Hollywood Walk of Fame
The Walk of Fame is administered by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce and maintained by the self-financing Hollywood Historic Trust. It is a popular tourist destination, with a reported 10 million visitors in 2003, as of 2017, the Walk of Fame comprises over 2,600 stars, spaced at 6-foot intervals. The monuments are coral-pink terrazzo five-point stars rimmed with brass inlaid into a charcoal-colored terrazzo background, in the upper portion of each star field the name of the honoree is inlaid in brass block letters. Below the inscription, in the half of the star field. Approximately 20 new stars are added to the Walk each year, special category stars recognize various contributions by corporate entities, service organizations, and special honorees, and display emblems unique to those honorees. The moons are silver and grey terrazzo circles rimmed in brass on a square pink terrazzo background, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce credits E. M. Stuart, its volunteer president in 1953, with the original idea for creating a Walk of Fame.
Stuart reportedly proposed the Walk as a means to maintain the glory of a community whose name means glamor, Harry Sugarman, another Chamber member and president of the Hollywood Improvement Association, receives credit in an independent account. A committee was formed to flesh out the idea, and a firm was retained to develop specific proposals. By 1955 the basic concept and general design had been agreed upon, multiple accounts exist for the origin of the star concept. By another account, the stars were inspired, by Sugarmans drinks menu, which featured celebrity photos framed in gold stars. In February 1956 a prototype was unveiled featuring a caricature of an example honoree inside a star on a brown background. The committees met at the Brown Derby restaurant, and included such prominent names as Cecil B, deMille, Samuel Goldwyn, Jesse L. Lasky, Walt Disney, Hal Roach, Mack Sennett, and Walter Lantz. A requirement stipulated by the audio recording committee specified minimum sales of one million records or 250,000 albums for all music category nominees.
The committee soon realized that many important recording artists would be excluded from the Walk by that requirement, as a result, the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences was formed for the purpose of creating a separate award system for the music business. The first Grammy Awards were presented in Beverly Hills in 1959, construction of the Walk began in 1958 but two lawsuits delayed completion. The first was filed by local property owners challenging the legality of the $1.25 million tax assessment levied upon them to pay for the Walk, along with new street lighting, in October 1959 the assessment was ruled legal. The second lawsuit, filed by Charles Chaplin, Jr. sought damages for the exclusion of his father, chaplins suit was dismissed in 1960, paving the way for completion of the project. Woodwards name was one of eight drawn at random from the original 1,558, the other seven names were Olive Borden, Ronald Colman, Louise Fazenda, Preston Foster, Burt Lancaster, Edward Sedgwick, and Ernest Torrence
The Rocky Horror Picture Show
The Rocky Horror Picture Show is a 1975 musical comedy horror film directed by Jim Sharman. The screenplay was written by Sharman and Richard OBrien based on the 1973 musical stage production The Rocky Horror Show, book, the production is a parody tribute to the science fiction and horror B movies of the 1930s through early 1970s. The film stars Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, Richard OBrien himself, and Barry Bostwick along with cast members from the original Royal Court Theatre, Roxy Theatre, and Belasco Theatre productions. The story centres on a young engaged couple whose car breaks down in the rain near a castle where they seek a telephone to call for help, the castle is occupied by strangers in elaborate costumes celebrating an annual convention. They discover the head of the house is Frank N. Furter, the couple is seduced separately by the mad scientist and eventually released by the servants who take control. The film was shot in the United Kingdom at Bray Studios and on location at an old country estate named Oakley Court, a number of props and set pieces were reused from the Hammer horror films.
Although the film is both a parody and tribute to many of the science fiction and horror films, costume designer Sue Blane conducted no research for her designs. Blane stated that costumes from the film have affected the development of punk rock fashion trends such as ripped fishnets. Although largely critically panned on release, it soon became known as a midnight movie when audiences began participating with the film at the Waverly Theater in New York City in 1976. Audience members returned to the cinemas frequently and talked back to the screen and began dressing as the characters, at almost the same time, fans in costume at the Kings Court Theater in Pittsburgh began performing alongside the film. This shadow cast mimed the actions on screen above and behind them, still in limited release four decades after its premiere, it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history. It is often close to Halloween. Today, the film has an international following. It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress in 2005, the films creative team produced Shock Treatment in 1981, a standalone feature using the characters of Brad and Janet and featuring some of the same cast.
