William St Clair of Roslin
William St Clair of Roslin, 21st Baron of Roslin was a member of the Clan Sinclair. His title, Baron of Roslin, was not a peerage but a Scottish feudal barony, he was a skilled golfer and archer. He was a freemason, being initiated to the fraternity in the Lodge Canongate Kilwinning on 2nd June 1736, he is known as the first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. He was elected to the office on St. Andrew's Day of the same year. "William Saint Clair of Roslin". Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Retrieved 28 May 2012. "Lodge Canongate Kilwinning". Retrieved 23 May 2017
William Fraser (historian)
Sir William Fraser, was a solicitor and notable expert in ancient Scottish history and genealogy. Fraser's family came of the stock of craftsmen in The Mearns, he was born the eldest of two sons and a daughter of James Fraser, a mason, his spouse Ann, daughter of James Walker, tenant of the farm of Elfhill of Fetteresso, about 5 miles from Stonehaven. The couple were feuholders at Links of Arduthie. William Fraser was educated at a private school in Stonehaven kept by the Reverend Charles Michie, a M. A. graduate of Aberdeen's Marischal College in 1810. On 23 August 1830, Fraser began a five-year apprenticeship with Messrs. Brand and Burnett, solicitors in Stonehaven, he went to Edinburgh in December 1835, where he joined the firm of Hill and Tod, Writers to Her Majesty's Signet. He continued his education at Edinburgh University in conveyancing. In 1838 he was taking classes in French, it was his good fortune to be subsequently concerned in various cases requiring antiquarian and, in particular, genealogical research, he was thus early introduced to those studies in which he became such an expert, built up a remarkable body of knowledge which made possible his great series of fifty or so volumes on the histories of between twenty and thirty of the leading noble and landed families of Scotland.
Fraser was summoned to London to give evidence before the Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords. In 1882 the University of Edinburgh conferred on him the honorary degree of LL. D. In 1885 he was created a Companion of the Order of the Bath and in 1887 he was made a Civil Knight Commander of the Bath, being invested by Queen Victoria at Osborne House on 2 August that year; the knighthood was a unique distinction for a Scottish historian at that time. An article in the Dundee Advertiser on 1 June 1896, stated: "There is no Scotsman living who has so much experience in deciphering ancient documents, nor one who can so skillfully extract information from faded and time-worn parchments" as Sir William Fraser. Sir William Fraser died three months after his sister Ann, who had kept house for him since 1846, they share a unusual and ornate grave, designed by the architect Arthur Forman Balfour Paul, in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh just south of the northmost path in the north section of the original cemetery.
The Sir William Fraser Chair of Scottish History and Palaeography at the University of Edinburgh, founded in 1901, is the oldest chair of Scottish History. The professorship was named after and endowed by Sir William Fraser, who gave the university £25,000 for it; the chair has been held by a number of distinguished historians. In his will he endowed the Fraser Homes at Colinton for "authors or artists in necessitous circumstances." He left money for "printing works which would tend to elucidate the history and antiquities of Scotland." The nine-volume book series, The Scots Peerage, by Sir James Balfour Paul, was used for that purpose and is dedicated to him. Sir William Fraser Chair of Scottish History and Palaeography professors Peter Hume Brown 1901-1918 Robert Kerr Hannay 1919-1940 William Croft Dickinson 1940-1963 Gordon Donaldson 1963-1979 Geoffrey W. S. Barrow 1979-1992 Michael Lynch 1993-2005 Tom M Devine 2006-2011 Ewen A. Cameron 2012- Fraser's writings include: Memorials of the Montgomeries Earls of Eglinton Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Henderson, Thomas Finlayson.
"Fraser, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Donaldson, Sir William Fraser - The Man and His Work, Edinburgh, 1985, ISBN 0-905695-11-9 Works by or about William Fraser in libraries
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
George Hay, 7th Marquess of Tweeddale
George Hay, 7th Marquess of Tweeddale DL was a Scottish peer. Hay was a great-grandson of the 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale, in 1787 he inherited the titles of his first cousin once-removed, the 6th Marquess, he became a Burgess of Edinburgh a year Lord Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire in 1794, a Scottish representative peer in 1796. On 18 April 1785, he married they had: George, Earl of Gifford, it was here that they were captured by Napoleon's police a year with other British subjects, when war was renewed between the two countries. They were imprisoned in the fortress at Verdun and the marchioness died there on 8 May 1804, as did the marquess during the following August
John Mackenzie, Lord MacLeod
John Mackenzie, Lord MacLeod was a Scottish Jacobite and soldier of fortune. Born at Castle Leod near Strathpeffer, Scotland, he was the eldest son of George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie and Isabel Gordon, he was a Freemason, his father being the Grand Master, Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1737-38. He married daughter of James Forbes, 16th Lord Forbes. Mackenzie was styled Lord MacLeod in 1731. Sailing to join the rebel army on board the sloop "Hound", he fought with his father's clan at the Battle of Falkirk, leading the Cromartie's Regiment of about 500 clansmen in the Jacobite rising of 1745 during which he was taken prisoner, with his father and 218 others, on 15 April 1746 at Dunrobin Castle, by a party of the William Sutherland, 17th Earl of Sutherland's militia the day before the Battle of Culloden, in the last siege fought on the mainland of Great Britain. On 20 December 1746 he was not brought to trial before the Commissioners, though he pleaded guilty to high treason, but received full pardon on 26 January 1748 on condition "that within six months of his 21st birthday he would convey to the Crown all his rights in the Earldom", not restored until the reign of Queen Victoria.
