negative reception from critics and viewers, was canceled after 13 episodes. Lopez blamed ABC for causing over a hundred of his show's staff to become jobless. Lopez was a cast member and commentator for HBO’s hit sports show Inside the NFL for the 2003–04 football season. Lopez guest-starred as the mayor of Reno, Nevada in season five of Reno 911! in 2008. On March 28, 2009, it was announced that Lopez would be hosting his own late night talk show on TBS. Lopez hosted a late-night talk show entitled Lopez Tonight on TBS Monday through Thursday at midnight Eastern Time; the show debuted in November 2009. In November 2010, the show moved back to midnight ET to accommodate a new show with former Tonight Show host Conan O'Brien.
Lopez supported and advocated for the move, making it different from the 2010 Tonight Show conflict that saw O'Brien depart NBC after a proposal to push Tonight back 30 minutes for Jay Leno to return to the 11:35 p.m. slot. On August 10, 2011 Lopez received a cancellation notice from TBS; the network decided not to renew Lopez Tonight for a third season. On April 18, 2013, it was announced George Lopez would be starring in his own sitcom on FX called Saint George, which premiered on March 6, 2014. Saint George was produced under Debmar-Mercury and Lionsgate Television's syndication model, which states that if a show hits certain ratings thresholds in its first 10-episode run, it triggers an additional 90-episode order. Failing to do so, Saint George was canceled on June 2014, after one season. In August, 2015, TV Land announced a straight-to-series order for Lopez, a semi-autobiographical single-camera sitcom, which debuted on March 30, 2016. George was invited to be a guest judge on America's Got Talent in 2016.
He was allowed to use his golden buzzer once. He used his on the dance group Malevo. Lopez's HBO Films drama Real Women Have Curves premiered at the Sundance Film Festival, where it received the 2002 Audience Award. Lopez was featured in the 2000 drama Bread and Roses, he starred in the ABC Wonderful World of Disney Christmas film Naughty or Nice, he in the Robert Rodríguez-directed film The Adventures of Shark Boy & Lava Girl Brown is The New Green: George Lopez and the American Dream is a 2007 documentary directed and produced by Phillip Rodriguez. In 2010, Lopez appeared in The Spy Next Door with Jackie Chan. In 2011, Lopez reprised his role as Papi for Beverly Hills Chihuahua 2, was the voice of a toco toucan, Rafael, in the box-office animated hit Rio, alongside Jesse Eisenberg, Anne Hathaway, will.i.am, Jamie Foxx. Lopez's autobiography Why You Crying was published by the Touchstone/Fireside division of Simon & Schuster, placed in the New York Times Bestsellers top twenty; the book is co-written by Armen Keteyian.
In January 2009, Lopez appeared in We Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial. He is a two-time host of the Latin Grammy Awards, a co-host of the Emmy Awards. In 1993, Lopez married Ann Serrano; the couple has a daughter, born in 1996. On September 27, 2010, Lopez announced
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people. Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. Friendship has been studied in academic fields such as communication, social psychology and philosophy. Various academic theories of friendship have been proposed, including social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, attachment styles. Although there are many forms of friendship, some of which may vary from place to place, certain characteristics are present in many types of such bonds; such characteristics include affection. Friendship is an essential aspect of relationship building skills; the understanding of friendship in children tends to be more focused on areas such as common activities, physical proximity, shared expectations. These friendships provide opportunity for practicing self-regulation. Most children tend to describe friendship in terms of things like sharing, children are more to share with someone they consider to be a friend.
As children mature, they are more aware of others. They gain the ability to empathize with their friends, enjoy playing in groups, they experience peer rejection as they move through the middle childhood years. Establishing good friendships at a young age helps a child to be better acclimated in society on in their life. Based upon the reports of teachers and mothers, 75% of preschool children had at least one friend; this figure rose to 78% through the fifth grade, as measured by co-nomination as friends, 55% had a mutual best friend. About 15% of children were found to be chronically friendless, reporting periods without mutual friends at least six months. Potential benefits of friendship include the opportunity to learn about problem solving. Coaching from parents can be useful in helping children to make friends. Eileen Kennedy-Moore describes three key ingredients of children's friendship formation: openness and shared fun. Parents can help children understand social guidelines they haven't learned on their own.
Drawing from research by Robert Selman and others, Kennedy-Moore outlines developmental stages in children's friendship, reflecting an increasing capacity to understand others' perspectives: "I Want It My Way", "What's In It For Me?", "By the Rules", "Caring and Sharing", "Friends Through Thick and Thin." In adolescence, friendships become "more giving, frank and spontaneous." Adolescents tend to seek out peers who can provide such qualities in a reciprocal relationship, to avoid peers whose problematic behavior suggest they may not be able to satisfy these needs. Relationships begin to maintain a focus on shared values and common interests, rather than physical concerns like proximity and access to play things that more characterize childhood. A study performed at the University of Texas at Austin examined over 9,000 American adolescents to determine how their engagement in problematic behavior was related to their friendships. Findings indicated that adolescents were less to engage in problem behavior when their friends did well in school, participated in school activities, avoided drinking, had good mental health.