Seeking a telephone, the walk to a nearby castle where they discover a group of strange. They are soon swept into the world of Dr. Frank N. Furter, the ensemble of convention attendees includes servants Riff Raff, his sister Magenta, and a groupie named Columbia. In his lab, Frank claims to have discovered the secret to life itself and his creation, Rocky, is brought to life. The ensuing celebration is interrupted by Eddie who rides out of a deep freeze on a motorcycle
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
The story chronicles the adventures of a young farm girl named Dorothy in the magical Land of Oz, after she and her pet dog Toto are swept away from their Kansas home by a cyclone. The novel is one of the stories in American literature and has been widely translated. The Library of Congress has declared it Americas greatest and best-loved homegrown fairytale and its groundbreaking success and the success of the Broadway musical adapted from the novel led Baum to write thirteen additional Oz books that serve as official sequels to the first story. Baum dedicated the book to my good friend & comrade, My Wife, in January 1901, George M. Hill Company completed printing the first edition, a total of 10,000 copies, which quickly sold out. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz sold three million copies by the time it entered the domain in 1956. The book was published by George M. Hill Company and its first edition had a printing of 10,000 copies and was sold in advance of the publication date of September 1,1900.
On May 17,1900, the first copy of the book came off the press, Baum assembled it by hand, the public saw the book for the first time at a book fair at the Palmer House in Chicago, July 5–20. The books copyright was registered on August 1, full distribution followed in September, by October 1900, the first edition had already sold out and the second edition of 15,000 copies was nearly depleted. In a letter to his brother Harry, Baum wrote that the books publisher George M. Hill predicted a sale of about 250,000 copies, in spite of this favorable conjecture, Hill did not initially predict that the book would be phenomenally successful. He agreed to publish the book only when the manager of the Chicago Grand Opera House Fred R. Hamlin committed to making The Wonderful Wizard of Oz into a stage play to publicize the novel. The play The Wizard of Oz debuted on June 16,1902 and it was revised to suit adult preferences and was crafted as a musical extravaganza, with the costumes modeled after Denslows drawings.
Hills publishing company became bankrupt in 1901, so Baum and Denslow agreed to have the Indianapolis-based Bobbs-Merrill Company resume publishing the novel, Baums son Harry Neal told the Chicago Tribune in 1944 that L. Frank told his children whimsical stories before they became material for his books. Harry called his father the swellest man I knew, a man who was able to give a decent reason as to why black birds cooked in a pie could afterwards get out, by 1938, more than one million copies of the book had been printed. Less than two decades in 1956, the sales of his novel had grown to three million copies in print, Dorothy is a young girl who lives with her Aunt Em and Uncle Henry and her little dog Toto on a Kansas farm. One day and Toto are caught up in a cyclone that deposits her farmhouse into Munchkin Country in the magical Land of Oz, the falling house has killed the Wicked Witch of the East, the evil ruler of the Munchkins. The Good Witch of the North arrives with the grateful Munchkins, the Good Witch tells Dorothy that the only way she can return home is to go to the Emerald City and ask the great and powerful Wizard of Oz to help her.
As Dorothy embarks on her journey, the Good Witch of the North kisses her on the forehead, on her way down the yellow brick road, Dorothy attends a banquet held by a Munchkin man named Boq. The next day, Dorothy frees the Scarecrow from the pole on which he is hanging, applies oil from a can to the connections of the Tin Woodman
Beverly Hills, California
Beverly Hills is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, surrounded by the cities of Los Angeles and West Hollywood. By 2013, its population had grown to 34,658, sometimes referred to as 90210, one of its primary ZIP codes, it was home to many actors and celebrities throughout the 20th century. The city includes the Rodeo Drive shopping district and the Beverly Hills Oil Field, gaspar de Portolá arrived in the area that would become Beverly Hills on August 3,1769, travelling along native trails which followed the present-day route of Wilshire Boulevard. The area was settled by Maria Rita Quinteros de Valdez and her husband in 1828 and they called their 4,500 acres of property the Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas. in 1854, she sold the ranch to Benjamin Davis Wilson and Henry Hancock. By the 1880s, the ranch had been subdivided into parcels of 75 acres and was being bought up by anglos from Los Angeles. Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker acquired most of it, at this point, the area was known as the Hammel and Denker Ranch.
