The Volunteer Army was an anti-Bolshevik army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920. The Volunteer Army began forming in November/December 1917 under the leadership of Gen. Mikhail Alekseyev in Novocherkassk and Gen. Lavr Kornilov, initially it included volunteering officers, cadets and Cossacks. Of the first 3,000 recruits just 12 were ordinary soldiers, on December 27,1917, the creation of the Volunteer Army was officially announced. In early January 1918 the Volunteer Army numbered approximately 4,000 men, most of the Kuban Cossacks did not give their support to the Volunteer Army. Only a small unit under the command of Gen. Viktor Pokrovsky joined the Volunteer Army on March 26,1918, the Volunteer Armys attempt to capture Yekaterinodar between April 9–13 was a disaster, with Gen. Kornilov being killed in battle. Gen. Denikin took over command of the remnants of the Volunteer Army, in June 19183,000 men under the command of Col. Mikhail Drozdovsky joined the Volunteer Army, bringing its strength to between 8, 000-9,000 men.
On June 23 the Volunteer Army began its so-called Second Kuban Campaign with support from Gen. Pyotr Krasnov, by September 1918 the Volunteer Army was up to 30, 000–35,000 men thanks to the mobilization of the Kuban Cossacks and counterrevolutionary elements gathered in the North Caucasus. Thus, the Volunteer Army took the name of the Caucasus Volunteer Army, in the autumn of 1918 the governments of Great Britain and the United States increased their material and technical assistance to the Volunteer Army. With the support from the Entente, the forces of the South Russian Whites were combined into the so-called Armed Forces of South Russia under the command of Gen. Denikin, in late 1918-early 1919 Denikin defeated the 11th Soviet Army and captured the North Caucasus region. In January 1919 the Caucasus Volunteer Army was divided into the Caucasus Army and the Volunteer Army, after capturing Donbass and Kharkov in June 1919, Denikin began to advance towards Moscow on June 20. According to his plan, the blow to Moscow was to be inflicted by the Volunteer Army under the command of Gen.
Vladimir May-Mayevsky. The White Army was accused by the Soviets of cruelty in its territories, usually against the workers. Some of the units and formations of the Volunteer Army possessed good skills and fighting strength due to a large number of officers in its ranks. However, the Volunteer Armys fighting efficiency started to decrease in the summer of 1919 in light of significant losses and conscription of mobilized peasants, during the Red Armys counteroffensive, the Volunteer Army sustained a decisive defeat and rolled back to the south. In early 1920 it retreated to the areas beyond the Don region and was reduced to a corps of 5,000 men under the command of Gen. Alexander Kutepov. On March 26 and March 27,1920, the remnants of the Volunteer Army were evacuated from Novorossiysk to the Crimea, the Volunteer Army has been criticized for its treatment of political prisoners. Sokolov, an anti-Bolshevik activist and Kadet politician who advocated for the Russian governments movement toward a constitutional monarchy, lambasted this characteristic of his own organization.
Edward M. Dune, a member of the Red Guard, for instance, in reference to the Kuban Cossacks rebellion, Dune explains, Our actions … differed little from the behavior of the White Army during the war itself
Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps
The Aeronautical Division, Signal Corps was the first heavier-than-air military aviation organization in history and the progenitor of the United States Air Force. It organized and deployed the first permanent American aviation unit, the 1st Aero Squadron, the Aeronautical Division trained 51 officers and 2 enlisted men as pilots, and incurred 13 fatalities in air crashes. During this period, the Aeronautical Division had 29 factory-built aircraft in its inventory, built a 30th from spare parts, the United States Army Signal Corps became associated with aeronautics during the American Civil War, when Thaddeus S. C. Lowe was named chief of the Union Army Balloon Corps, when the General Myer deteriorated, a second balloon, the Santiago, was manufactured by members of the Signal Corps in 1897 using the General Myer as a model, and served in combat in Cuba in 1898. All balloon school activities of the U. S. Army Signal Corps were transferred to Fort Omaha, in 1906, the commandant of the Signal School in Fort Leavenworth, Major George O.
