World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Nose art is a decorative painting or design on the fuselage of an aircraft on the front fuselage. While begun for practical reasons of identifying friendly units, the practice evolved to express the individuality constrained by the uniformity of the military, to evoke memories of home and peacetime life, as a kind of psychological protection against the stresses of war and the probability of death; the appeal, in part, came from nose art not being approved when the regulations against it were not enforced. Because of its individual and unofficial nature, it is considered folk art, inseparable from work as well as representative of a group, it can be compared to sophisticated graffiti. In both cases, the artist is anonymous, the art itself is ephemeral. In addition, it relies on materials available. Nose art is a military tradition, but civilian airliners operated by the Virgin Group feature "Virgin Girls" on the nose as part of their livery. In a broad sense, the tail art of several airlines such as the Eskimo of Alaska Airlines can be called "nose art", as are the tail markings of present-day U.
S. Navy squadrons. There were exceptions, including the VIII Bomber Command, 301st Bomb Group B-17F "Whizzer", which had its girl-riding-a-bomb on the dorsal fin. Placing personalized decorations on fighting aircraft began with Italian and German pilots; the first recorded piece of nose art was a sea monster painted on an Italian flying boat in 1913. This was followed by the popular practice of painting a mouth beneath the propeller's spinner, begun by German pilots in World War I; the cavallino rampante of the Italian ace Francesco Baracca was another well-known image. Nose art of that era was conceived and produced not by the pilots, but rather by the aircraft ground crews. Other World War I examples included the "Hat in the Ring" of the American 94th Aero Squadron and the "Kicking Mule" of the 95th Aero Squadron; this followed the official policy, established by the American Expeditionary Forces' Chief of the Air Service, Brigadier General Benjamin Foulois, on 6 May 1918, requiring the creation of distinct identifiable squadron insignia.
What is the most famous of all nose art, the shark-face insignia made famous by the First American Volunteer Group, first appeared in World War I on a British Sopwith Dolphin and a German Roland C. II, though with an effect more comical than menacing. Three decades the British pilots spotted it on German planes during World War II; the AVG in China decided to paint shark mouths on their P-40Bs after seeing a color photo in a newspaper of a shark mouth painted on a No. 112 Squadron RAF P-40 fighter in North Africa. The British version itself was inspired by "sharkmouth" nose art on the Bf 110 heavy fighters of ZG 76. While World War I nose art was embellished or extravagant squadron insignia, true nose art appeared during World War II, considered by many observers to be the golden age of the genre, with both Axis and Allied pilots taking part. At the height of the war, nose-artists were in high demand in the USAAF and were paid quite well for their services while AAF commanders tolerated nose art in an effort to boost aircrew morale.
The U. S. Navy, by contrast, prohibited nose art, the most extravagant being limited to a few simply-lettered names, while nose art was uncommon in the RAF or RCAF; the work was done by professional civilian artists as well as talented amateur servicemen. In 1941, for instance, the 39th Pursuit Squadron commissioned a Bell Aircraft artist to design and paint the "Cobra in the Clouds" logo on their aircraft; the most enduring nose art of World War II was the shark-face motif, which first appeared on the Bf 110s of Luftwaffe 76th Destroyer Wing over Crete, where the twin-engined Messerschmitts outmatched the Gloster Gladiator biplanes of RAF 112 Squadron. The Commonwealth pilots were withdrawn to Egypt and refitted with Curtiss Tomahawks off the same assembly line building fighter aircraft for the AVG Flying Tigers being recruited for service in China. In November 1941, AVG pilots saw a 112 Squadron Tomahawk in an illustrated weekly and adopted the shark-face motif for their own planes; this work was done by the pilots and ground crew in the field.