He would write The Memorials of John Murray of Broughton: sometime secretary to Prince Charles. Narrative by John Mackenzie, Lord Macleod eldest son of the Earl of Cromartie; the only other person not to stand trial for pardoned. Leaving Scotland, Mackenzie lived in Berlin with Field Marshal Keith, who assisted him in obtaining a commission in the Swedish Army in 1750. Receiving financial assistance to equip himself for service from the Chevalier de Saint-Georges, on the recommendation of Lord George Murray, he entered service in Swedish Pomerania as a mercenary. Described by Lord George as "a young man of real merit", he was expected to gain promotion in the service of the Swedish King; this expectation was realized during his service to the Crown of Sweden for twenty-seven years with distinction, obtaining the rank of Lieutenant-General, subsequently being decorated with the award of Commander, Order of the Sword of Sweden. During the Seven Years' War he joined the Prussian Army as a volunteer, serving through the second campaign of 1757.
Created a Count of Sweden he returned to Scotland in 1771 and was the first Colonel of the 73rd Foot from 1772, 1st Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry in 1777. On 9 December 1778 his Swedish title was recognised by King George III. From 1779 he served with his regiment in the East Indies Campaign against Hyder Ali, joining the army under Major-General Sir Hector Munro assembled at St. Thomas Mount, Madras, in July 1780. Although he wasn't with the battalion at the time, it was destroyed during the Battle of Conjeveram on 10 September 1780. Following disagreement with Major-General Munro on the loss of the battle, John Mackenzie returned to Scotland, but remained the regiment's Colonel until his death, he was promoted to Major-General in 1784. Returning to Scotland John Mackenzie settled in Ross-shire where he entered politics holding the office of Member of Parliament between 1780 and 1784. Promoted to the rank of Major-General in 1782, he regained his family estates in 1784, restored to him by Act of Parliament, for a payment of £19,010 for debts on the estates.
He spent the rest of his life on the estate which he improved, planting thousands of trees, building a new mansion, Tarbat House. John Mackenzie died in Edinburgh on 2 April 1789 following a year of illness, without descendants and was buried at the Canongate Kirkyard, Edinburgh; the grave lies to the right upon entering the churchyard. His estates passed to Kenneth Mackenzie. G. E. Cokayne. A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, The Complete Peerage of England, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extinct or Dormant, new ed. 13 volumes in 14, volume III, page 546. Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes, volume 1, page 979
Earl of Kintore
Earl of Kintore is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1677 for Sir John Keith, third son of William Keith, 6th Hereditary Earl Marischal of Scotland and Chief of Clan Keith, he was made Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall at the same time in the Peerage of Scotland. At the death of William, the 4th Earl, in 1761, the Earldom and Lordship became dormant, as no-one could prove a claim to them. In 1778, it was decided that the Earldom and Chieftaincy of Clan should pass to Anthony Adrian Falconer, Lord Falconer of Halkerton, who changed his surname to Keith-Falconer; the Lordship Falconer of Halkerton and the Earldom of Kintore and Lordship Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall remained united until 1966, when, at the death of the 10th Earl, the Lordship Falconer of Halkerton became dormant. The 11th holder of the titles, Ethel Sydney Keith-Falconer, married John Baird, 1st Viscount Stonehaven. At the death of Lord Stonehaven, the titles Viscount Stonehaven, Baron Stonehaven, both in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, as well as the Baird of Urie Baronetcy, in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom, passed to the couple's son, James Ian.
The Countess of Kintore, who died the day after her one-hundredth birthday, was the longest-lived female holder of a British Peerage. The family seat is Keith Hall, near Aberdeenshire; the heir apparent to the earldom uses the courtesy title Lord Keith of Keith Hall. John Keith, 1st Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall John Keith, 1st Earl of Kintore William Keith, 2nd Earl of Kintore John Keith, 3rd Earl of Kintore William Keith, 4th Earl of Kintore Anthony Adrian Keith-Falconer, 5th Earl of Kintore William Keith-Falconer, 6th Earl of Kintore Anthony Adrian Keith-Falconer, 7th Earl of Kintore William Adrian Keith-Falconer, Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall Francis Alexander Keith-Falconer, 8th Earl of Kintore Algernon Hawkins Thomond Keith-Falconer, 9th Earl of Kintore Ian Douglas Montagu Keith-Falconer, Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall Arthur George Keith-Falconer, 10th Earl of Kintore. Ethel Sydney Keith-Falconer, 11th Countess of Kintore James Ian Keith, 12th Earl of Kintore Michael Canning William John Keith, 13th Earl of Kintore James William Falconer Keith, 14th Earl of Kintore The heir apparent is the present holder's son Tristan Michael Keith, Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall Viscount Stonehaven Earl Marischal Clan Keith Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Anthony Adrian Keith-Falconer, 7th Earl of Kintore Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Michael Canning William John Keith, 13th Earl of Kintore
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012