Squier, studied aeronautical theory and lectured on the Wright flying machine. One of his instructors—Captain Billy Mitchell—was a student of aviation, Squier became executive officer to the Chief Signal Officer, Brigadier General James Allen, in July 1907, and immediately convinced Allen to create an aviation entity within the Signal Corps. The Aeronautical Division, Signal Corps, consisting at its inception of one officer, Captain Charles deForest Chandler was named to head the new division, with Corporal Edward Ward and Private First Class Joseph E. Barrett as his assistants. 1st Lt. Frank P. Lahm, an officer, was detailed to the division. Both Chandler and Lahm were balloonists, Lahm had earned renown the year before when he won the inaugural Gordon Bennett Cup, an international balloon event, while Chandler was already a member of the Aero Club of America. He remained head of the division until 1908, again from 1911 to 1913, during the interim, he was relieved by Lahm and from May 1910 to June 1911 by Capt.
Arthur S. Cowan, a former infantry officer and non-aviator assigned to the Signal School. On December 23,1907, the Signal Corps issued Specification No.486 for a flying machine. A copy of the specification was sent to the Wrights on January 3,1908, the following April 30 Lahm and 1st Lt. Thomas E. The company was organized to provide the New York National Guard with a corps for balloon observation. Specification No.486 required both types of aircraft be able to carry two persons, the dirigible was delivered first, in July 1908, after Baldwin submitted an extremely low bid to ensure receiving the contract. Baldwin and Glenn Curtiss flew the test trials over Fort Myer and met all specifications except speed and it was designated Signal Corps Dirigible No.1. During August, Baldwin trained three officer candidates to fly the dirigible, Selfridge, and 1st Lt. Benjamin D. Foulois, Infantry. Foulois was trained as the first dirigible pilot and prepared to move the ship from Fort Omaha to St. Joseph, the first solo ascent in the dirigible, and the first flight solely by army pilots, did not occur until May 26,1909.
The Wright Brothers, who had been asking $100,000 for their airplane, the airplane was delivered to Fort Myer, Virginia, on September 1,1908, for trials
Signal Corps (United States Army)
The United States Army Signal Corps develops, tests and manages communications and information systems support for the command and control of combined arms forces. It was established in 1860, the brainchild of United States Army Major Albert J. Myer, support for the command and control of combined arms forces. Signal support includes Network Operations and management of the electromagnetic spectrum, while serving as a medical officer in Texas in 1856, Albert James Myer proposed that the Army use his visual communications system, called aerial telegraphy. When the Army adopted his system on 21 June 1860, the Signal Corps was born with Myer as the first, Major Myer first used his visual signaling system on active service in New Mexico during the early 1860s Navajo expedition. For nearly three years, Myer was forced to rely on detailed personnel, although he envisioned a separate, myers vision came true on 3 March 1863, when Congress authorized a regular Signal Corps for the duration of the war.
Some 2,900 officers and enlisted men served, although not at any single time, even in the Civil War, the wigwag system, restricted to line-of-sight communications, was waning in the face of the electric telegraph. Initially, Myer used his office downtown in Washington, D. C. to house the Signal Corps School, when it was found to need additional space, he sought out other locations. First came Fort Greble, one of the Defenses of Washington during the Civil War, the size and location were outstanding. The school remained there for over 20 years and ultimately was renamed Fort Myer, Signal Corps detachments participated in campaigns fighting Native Americans in the west, such as the Powder River Expedition of 1865. The electric telegraph, in addition to signaling, became a Signal Corps responsibility in 1867. Within 12 years, the Corps had constructed, and was maintaining and operating, in 1870, the Signal Corps established a congressionally mandated national weather service. Within a decade, with the assistance of Lieutenant Adolphus Greely, Myer died in 1880, having attained the rank of brigadier general and the title of Chief Signal Officer.