However, the insignia for the "Flying Tigers" - a winged Bengal Tiger jumping through a stylized V for Victory symbol - was developed by graphic artists from the Walt Disney Company. When in 1943 the 39th Fighter Squadron became the first American squadron in their theatre with 100 kills, they adopted the shark-face for their P-38 Lightnings; the shark-face is still used to this day, most seen on the A-10 Thunderbolt II those of the 23d Fighter Group, the AVG's descendent unit, a testament to its popularity as a form of nose art. The largest known work of nose art depicted on a WWII-era American combat aircraft was on a B-24J Liberator, tail number 44-40973, named "The Dragon and his Tail" of the USAAF Fifth Air Force 64th Bomb Squadron, 43d Bomb Group, in the Southwest Pacific, flown by a crew led by Joseph Pagoni, with Staff Sergeant Sarkis Bartigan as the artist; the dragon artwork ran from the nose just forward of the cockpit, down the entire length of the fuselage's sides, with the dragon's body depicted directly below and just aft of the cockpit, with the dragon holding a nude woman in its forefeet.
Tony Starcer was the resident artist for the 91st Bomb Group, one of the initial six groups fielded by the Eighth Air Force. Starcer painted over a hundred pieces of renowned B-17 nose art
Harold Arlen was an American composer of popular music who composed over 500 songs, a number of which have become known worldwide. In addition to composing the songs for the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, including the classic "Over the Rainbow", Arlen is a regarded contributor to the Great American Songbook. "Over the Rainbow" was voted the 20th century's No. 1 song by the Recording Industry Association of America and the National Endowment for the Arts. Arlen was born in New York, United States, the child of a cantor, his twin brother died the next day. He learned to play the piano as a youth, formed a band as a young man, he achieved some local success as a pianist and singer before moving to New York City in his early twenties, where he worked as an accompanist in vaudeville and changed his name to Harold Arlen. Between 1926 and about 1934, Arlen appeared as a band vocalist on records by The Buffalodians, Red Nichols, Joe Venuti, Leo Reisman, Eddie Duchin singing his own compositions. In 1929, Arlen composed his first well-known song: "Get Happy".
Throughout the early and mid-1930s, Arlen and Koehler wrote shows for the Cotton Club, a popular Harlem night club, as well as for Broadway musicals and Hollywood films. Arlen and Koehler's partnership resulted in a number of hit songs, including the familiar standards "Let's Fall in Love" and "Stormy Weather". Arlen continued to perform as a pianist and vocalist with some success, most notably on records with Leo Reisman's society dance orchestra. Arlen's compositions have always been popular with jazz musicians because of his facility at incorporating a blues feeling into the idiom of the American popular song. In the mid-1930s, Arlen married, spent increasing time in California, writing for movie musicals, it was at this time that he began working with lyricist E. Y. "Yip" Harburg. In 1938, the team was hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to compose songs for The Wizard of Oz, the most famous of, "Over the Rainbow", for which they won the Academy Award for Best Music, Original Song, they wrote "Down with Love", "Lydia the Tattooed Lady", for Groucho Marx in At the Circus in 1939, "Happiness is a Thing Called Joe", for Ethel Waters in the 1943 movie Cabin in the Sky.
Arlen was a longtime friend and onetime roommate of actor Ray Bolger, who starred in The Wizard of Oz. In the 1940s, he teamed up with lyricist Johnny Mercer, continued to write hit songs like "Blues in the Night", "Out of this World", "That Old Black Magic", "Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive", "Any Place I Hang My Hat Is Home", "Come Rain or Come Shine" and "One for My Baby". Arlen composed two defining tunes which bookend Judy Garland's musical persona: as a yearning, innocent girl in "Over the Rainbow" and a world-weary, "chic chanteuse" with "The Man That Got Away", the last written for the 1954 version of the film A Star Is Born. Arlen died of cancer at his Manhattan apartment at the age of eighty-one. 1905 Arlen born in Buffalo, New York 1920 He formed his first professional band, Hyman Arluck's Snappy Trio. 1921 Against his parents' wishes. 1923 With his new band – The Southbound Shufflers, performed on the Crystal Beach lake boat "Canadiana" during the summer of 1923. 1924 Performed at Lake Shore Manor during the summer of 1924.