The opposite was found regarding adolescents. Whether adolescents were influenced by their friends to engage in problem behavior depended on how much they were exposed to those friends, whether they and their friendship groups "fit in" at school. A study by researchers from Purdue University found that friendships formed during post-secondary education last longer than friendships formed earlier. Friendship in adulthood provides companionship, affection, as well as emotional support, contributes positively to mental well-being and improved physical health. Adults may find it difficult to maintain meaningful friendships in the workplace. "The workplace can crackle with competition, so people learn to hide vulnerabilities and quirks from colleagues. Work friendships take on a transactional feel. Most adults value the financial security of their jobs more than friendship with coworkers; the majority of adults have an average of two close friends. Numerous studies with adults suggest that friendships and other supportive relationships do enhance self-esteem.
Older adults continue to report high levels of personal satisfaction in their friendships as they age, as the overall number of friends tends to decline. This satisfaction is associated with an increased ability to accomplish activities of daily living, as well as a reduced decline in cognitive abilities, decreased instances of hospitalization, better outcomes related to rehabilitation; the overall number of reported friends in life may be mediated by increased lucidity, better speech and vision, marital status. As on review phrased it: Research within the past four decades has now found that older adults reporting the highest levels of happiness and general well being report strong, close ties to numerous friends; as family responsibilities and vocational pressures lessen, friendships become more important. Among the elderly, friendships can provide links to the larger community, serve as a protective factor against depression and loneliness, compensate for potential losses in social support previously
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial with the attendant observances. Funerary customs comprise the complex of beliefs and practices used by a culture to remember and respect the dead, from interment, to various monuments and rituals undertaken in their honor. Customs vary between religious groups. Common secular motivations for funerals include mourning the deceased, celebrating their life, offering support and sympathy to the bereaved; the funeral includes a ritual through which the corpse receives a final dispositon. Depending on culture and religion, these can involve either the destruction of the body or its preservation. Differing beliefs about cleanliness and the relationship between body and soul are reflected in funerary practices. A memorial service or celebration of life is a funerary ceremony, performed without the remains of the deceased person; the word funeral comes from the Latin funus, which had a variety of meanings, including the corpse and the funerary rites themselves.
Funerary art is art produced in connection with burials, including many kinds of tombs, objects specially made for burial like flowers with a corpse. Funeral rites are as old as human culture itself, pre-dating modern Homo sapiens and dated to at least 300,000 years ago. For example, in the Shanidar Cave in Iraq, in Pontnewydd Cave in Wales and at other sites across Europe and the Near East, archaeologists have discovered Neanderthal skeletons with a characteristic layer of flower pollen; this deliberate burial and reverence given to the dead has been interpreted as suggesting that Neanderthals had religious beliefs, although the evidence is not unequivocal – while the dead were buried deliberately, burrowing rodents could have introduced the flowers. Substantial cross-cultural and historical research document funeral customs as a predictable, stable force in communities. Funeral customs tend to be characterized by five "anchors": significant symbols, gathered community, ritual action, cultural heritage, transition of the dead body.
Funerals in the Bahá'í Faith are characterized by not embalming, a prohibition against cremation, using a chrysolite or hardwood casket, wrapping the body in silk or cotton, burial not farther than an hour from the place of death, placing a ring on the deceased's finger stating, "I came forth from God, return unto Him, detached from all save Him, holding fast to His Name, the Merciful, the Compassionate." The Bahá'í funeral service contains the only prayer that's permitted to be read as a group - congregational prayer, although most of the prayer is read by one person in the gathering. The Bahá'í decedent controls some aspects of the Bahá'í funeral service, since leaving a will and testament is a requirement for Bahá'ís. Since there is no Bahá'í clergy, services are conducted under the guise, or with the assistance of, a Local Spiritual Assembly. A Buddhist funeral marks the transition from one life to the next for the deceased, it reminds the living of their own mortality. Christian burials occur on consecrated ground.
Burial, rather than a destructive process such as cremation, was the traditional practice amongst Christians, because of the belief in the resurrection of the body. Cremations came into widespread use, although some denominations forbid them; the US Conference of Catholic Bishops said "The Church earnestly recommends that the pious custom of burying the bodies of the deceased be observed. Congregations of varied denominations perform different ceremonies, but most involve offering prayers, scripture reading from the Bible, a sermon, homily, or eulogy, music. One issue of concern as the 21st century began was with the use of secular music at Christian funerals, a custom forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church. Antyesti "last rites or last sacrifice", refers to the rite-of-passage rituals associated with a funeral in Hinduism, it is sometimes referred to as Antya-kriya, Anvarohanyya, or Vahni Sanskara. A dead adult Hindu is cremated, while a dead child is buried; the rite of passage is said to be performed in harmony with the sacred premise that the microcosm of all living beings is a reflection of a macrocosm of the universe.