By 1888, Denker and Hammel were planning to build a town called Morocco on their holdings and they did not find enough to exploit commercially by the standards of the time, though. In 1906, they reorganized as the Rodeo Land and Water Company, renamed the property Beverly Hills, subdivided it, the development was named Beverly Hills after Beverly Farms in Beverly and because of the hills in the area. The first house in the subdivision was built in 1907, although sales remained slow, Beverly Hills was one of many all-white planned communities started in the Los Angeles area around this time. Restrictive covenants prohibited non-whites from owning or renting property unless they were employed as servants by white residents and it was forbidden to sell or rent property to Jews in Beverly Hills. Burton Green began construction on The Beverly Hills Hotel in 1911, the hotel was finished in 1912. The visitors drawn by the hotel were inclined to purchase land in Beverly Hills and that same year, the Rodeo Land and Water Company decided to separate its water business from its real estate business.
The Beverly Hills Utility Commission was split off from the company and incorporated in September 1914, buying all of the utilities-related assets from the Rodeo Land. In 1919, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford bought land on Summit Drive and built a mansion, finished in 1921, the glamor associated with Fairbanks and Pickford as well as other movie stars who built mansions in the city contributed to its growing appeal. By the early 1920s the population of Beverly Hills had grown enough to make the water supply a political issue, in 1923 the usual solution, annexation to the city of Los Angeles, was proposed. There was considerable opposition to annexation among such famous residents as Pickford, Will Rogers, the Beverly Hills Utility Commission, opposed to annexation as well, managed to force the city into a special election and the plan was defeated 337 to 507. In 1925, Beverly Hills approved an issue to buy 385 acres for a new campus for UCLA. The cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica and Venice issued bonds to pay for the new campus
Doc Savage is a fictional character originally published in American pulp magazines during the 1930s and 1940s. He was created by publisher Henry W. Ralston and editor John L. Nanovic at Street & Smith Publications, the illustrations were by Walter Baumhofer, Paul Orban, Emery Clarke, Modest Stein, and Robert G. Harris. The heroic-adventure character would go on to appear in media, including radio, film. Into the 21st century, Doc Savage has remained an icon in the U. S. referenced in novels. Stan Lee has credited Doc Savage as being the forerunner to modern superheroes, the Doc Savage Magazine was printed by Street & Smith from March 1933 to the summer of 1949 to capitalize on the success of the Shadow magazine and followed by the original Avenger in September 1939. In all,181 issues were published in various entries and alternative titles, the stories were not reprinted in chronological order as originally published, though they did begin with the first adventure, The Man of Bronze. By 1967, Bantam was publishing once a month until 1990, author Will Murray produced seven more Doc Savage novels for Bantam Books from Lester Dents original outlines.
Bantam published a novel by Philip José Farmer, Escape From Loki, Clark Savage, Jr. first appeared in March 1933 in the first issue of Doc Savage Magazine. Because of the success of the Shadow, who had his own pulp magazine, Doc Savage set up base on the 86th floor of a world-famous New York skyscraper. Doc Savage fights against evil with the assistance of the Fabulous Five, Doc Savage has appeared in comics and a movie, on radio, and as a character in numerous other works, and continues to inspire authors and artists in the realm of fantastic adventure. Doc Savage Magazine was created by Street & Smith Publications executive Henry Ralston and editor John Nanovic to capitalize on the success of Street and Smiths pulp character, Dent wrote most of the 181 original novels, hidden behind the house name of Kenneth Robeson. Doc Savages real name is Clark Savage, Jr and he is a physician, adventurer, explorer, and, as revealed in The Polar Treasure, a musician. Doc is a master of disguise and an excellent imitator of voices and he rights wrongs and punishes evildoers.
