George Peter Alexander Healy

George Peter Alexander Healy was an American portrait painter. He was one of the most prolific and popular painters of his day, his sitters included many of the eminent personages of his time. Healy was born in Massachusetts, he was the eldest of five children of an Irish captain in the merchant marine. Having been left fatherless at a young age, Healy helped to support his mother; when sixteen years of age he began drawing, at once fired with the ambition to be an artist. Jane Stuart, daughter of Gilbert Stuart, aided him in every way, loaned him a Guido's "Ecce Homo", which he copied in color and sold to a country priest, she introduced him to Thomas Sully, by whose advice Healy profited much, gratefully repaid Sully in the days of the latter's adversity. At eighteen, Healy began painting portraits, was soon successful. In 1834, he went to Europe, leaving his mother well provided for, remained abroad sixteen years during which he studied with Antoine-Jean Gros in Paris and in Rome, came under the pervading influence of Thomas Couture, painted assiduously.

He received a third-class medal in the Paris Salon of 1840. In 1843 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician, he won a second-class medal in Paris in 1855, when he exhibited his Franklin urging the claims of the American Colonies before Louis XVI. This year saw him in Chicago, where he remained until 1869, when he again visited Europe, painting chiefly in Rome and Paris, for twenty-one years. In 1892, he returned to Chicago, where he died on June 24, 1894. Healy's autobiography, Reminiscences of a Portrait Painter, was published in 1894. Healy was one of the most popular painters of his day, he was remarkably facile, enterprising and industrious. "All my days are spent in my painting room". His style French, was sound, his color fine, his drawing correct and his management of light and shade excellent, his likenesses, firm in outline, solidly painted, with glazings, are emphatic and forceful. Among his portraits of eminent persons are those of Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, John Calhoun, Pope Pius IX, Arnold Henry Guyot, William H. Seward, Louis Philippe, Marshal Soult, Prescott, Liszt, Thiers, Lord Lyons, Sallie Ward and the Princess of Romania.

He painted portraits of all the presidents of the United States from John Quincy Adams to Ulysses Grant—this series being painted for the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D. C. Healy painted The Peacemakers in 1868 and Abraham Lincoln in 1869. In one large historical work, Webster's Reply to Hayne, there are thirty portraits, his principal works include portraits of Lincoln, Bishop McClosky, Audubon, Comte de Paris, Isaac Thomas Hecker C. S. P. Founder of the Paulist Fathers The Newberry Library in Chicago holds 41 of Healy's paintings, donated by the artist in 1887. Most of the works can be found on display throughout the building; the Newberry holds some letters by Healy, as well as information about the paintings. Healy's 1877 portrait of a young Lincoln was the model used for a Lincoln postage stamp, issued on February 12, 1959, the 150th anniversary of Lincoln's birth. AttributionChisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Healy, George Peter Alexander". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Leigh Harrison.

"George Peter Alexander Healy". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Works by or about George Peter Alexander Healy in libraries This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Healy, George Peter Alexander". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. P. 122

Stephen Koss

Stephen Edward Koss was an American historian specialising in subjects relating to Britain. Koss was a student of R. K. Webb, he began his academic career at the University of Delaware, became an assistant professor at Barnard College, New York City in 1966, a full professor in 1971. He was appointed a professor of history at Columbia University in 1978, where he had completed his bachelor's and master's degrees, as well as his doctorate. Haldane, he was a Visiting Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford. He served on the editorial board of The Journal of Modern History and held office with the North American Conference on British Studies, he died on 25 October 1984 as a result of complications following heart surgery. The historian F. M. Leventhal noted that as Koss matured there was "an irreverent and ironic tone in scholarship, a willingness to criticize as well as to condone", his death was mourned in several academic books published soon after, together with that of Alan J. Lee, who had written on the history of newspapers in Britain and who had died at a young age.