The weather bureau became part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1891, the Signal Corps role in the Spanish–American War of 1898 and the subsequent Philippine Insurrection was on a grander scale than it had been in the Civil War. In 1908, on Fort Myer, the Wright brothers made test flights of the Armys first airplane built to Signal Corps specifications, reflecting the need for an official pilot rating, War Department Bulletin No. 2, released on 24 February 1911, established a Military Aviator rating, Army aviation remained within the Signal Corps until 1918, when it became the Army Air Service. The Signal Corps lost no time in meeting the challenges of World War I, Chief Signal Officer George Owen Squier worked closely with private industry to perfect radio tubes while creating a major signal laboratory at Camp Alfred Vail. Early radiotelephones developed by the Signal Corps were introduced into the European theater in 1918, while the new American voice radios were superior to the radiotelegraph sets and telegraph remained the major technology of World War I.
A pioneer in radar, Colonel William Blair, director of the Signal Corps laboratories at Fort Monmouth, even before the United States entered World War II, mass production of two radar sets, the SCR-268 and the SCR-270, had begun
The Franklin Medal was a science award presented from 1915 through 1997 by the Franklin Institute located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U. S. It was founded in 1914 by Samuel Insull, the Franklin Medal was the most prestigious of the various awards presented by the Franklin Institute. Together with other awards, it was merged into the Benjamin Franklin Medal. Recipients are listed in a database on The Franklin Institute website
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel.
According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner.
Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source
The term is frequently used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. Its meaning may vary between countries, the term is used in civilian contexts and as a general attributive, for example in its original sense of a branch of a ruling house which is not currently in the direct line of succession. The term comes from the French term cadet for younger sons of a noble family, in Commonwealth countries, including the United Kingdom, a cadet is a member of one of the cadet forces. In the United Kingdom these are the Combined Cadet Force, the Sea/Royal Marine Cadets, Army Cadets, Military officers in training are called officer cadets. In Canada, the term refers to an officer in training, with the official rank names as Officer Cadet for the Air Force and Army. It refers to any member of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets and these three organizations are volunteer youth groups administered by the Department of National Defence. In Germany, the rank Cadet only exists in the German Navy for officers in training, in the Army and the Luftwaffe, officers in training usually have the rank of a Fahnenjunker or Ensign before they are promoted into the rank of a Lieutenant.
Graduates of PMMA are given reserve officer status in the Philippine Navy, the term cadet is applicable to the enrollees of Citizens Army Training and Reserve Officer Training Corps. Service academy cadets are thought to be between the NCO and Officers ranks, and NCO consider cadets as rank higher to them, in Ireland, a Cadet is a pupil of the Military College, which carries out officer training for the Air Corps and Naval Service. Training takes two years and the Cadets are split into Senior and Junior Grades and Classes, in Norway, a cadet is a pupil of either of the three Krigsskolen, which educate commanding officers for either the Army, the Navy or to the Air Force. In the United States, cadet refers to a college student who is concurrently in training to become a commissioned officer of the armed forces. Some state-sponsored military colleges, including The Citadel, Virginia Military Institute and private college, Norwich University. In Australia Cadet refers to an officer in training, the official rank is Officer Cadet however OCDTs in the Royal Military College—Duntroon are referred to as Staff Cadet for historical reasons.
In the British and Commonwealth as well as Russian service, these groups of boys or youths are organized and trained on volunteer military lines, the Antigua and Barbuda Cadet Corps consists of students between the ages of 12 and 19. It Is a voluntary organization, sponsored by the government. The main objective is to training and personal development to the youths through paramilitary activities. The training is geared to young men and woman to become model citizens. Emphasis during training is based on discipline, leadership
Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps
The Aviation Section, Signal Corps, was the military aviation service of the United States Army from 1914 to 1918, and a direct statutory ancestor of the United States Air Force. The Aviation Section organized the first squadrons of the aviation arm, the Aviation Section, Signal Corps was created by the 63rd Congress on July 18,1914 after earlier legislation to make the aviation service independent from the Signal Corps died in committee. Despite the assignment of Lieutenant Colonel George O, the duties of the section were not resumed following World War I and it was formally disestablished by the creation of the Air Service in 1920. The Aviation Section, Signal Corps was created by the Act of July 18,1914,514, to supersede the Aeronautical Division, an administrative creation of the Signal Corps within the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, as the primary agency for military aviation. Earlier legislation to make the aviation service independent from the Signal Corps died in committee after all officers connected with aviation save one, Captain Paul W.