1924 Wrote his first song, collaborating with friend Hyman Cheiffetz to write "My Gal, My Pal". Copyrighting the song as "My Gal, Won't You Please Come Back to Me?" and listed lyrics by Cheiffetz and music by Harold Arluck. 1925 Makes his way to New York City with The Buffalodians, with Arlen playing piano. 1926 Had first published song, collaborating with Dick George to compose "Minor Gaff" under the name Harold Arluck. 1928 Chaim Arluck renames himself a name that combined his parents' surnames. 1929 Landed a singing and acting role as Cokey Joe in the musical The Great Day. 1929 Composed his first well known song – "Get Happy" – under the name Harold Arlen. 1929 Signed a yearlong song writing contract with the George and Arthur Piantadosi firm. 1930–1934 Wrote music for the Cotton Club. 1933 At a party, along with partner Ted Koehler, wrote the major hit song "Stormy Weather" 1933 Billboard heralded Shakespeare as the most prolific playwright in history, Arlen as the most prolific composer. 1934 Wrote "Ill Wind" with lyrics by Ted Koehler for their last show at the Cotton Club Parade, in 1934, sung by Adelaide Hall 1935 Went back to California after being signed by Samuel Goldwyn to write songs for the film Strike Me Pink.
1937 Composed the score for the Broadway musical Hooray for What!. Married 22-year-old Anya Taranda, a celebrated Powers Agency model and former Earl Carroll and Busby Berkeley showgirl and one of the Original "Breck Girls". 1938 Hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to compose songs for The Wizard of Oz. 1938 While driving along Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood and stopping in front of Schwab's Drug Store, seeing a rainbow appear over Hollywood, came up with the song "Over the Rainbow". 1941 Wrote "Blues in the Night" 1942 Along with Johnny Mercer, he wrote one of his most famous songs, "That Old Black Magic". 1943 Wrote "My Shining Hour" 1944 While driving with songwriter partner Johnny Mercer came up with the song "Accentuate the Positive". 1945 In a single evening's work in October with Johnny Mercer came up with the song "Come Rain or Come Shine". 1949 Collaborated with Ralph Blane
Reuben Garrett Lucius Goldberg, known best as Rube Goldberg, was an American cartoonist, author and inventor. Goldberg is best known for his popular cartoons depicting complicated gadgets performing simple tasks in indirect, convoluted ways; the cartoons led to the expression "Rube Goldberg machines" to describe similar gadgets and processes. Goldberg received many honors in his lifetime, including a Pulitzer Prize for political cartooning in 1948 and the Banshees' Silver Lady Award in 1959. Goldberg was a founding member and first president of the National Cartoonists Society, the namesake of the Reuben Award, which the organization awards to its Cartoonist of the Year, he is the inspiration for international competitions, known as Rube Goldberg Machine Contests, which challenge participants to create a complicated machine to perform a simple task. Goldberg was born July 4, 1883, in San Francisco, California, to Jewish parents Max and Hannah Goldberg, he was the third of seven children. Goldberg began tracing illustrations when he was four years old, first took professional drawing lessons when he was eleven.
Goldberg married Irma Seeman on October 17, 1916. They had two sons named Thomas and George. During World War II Goldberg's sons changed their surname, at Goldberg's insistence, because of the amount of hatred towards him stemming from the political nature of his cartoons. Thomas chose the surname of George. Thomas and George's children now run. John George is assisted by his cousin Jennifer George and John's son Joshua George to keep the family name alive. Goldberg's father was a San Francisco police and fire commissioner, who encouraged the young Reuben to pursue a career in engineering. Rube graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 1904 with a degree in Engineering and was hired by the city of San Francisco as an engineer for the Water and Sewers Department. After six months he resigned his position with the city to join the San Francisco Chronicle where he became a sports cartoonist; the following year, he took a job with the San Francisco Bulletin, where he remained until he moved to New York City in 1907, finding employment as a cartoonist with the New York Evening Mail.