Koss is best remembered for a two-volume work The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain covering the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Neal Ascherson, reviewing the second volume in 1985, wrote: "Koss was the archive-cruncher of his age, but he had another gift, to make the imparting of densely-packed information stylish, readable mockingly witty."A tribute volume appeared in 1987: The Political Culture of Modern Britain: Studies in Memory of Stephen Koss, edited by J. M. W. Bean, with a foreword by John Gross. "Morley in the Middle". The English Historical Review. 82: 553–561. July 1967. Doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxii.cccxxiv.553. JSTOR 559429. "John Morley and the Communal Question". The Journal of Asian Studies. 26: 381–387. May 1967. Doi:10.2307/2051415. JSTOR 2051415. "The Destruction of Britain's Last Liberal Government". The Journal of Modern History. 40: 257–277. June 1968. Doi:10.1086/240192. JSTOR 1876732. John Morley at the India Office, 1905-1910. Yale University Press. 1969. Lord Haldane, Scapegoat for Liberalism.

Columbia University Press. 1969. Sir John Brunner: Radical Plutocrat, 1842-1919. Cambridge University Press. 1970. "British Political Biography as History". Political Science Quarterly. 88: 713–724. December 1973. Doi:10.2307/2148166. JSTOR 2148166. Fleet Street Radical: A. J. Gardiner and the Daily News. Archon. 1973. The Pro-Boers: The Anatomy of an Anti-War Movement. University of Chicago Press. 1973. "Lloyd George and Nonconformity: The Last Rally". The English Historical Review. 89: 77–108. January 1974. Doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxix.cccl.77. JSTOR 565044. "Wesleyanism and Empire". The Historical Journal. 18: 105–118. March 1975. Doi:10.1017/s0018246x00008694. JSTOR 2638470. Nonconformity in Modern British Politics. Shoestring Press/Archon Books. 1975. Asquith. St. Martin's Press/Allen Lane. 1976. The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain. 1: Nineteenth Century. University of North Carolina Press. 1981. The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain. 2: Twentieth Century. University of North Carolina Press. 1984. The two volumes of The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain were published by Fontana as a single volume

Redfin bully

The redfin bully is a species of freshwater fish in the family Eleotridae endemic to New Zealand. Being amphidromous, it spends part of its life cycle at sea. Males have distinctive bright red stripes on their fins. Adults grow to an average of 80–100 mm total length, with a maximum of 120 mm. Male redfin bullies are the most colourful freshwater fish in New Zealand, with bright red markings on the dorsal and tail fins, as well as the body and cheeks. Additionally, males have a bluish-green stripe on the outer edge of the first dorsal fin. Only the males have the red colouring. Redfin bullies of both sexes have distinctive diagonal stripes on their cheeks; these stripes are useful for positive identification, as they are visible in small and pale fish. G. huttoni reaches a length of 120 mm. Males are larger than females. G. huttoni is endemic to New Zealand, found throughout both main islands as well as Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands. Redfins are quite rare along the east coast of the South Island north of Oamaru, except for Banks Peninsula.

They are good climbers, able to traverse waterfalls when going upstream, prefer to live near the coast. Redfins live in the runs and pools of small, boulder-filled streams, prefer a habitat with a moderate flow of water with pools and riffles, in quite large gravelly streams with cobble substrates, they prefer a high proportion of native trees. Redfin bullies are amphidromous – they migrate between fresh water and the sea as part of their life cycle. Over winter and spring, the male establishes and defends a ‘nest’ – a hollow beneath a rock; the male turns dark, from brown to black, while defending the nest. When a female is ready to lay eggs, she enters the nest and turns upside-down to lay 1,000–20,000 oval eggs in a close-packed, single layer attached to the nest's ‘ceiling’; the male fertilises the eggs. The female leaves the eggs in the care of the male, which guards them until they hatch two to four weeks later. Females may lay more than once over the spawning season, one male may defend the eggs of more than one female.

Upon hatching, the 3 mm fry are carried downstream to the sea. Redfin bullies seem obliged to spend their first few months at sea, because no landlocked populations have been found. Juveniles have the best climbing ability of the Gobiomorphus species, but are found in lowland waterways, they have an average lifespan around 3 -- 4 years. G. huttoni is an opportunistic feeder, eating the larvae of chironomid midges and caddisflies, small crustaceans, aquatic snails. The main threats to G. huttoni are competition and predation from introduced salmonid fishes brown trout, habitat loss. Over the last ten years, redfin bully numbers have declined by 20%, they are now classified as a near-threatened species. Photograph of male Photograph of female