Beck, testified against it. The new law established the purpose and duties of the section, the Aeronautical Division became the administrative component of the Aviation Section until its abolition in 1918. The first funding appropriation for the Aviation Section was $250,000 for fiscal year 1915, officers on aviation duty who were promoted to permanent captain in their branch arm were automatically returned to the line. This placed them on the level as newly graduated pilots. At its creation, the Aviation Section had 19 officers and 101 enlisted men, the Aeronautical Division, a quasi-headquarters with three officers and 11 enlisted men, issued orders in the name of the Chief Signal Officer. All other personnel of the section were organized on August 5,1914. The impending war was defused by the resignation of Victoriano Huerta on July 15, by December 1914, the Aviation Section consisted of 44 officers,224 enlisted men, and 23 aircraft. Chief Signal Officer Brigadier General George P, the 1st Company, 2nd Aero Squadron was activated on May 12,1915 at San Diego but not manned until December.
31, a Martin T tractor airplane, returned from San Diego to Texas for the time in five years in April 1915. Milling and 2d Lt. Byron Q, Jones, as the Army massed around Brownsville in response to civil war between the forces of Pancho Villa and the Carranza government. On April 20, Milling and Jones became the first American military airmen to come under fire from a hostile force. Beginning in August 1915, the 1st Aero Squadron spent four months at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and Milling, now a captain and the JN-2 remained operational until a second crashed on September 5. The aircraft were grounded until October 14, when conversions of the JN-2s to the newer JN-3 began, two copies of which the squadron received in early September. Between November 19 and 26,1915, the six JN-3s of the 1st Aero Squadron at Fort Sill made the first cross-country squadron flight,439 mi to a new airfield built near Fort Sam Houston, Texas
Order of St Michael and St George
It is named in honour of two military saints, St Michael and St George. People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it, British Ambassadors to foreign nations are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. It is the award for members of the FCO. The Orders motto is Auspicium melioris ævi and its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, and St. George, patron saint of England. One of its symbols is that of St Michael trampling over. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer fully a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse, the last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that countrys independence in 1947. In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became a part of Greece, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order. In 1965, the order was open for women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first CMG, the British Sovereign is the Sovereign of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order.
The next-most senior member is the Grand Master, the office was formerly filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands, however, Grand Masters are chosen by the Sovereign. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers. The Usher of the Order is known as the Gentleman Usher of the Blue Rod, he not, unlike his Order of the Garter equivalent. On the left side is a representation of the star, the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold and it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, and the cyphers SM and SG, all alternately. In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows, at less important occasions, simpler insignia are used, The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders. It is worn pinned to the left breast, the Knight and Dame Grand Cross star includes seven-armed, silver-rayed Maltese Asterisk, with a gold ray in between each pair of arms.
The Knight and Dame Commanders star is a slightly smaller eight-pointed silver figure formed by two Maltese Crosses, it does not include any gold rays, in each case, the star bears a red cross of St George. In the centre of the star is a blue ring bearing the motto of the Order. Within the ring is a representation of St Michael trampling on Satan, the badge is the only insignia used by all members of the Order, it is suspended on a blue-crimson-blue ribbon
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
Johns Hopkins University
The Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and his $7 million bequest—of which half financed the establishment of The Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States at that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institutions first president on February 22,1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a school from Germanys ancient Heidelberg University. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D. C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimores Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, the school, and the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore.
Johns Hopkins was a member of the American Association of Universities. Over the course of almost 140 years, thirty-six Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins, founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore, the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins, Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the universitys benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as President of John Hopkins.
Eisenhower retorted that he was glad to be here in Pittburgh, the original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the universitys first president