The soul is believed to be the immortal essence, released at the Antyeshti ritual, but both the body and the universe are vehicles and transitory in various schools of Hinduism. They consist of five elements: air, fire and space; the last rite of passage returns the body to the five origins. The roots of this belief are found in the Vedas, for example in the hymns of Rigveda in section 10.16, as follows, The final rites of a burial, in case of untimely death of a child, is rooted in Rig Veda's section 10.18, where the hymns mourn the death of the child, praying to deity Mrityu to "neither harm our girls nor our boys", pleads the earth to cover, protect the deceased child as a soft wool. Among Hindus, the dead body is cremated within a day of death; the body is washed, wrapped in white cloth for a man or a widow, red for a married woman, the two toes tied together with a string, a Tilak placed on the forehead. The dead adult's body is carried to the cremation ground near a river or water, by family and friends, placed on a pyr
Warner Bros. Television
Warner Bros. Television is the television production arm of Warner Bros. Entertainment; the division was started on March 21, 1955 with its first and most successful head being Jack L. Warner's son-in-law William T. Orr. ABC had major success against its competition with Walt Disney's Disneyland TV series and approached Warner Bros. with the idea of purchasing the studio's film library. WB formally entered television production with the premiere of its self-titled anthology series Warner Bros. Presents on ABC; the one-hour weekly show featured rotating episodes of television series based on the WB films and Kings Row, as well as an original series titled Cheyenne with Clint Walker. The first one-hour television western, Cheyenne became a big hit for the network and the studio with the added advantage of featuring promotions for upcoming Warner Bros. cinema releases in the show's last ten minutes. One such segment for Rebel Without a Cause featured Gig Young notably talking about road safety with James Dean.
With only Cheyenne being a success, WB ended the ten-minute promotions of new films and replaced Warner Bros. Presents with an anthology series titled Conflict, it was felt. Conflict showed the pilots for 77 Sunset Strip; the success of Cheyenne led WBTV to produce many series for ABC such as Westerns, crime dramas, other shows such as The Gallant Men and The Roaring Twenties using stock footage from WB war films and gangster films respectively. The company produced Jack Webb's Red Nightmare for the U. S. Department of Defense, shown on American television on Jack Webb's General Electric True. All shows were made in the manner of WB's B pictures in the 1940s. During the 1960 Writers Guild of America strike, WB reused many plots from its films and other television shows under the nom de plume of "W. Hermanos"; this was another example of imitating Warner Bros' B Pictures who would remake an "A" film and switch the setting. Two of the most popular stars, James Garner and Clint Walker, quit over their conditions.
Garner never returned to the Warner's fold during this period. Successful Warner's television stars found themselves in leading roles of many of the studio's films with no increase in salary. Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. was the lead of 77 Sunset Strip, in a recurring role on Maverick, headlined several films until exhaustion forced the studio to give him a rest. Many other actors under contract to Warner's at the time, who despite their work conditions, did see their stars rise over time, albeit for most only included Jack Kelly, Will Hutchins, Peter Brown, Ty Hardin, Wayde Preston, John Russell, Donald May, Rex Reason, Richard Long, Van Williams, Roger Smith, Mike Road, Anthony Eisley, Robert Conrad, Robert McQueeney, Dorothy Provine, Diane McBain, Connie Stevens, who had recorded songs, "Kookie, Kookie" with Edd Byrnes in 1959. Burns and Troy Donahue would become teen heartthrobs. Another contract player, Englishman Roger Moore, was growing displeased with Warner as his contract was expiring and would relocate to Europe from Hollywood, becoming an international star on TV, in films.
Warners contracted established stars such as Ray Danton, Peter Breck, Jeanne Cooper and Grant Williams. These stars appeared as guest stars, sometimes reprising their series role in another TV series; the stars appeared in WB cinema releases with no additional salary, with some such as Zimbalist, Walker and Danton playing the lead roles. Some stars such as Connie Stevens, Edd Byrnes, Robert Conrad and Roger Smith made albums for Warner Bros. Records. One particular recording, a novelty tune titled Kookie, Kookie became a big hit for Edd Byrnes and Connie Stevens; the following year, Connie Stevens had her own hit, with Sixteen Reasons. It was during this period, that shows Westerns like Cheyenne and Maverick. Depending on the particular show, William Lava or David Buttolph would compose the music, with lyrics by Stan Jones or Paul Francis Webster, among others. For the crime shows, it was up to the songwriting team of Jerry Livingston and Mack David, who scored the themes for the sitcom Room for One More, The Bugs Bunny Show.
In 1960, WBTV turned its attentions to the younger viewer, for one program, anyway, as they brought Bugs Bunny and the other WB cartoon characters to prime time, with The Bugs Bunny Show, which featured cartoons released after July 31, 1948, combined with newly animated introductory material. That year saw the debut of The Roaring Twenties (which was thought to be a more benign alternative to Desilu's The Untouchables. Whether or