Dent described the hero as a mix of Sherlock Holmes deductive abilities, Tarzans outstanding physical abilities, Craig Kennedys scientific education and he described Doc Savage as manifesting Christliness. Docs character and world-view is displayed in his oath, which goes as follows, By the third story, Savage is accompanied on his adventures by up to five other regular characters, all highly accomplished individuals in their own right. Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Blodgett Monk Mayfair, an industrial chemist, Monk got his nickname from his simian build, notably his long arms, and his covering of red hair. He is in a constant state of friendly feuding with Ham Brooks and this began when his friend taught him some French words to say to an officer and Monk repeated them, not knowing they were a string of insults. The result was a stay in the guardhouse
Fantasy films are films that belong to the fantasy genre with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, folklore, or exotic fantasy worlds. The genre is considered a form of speculative fiction alongside science fiction films and horror films, Fantasy films often have an element of magic, wonder and the extraordinary. Several sub-categories of fantasy films can be identified, although the delineations between these subgenres, much as in literature, are somewhat fluid. The most common fantasy subgenres depicted in movies are High Fantasy and Sword, both categories typically employ quasi-medieval settings, magical creatures and other elements commonly associated with fantasy stories. High Fantasy films tend to feature a more richly developed fantasy world, they feature a hero of humble origins and a clear distinction between good and evil set against each other in an epic struggle. Many scholars cite J. R. R, to some, the term Sword and Sandal has pejorative connotations, designating a film with a low-quality script, bad acting and poor production values.
Another important subgenre of films that has become more popular in recent years is contemporary fantasy. Such films feature magical effects or supernatural occurrences happening in the world of today. Fantasy films set in the afterlife, called Bangsian Fantasy, are less common, other uncommon subgenres include Historical Fantasy and Romantic Fantasy, although 2003s Pirates of the Caribbean, The Curse of the Black Pearl successfully incorporated elements of both. As noted above, superhero movies and fairy tale films might each be considered subgenres of fantasy films, as a cinematic genre, fantasy has traditionally not been regarded as highly as the related genre of science fiction film. Since the late 1990s, the genre has gained new respectability in a way, tolkiens The Lord of the Rings and J. K. Jacksons The Lord of the Rings trilogy is due to its ambitious scope, serious tone. These pictures achieved phenomenal commercial and critical success, and the installment of the trilogy became the first fantasy film ever to win the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Harry Potter series has been a financial success, has achieved critical acclaim. Following the success of ventures, Hollywood studios have greenlighted additional big-budget productions in the genre. These have included adaptations of the first and third books in C. S and this is in contrast to science fiction films, which are often released during the northern hemisphere summer. The huge commercial success of these pictures may indicate a change in Hollywoods approach to fantasy film releases. Fantasy films have a history almost as old as the medium itself, fantasy films were relatively few and far between until the 1980s, when high-tech filmmaking techniques and increased audience interest caused the genre to flourish
The Great Rupert
The Great Rupert, is a 1950 comedy family film, produced by George Pal, directed by Irving Pichel and starring Jimmy Durante, Tom Drake and Terry Moore. It is based on a story, written by Ted Allan, the story revolves around a little animated squirrel who, with lots of charm, accidentally helps two economically distressed families overcome their obstacles. Rosalinda Amendola, the daughter of happy but impoverished former acrobats is in love with the boy next door, though Petes parents are wealthy, his miserly father Frank insists on hiding his money from his investments in the wall of their family home. Unsatisfied with tree life, Rupert gains access to the Dingle home, George Pals stop-motion animation used in creating the illusion of a dancing squirrel was so realistic that he received many inquiries as to where he located a trained squirrel. In 1999, Arnold Leibovit Entertainment re-released the film on DVD, in 2003, 20th Century Fox and Legend Films revived the public domain film with a colorized special edition of the film, under the title A Christmas Wish.
For that release, Terry Moore provided a commentary track
Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City
Holy Cross Cemetery is a Roman Catholic cemetery at 5835 West Slauson Avenue in Culver City, United States, operated by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles. It is partially in the Culver City city limits, opened in 1939, Holy Cross comprises 200 acres. It contains—amongst others—the graves and tombs of showbusiness professionals, many celebrities are in the sections near The Grotto in the southwest part of the cemetery, after entering the main gate, turn left and follow the leftmost road up the hill. Use the following links to find someone. Vince Edwards, actor Richard Egan, actor John Fante, short-story, dixie Lee, actress and singer. Monaco, composer Ricardo Montalbán, actor Carlotta Monti, actress Thelma Morgan, twin sister of Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt, geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Holy Cross Cemetery
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.