The New York Evening Mail was syndicated to the first newspaper syndicate, the McClure Newspaper Syndicate, giving Goldberg's cartoons a wider distribution, by 1915 he was earning $25,000 per year and being billed by the paper as America's most popular cartoonist. Arthur Brisbane had offered Goldberg $2,600 per year in 1911 in an unsuccessful attempt to get him to move to William Randolph Hearst's newspaper chain, in 1915 raised the offer to $50,000 per year. Rather than lose Goldberg to Hearst, the New York Evening Mail matched the salary offer and formed the Evening Mail Syndicate to syndicate Goldberg's cartoons nationally. In 1916, Goldberg created a series of seven short animated films, finding humorous aspects to details of everyday life in the form of an animated newsreel; the seven films were released on these dates in 1916: The Boob Weekly. Goldberg was syndicated by the McNaught Syndicate from 1922 until 1934. A prolific artist, Goldberg produced several cartoon series including Mike and Ike, Boob McNutt, Foolish Questions, What Are You Kicking About, Lala Palooza, The Weekly Meeting of the Tuesday Women's Club, the uncharacteristically serious soap-opera strip, Doc Wright, which ran for 10 months beginning January 29, 1933.
The cartoons that brought him lasting fame involved a character named Professor Lucifer Gorgonzola Butts. In that series, Goldberg drew labeled schematics of the comical "inventions" that would bear his name. Professor Butts was based on a couple of college professors he studied with while earning his degree from the College of Mining and Engineering at the University of California from 1901-1903, Samuel B Christie and Frederick Slate. From 1938 to 1941, Goldberg drew two weekly strips for the Register and Tribune Syndicate: Brad and Dad and Side Show; the popularity of Goldberg's cartoons was such that the term "Goldbergian" was in use in print by 1915, "Rube Goldberg" by 1928. "Rube Goldberg" appeared in the Random House Dictionary of the English Language in 1966 meaning "having a fantastically complicated improvised appearance", or "deviously complex and impractical." The 1915 usage of "Goldbergian" was in reference to Goldberg's early comic strip Foolish Questions which he drew from 1909 to 1934, while use of the terms "Goldbergian", "Rube Goldberg" and "Rube Goldberg machine" refer to the crazy inventions for which he is now best known from his strip The Inventions of Professor Lucifer Gorgonzola Butts, drawn from 1914 to 1964.
The corresponding term in the UK was, still is, "Heath Robinson", after the English illustrator with an equal devotion to odd machinery portraying sequential or chain reaction elements. Goldberg's work was commemorated posthumously in 1995 with the inclusion of Rube Goldberg's Inventions, depicting his 1931 "Self-Operating Napkin" in the Comic Strip Classics series of U. S. postage stamps. Rube Goldberg wrote a feature film featuring his machines and sculptures called Soup to Nuts, which was
Charles Clarence Robert Orville Cummings, was an American film and television actor known for his roles in comedy films such as The Devil and Miss Jones and Princess O'Rourke, but was effective in dramatic films two of Alfred Hitchcock's thrillers and Dial M for Murder. Cummings received five Primetime Emmy Award nominations, won the Primetime Emmy Award for Best Actor in a Single Performance in 1955. On February 8, 1960, he received two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the motion picture and television industries; the motion picture star is at 6816 Hollywood Boulevard, the television star is on 1718 Vine Street. Cummings was born in Joplin, Missouri, a son of Dr. Charles Clarence Cummings and the former Ruth Annabelle Kraft, his father was a surgeon, part of the original medical staff of St. John's Hospital in Joplin, he was the founder of the Jasper County Tuberculosis Hospital in Missouri. Cummings' mother was an ordained minister of the Science of Mind. While attending Joplin High School, Cummings was taught to fly by his godfather, Orville Wright, the aviation pioneer.
His first solo was on March 3, 1927. During high school, Cummings gave Joplin residents rides in his aircraft for $5 per person; when the government began licensing flight instructors, Cummings was issued flight instructor certificate No. 1, making him the first official flight instructor in the United States. Cummings studied at Drury College in Springfield, but his love of flying caused him to transfer to the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he studied aeronautical engineering for a year before he dropped out because of financial reasons, his family having lost in the 1929 stock market crash. Cummings became interested in acting while performing in plays at Carnegie and decided to pursue that as a career. Since the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City paid its male actors $14 a week, Cummings decided to study there. Cummings was unable to find any roles. Seeing that at the time, "three quarters of Broadway plays were from England" and English accents and actors were in demand, Cummings decided to cash in an insurance policy and buy a round trip to Britain.
He was driving a motorbike through the country, picking up the accent and learning about the country. His bike broke down at Harrogate. While waiting for repairs, Cummings came up with a plan, he invented the name "Blade Stanhope Conway" and bribed the janitor of a local theatre to put on the marquee: "Blade Stanhope Conway in Candida". He got a photograph taken of himself standing in front of this marquee, did 80 prints. In London, he outfitted himself with a new wardrobe and did up a letter introducing the actor-author-manager-director "Blade" of Harrogate Repertory Theatre, sent it off to 80 New York theatrical agents and producers. Cummings managed to obtain several meetings. One of the producers to whom he sent letters, Charles Hopkings, cast him in a production of The Roof by John Galsworthy, playing the role of the Hon. Reggie Fanning. In the cast was Henry Hull; the play ran from October to November 1931 and Brooks Atkinson of the New York Times listed "Conway" as among the cast who provide "some excellent bits of acting."In November 1932, "Conway" replaced Edwin Styles in the Broadway revue Earl Carroll's Vanities.
He had studied dance by correspondence course. Cummings encouraged an old drama school classmate, Margaret Kies, to use a similar deception - she became the "British" Margaret Lindsay, he said pretending to be Conway broke up his first marriage, to a girl from Joplin. "She couldn't stand me."He was an extra in Sons of the Desert and in the musical short Seasoned Greetings. Cummings decided to change his approach, when in the words of one report, "suddenly the bottom dropped out of the John Bull market, he appeared under this name in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1934, which ran from January to June in 1934. He had a duet with Vivi Janiss, a native of Nebraska, with whom he sang "I Like the Likes of You". Cummings and Janiss went with the show when it went on tour after the Broadway run, they married towards the end of the tour; the tour of Ziegfeld ended in Los Angeles in January 1935. Cummings wanted to move there, he returned to New York, but heard King Vidor was looking for Texan actors for So Red the Rose and auditioned pretending to be Texan.
He practised his Texan accent by listening to cowboy bands on the radio. The ruse was exposed, he followed it with a part in Paramount's The Virginia Judge. In July, the studio signed Cummings to a long term contract. Before his first two Paramount films had been released, he was given a leading part in Millions in the Air. Cummings had a good role in the Western Desert Gold was in Forgotten Faces, Border Flight, Three Cheers for Love, Hollywood Boulevard, The Accusing Finger, Hideaway Girl, Arizona Mahoney, The Last Train from Madrid. In the mid 1930s, his mother and he received $1 million from mining stock, once thought to be worthless, left to them by Cummings' father. Most of these were B pictures, he had a small role in an A picture, Souls at Sea was in Sophie Lang Goes West, Wells Fargo, College Swing. He ha
Memphis Belle (aircraft)
Memphis Belle is a Boeing B-17F Flying Fortress used during the Second World War that inspired the making of two motion pictures: a 1944 documentary film, Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress, a 1990 Hollywood feature film, Memphis Belle. The aircraft was one of the first United States Army Air Forces B-17 heavy bombers to complete 25 combat missions; the aircraft and crew returned to the United States to sell war bonds. In 2005, restoration began on the aircraft at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio where, from May 2018, it is on display; the crew for the Memphis Belle are as follows: Pilot: Captain Robert K. Morgan Co-pilot: Captain James A. Verinis Navigator: Captain Charles B. Leighton Bombardier: Captain Vincent B. Evans The First Engineer/Top Turret Gunner: Leviticus "Levy" Dillon The Second Engineer/Top Turret Gunner: Eugene Adkins The Third Engineer/Top Turret Gunner: Harold P. Loch Radio Operator: Robert Hanson Ball Turret Gunner: Cecil Scott Right Waist Gunner: E. Scott Miller Right Waist Gunner: Casmer A "Tony" Nastal Left Waist Gunner: Clarence E. "Bill" Winchell Tail Gunner: John P. Quinlan Crew Chief: Joe Giambrone The Memphis Belle, a Boeing-built B-17F-10-BO, manufacturer's serial number 3470, USAAC Serial No.
41-24485, was added to the USAAF inventory on 15 July 1942, delivered in September 1942 to the 91st Bombardment Group at Dow Field, Maine. She deployed to Prestwick, Scotland, on 30 September 1942, moving to a temporary base at RAF Kimbolton on 1 October, finally to her permanent base at RAF Bassingbourn, England, on 14 October; each side of the fuselage bore the unit and aircraft identification markings of a B-17 of the 324th Bomb Squadron. The aircraft's 25 combat missions, which included eight German aircraft shot down by her crew, were: 7 November 1942 – Brest, France 9 November 1942 – St. Nazaire, France 17 November 1942 – St. Nazaire, France 6 December 1942 – Lille, France 20 December 1942* – Romilly-sur-Seine, France 30 December 1942 – Lorient, France 3 January 1943 – St. Nazaire, France 13 January 1943 – Lille, France 23 January 1943 – Lorient, France 14 February 1943 – Hamm, Germany 16 February 1943 – St. Nazaire, France 27 February 1943* – Brest, France 6 March 1943 – Lorient, France 12 March 1943 – Rouen, France 13 March 1943 – Abbeville, France 22 March 1943 – Wilhelmshaven, Germany 28 March 1943 – Rouen, France 31 March 1943 – Rotterdam, Netherlands 16 April 1943 – Lorient, France 17 April 1943 – Bremen, Germany 1 May 1943 – St. Nazaire, France 13 May 1943 – Meaulte, France 14 May 1943 – Kiel, Germany 15 May 1943 – Wilhelmshaven, Germany 17 May 1943 – Lorient, France 19 May 1943* – Kiel, Germany * Sources disagree on which two of these three missions the Memphis Belle received mission credits for.
Morgan's crew completed the following missions in B-17s other than the Memphis Belle: 4 February 1943 – Emden, Germany 26 February 1943 – Wilhelmshaven, Germany 5 April 1943 – Antwerp, Belgium 4 May 1943 – Antwerp, Belgium The aircraft was flown back to the United States on 8 June 1943, by a composite crew chosen by the Eighth Air Force from those who had flown combat aboard, led by Capt. Morgan, for a 31-city war bond tour. Morgan's original co-pilot was Capt. James A. Verinis, who himself piloted the Memphis Belle for one mission. Verinis was promoted to aircraft commander of another B-17 for his final 16 missions and finished his tour on 13 May, he rejoined Morgan's crew as co-pilot for the flight back to the United States. The B-17 Hell's Angels of the 303rd Bomb Group completed 25 combat missions on 13 May 1943, becoming the first B-17 to complete the feat, one week before the Memphis Belle; the aircraft was named after pilot Robert K Morgan's sweetheart, Margaret Polk, a resident of Memphis, Tennessee.
Morgan intended to call the aircraft Little One, his pet name for her, but after Morgan and copilot Jim Verinis saw the movie Lady for a Night, in which the leading character owns a riverboat named the Memphis Belle, he proposed that name to his crew. Morgan contacted George Petty at the offices of Esquire magazine and asked him for a pinup drawing to go with the name, which Petty supplied from the magazine's April 1941 issue; the 91st's group artist, Corporal Tony Starcer, copied the Petty girl as art on both sides of the forward fuselage, depicting her suit in blue on the aircraft's port side and in red on the starboard. The nose art included 25 bomb shapes, one for each mission credit, eight swastika designs, one for each German aircraft claimed shot down by the crew. Station and crew names were stenciled below station windows on the aircraft after her tour of duty was completed. In his memoirs, Morgan claimed that during his publicity tour he flew the B-17 between the Buncombe County Courthouse and the City Hall of Asheville, North Carolina, his home town.
Morgan wrote that after leaving a local airport he decided to buzz the town, telling his copilot, Captain Verinis, "I think we'll just drive up over the city and give them a little goodbye salute." Morgan turned the bomber down a main thoroughfare, toward downtown Asheville. When he observed the courthouse and the city hall dead ahead, he lowered his left wing in a 60 degree bank and flew between the structures, he wrote that the city hall housed an
Charles Dana Gibson
Charles Dana Gibson was an American graphic artist. He was best known for his creation of the Gibson Girl, an iconic representation of the beautiful and independent American woman at the turn of the 20th century, his wife, Irene Langhorne, her four sisters inspired his images. He published his illustrations in Life magazine and other major national publications for more than 30 years, becoming editor in 1918 and owner of the general interest magazine. Gibson was born in Roxbury, the son of Josephine Elizabeth and Charles DeWolf Gibson, he had a sister Josephine Gibson. One of their great-grandfathers was U. S. Senator James DeWolf, a great-great-grandfather was U. S. Senator William Bradford, his sister Josephine inherited Longfield from Abby DeWolf Gibson. A talented youth with an early interest in art, Gibson was enrolled by his parents in New York City's Art Students League, where he studied for two years. Peddling his pen-and-ink sketches, Gibson sold his first work in 1886 to Life magazine, founded by John Ames Mitchell and Andrew Miller.
It featured general interest articles, humor and cartoons. His works appeared weekly in the popular national magazine for more than 30 years, he built a wider reputation, with his drawings being featured in all the major New York publications, including Harper's Weekly and Collier's. His illustrated books include the 1898 editions of Anthony Hope's The Prisoner of Zenda and its sequel Rupert of Hentzau as well as Richard Harding Davis' Gallegher and other stories His development of the "Gibson Girl" from 1890 and her nationwide fame brought Gibson respect and wealth. In 1895, he married Irene Langhorne, born in Virginia. One of her four sisters was Nancy Astor, the first woman to serve as a Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons, his wife and her elegant Langhorne sisters inspired his famous Gibson Girls, who became iconic images in early 20th-century society. Their dynamic and resourceful father Chiswell Langhorne had his wealth reduced by the Civil War, but by the late 19th century, he had rebuilt his fortune on tobacco auctioneering and the railroad industry.
After the death of John Ames Mitchell in 1918, Gibson became editor of Life and took over as owner of the magazine. As the popularity of the Gibson Girl faded after World War I, Gibson took to working in oils for his own pleasure. In 1918, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, became a full Academician in 1932. Unrestricted merchandising saw his distinctive sketches appear in many forms; the Gibson cocktail has been claimed to be named after him, as it is said he favored ordering gin martinis with a pickled onion garnish in place of the traditional olive or lemon zest. For part of his career, Gibson lived in New Rochelle, New York, a popular art colony among actors and artists of the period; the community was most well known for its unprecedented number of prominent American illustrators. Gibson owned an island off Maine which came to be known as 700 Acre Island, he retired in 1936, the same year Scribner's published his biography, Portrait of an Era as Drawn by C.
D. Gibson: A Biography by Fairfax Downey. Charles Dana Gibson died in 1944, aged 77, was interred at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Longfield Bulloch, J. M. "Charles Dana Gibson". The Studio. VIII: 75–81. Retrieved 2009-07-27. Davis, Charles Belmont. "Mr. Charles Dana Gibson and his Art"; the Critic. XXXIV: 48–55. Retrieved 2009-07-27. Gelman, Woody; the Best of Charles Dana Gibson. New York: Bounty Books. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Marden, Orison Swett. Little Visits With Great Americans, Chapter XXXIII "Charles Dana Gibson, Originator of the "Gibson Girl". New York: The Success Company. Pp. 342–352. Retrieved 2009-07-27; the Gibson Girl and Her America. The Best Drawings of Charles Dana Gibson selected by Edmund Vincent Gillon, Jr. Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 1969.*—. Sketches in Egypt. New York: Doubleday & McClure Co. Retrieved 2009-07-27. Works by Charles Dana Gibson at Project Gutenberg Works by Charles Dana Gibson at Faded Page Works by or about Charles Dana Gibson at Internet Archive Charles Dana Gibson at Library of Congress Authorities, with 137 catalog records Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Gibson, Charles Dana". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press