James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence. Animators can work in a variety of fields including film, Animation is closely related to filmmaking and like filmmaking is extremely labor-intensive, which means that most significant works require the collaboration of several animators. The methods of creating the images or frames for an animation piece depends on the artistic styles. Other artists who contribute to animated cartoons, but who are not animators, include layout artists, storyboard artists, in hand-drawn Japanese animation productions, such as in Hayao Miyazakis films, the key animator handles both layout and key animation. Some animators in Japan such as Mitsuo Iso take full responsibility for their scenes, one important distinction is between character animators and special effects animators. Usually, a young artist seeking to break into animation is hired for the first time in one of these categories, the creation of animation was a long and arduous process.
Each frame of a scene was hand-drawn, transposed onto celluloid. These finished cels were placed together in sequence over painted backgrounds and filmed. Animation methods have become far more varied in recent years, todays cartoons could be created using any number of interesting methods, mostly using computers to make the animation process cheaper and faster. These more efficient animation procedures have made the job less tedious. Audiences generally find animation to be more interesting with sound. Voice actors and musicians, among other talent, may contribute vocal or music tracks, some early animated films asked the vocal and music talent to synchronize their recordings to already-extant animation. Nowadays, visual development artists will design a character as a 2D drawing or painting, texture artists paint the character with colorful or complex textures, and technical directors set up rigging so that the character can be easily moved and posed. For each scene, layout artists set up cameras and rough blocking.
Despite those constraints, the animator is still capable of exercising significant artistic skill, more recently, Chris Buck has remarked that animators have become actors with mice. Some studios bring in acting coaches on feature films to help work through such issues. Each finished film clip is checked for quality and rushed to a film editor, Animation Computer animation Computer graphics Key frame Sweat box Animation Toolworks Glossary, Who Does What In Animation How An Animated Cartoon Is Made
Budapest is the capital and most populous city of Hungary, one of the largest cities in the European Union and sometimes described as the primate city of Hungary. It has an area of 525 square kilometres and a population of about 1.8 million within the limits in 2016. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the Danube river with the unification of Buda and Óbuda on the west bank, the history of Budapest began with Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement that became the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia. Hungarians arrived in the territory in the 9th century and their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241–1242. The re-established town became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century, following the Battle of Mohács and nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule, the region entered a new age of prosperity, and Budapest became a global city after its unification in 1873. It became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a power that dissolved in 1918.
Budapest was the point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian Republic of Councils in 1919, the Battle of Budapest in 1945. Budapest is an Alpha- global city, with strengths in arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts the Budapest Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and it is the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it the 25th most popular city in the world, further famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. It has around 80 geothermal springs, the worlds largest thermal water system, second largest synagogue. Budapest is home to the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College, over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, Central European University and Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Budapest is the combination of the city names Buda and Pest, One of the first documented occurrences of the combined name Buda-Pest was in 1831 in the book Világ, written by Count István Széchenyi. The origins of the names Buda and Pest are obscure, according to chronicles from the Middle Ages, the name Buda comes from the name of its founder, brother of the Hunnic ruler Attila. The theory that Buda was named after a person is supported by modern scholars, an alternative explanation suggests that Buda derives from the Slavic word вода, voda, a translation of the Latin name Aquincum, which was the main Roman settlement in the region. There are theories about the origin of the name Pest. One of the states that the word Pest comes from the Roman times. According to another theory, Pest originates from the Slavic word for cave, or oven, the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor contracted 22 actors and actresses and these fortunate few would become the first movie stars. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, in 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company. It is the last major film studio headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles. Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company, hungarian-born founder, Adolph Zukor, who had been an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed mainly to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time.
By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, and Zukor was on his way to success and its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth, which starred Sarah Bernhardt. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish, the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with virtually no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film. Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies, Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor, until this time, films were sold on a statewide or regional basis which had proved costly to film producers. Also, Famous Players and Lasky were privately owned while Paramount was a corporation, in 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, and Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, and merged the three companies into one, with only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its Paramount Pictures soon dominated the business.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, the driving force behind Paramounts rise was Zukor. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg and they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation, three years later, because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max, the Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957, Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as talkies, and in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris