South Yarra, Victoria
South Yarra is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia,4 km south-east from Melbournes Central Business District. Its local government areas are the Cities of Melbourne and Stonnington, at the 2011 Census, South Yarra had a population of 19,134. The area east of Punt Road is in the City of Stonnington, the main shopping region of South Yarra runs along Toorak Road and Chapel Street. Trade along these two arteries are focused on trendy and upmarket shopping, restaurants and cafe culture, the area of South Yarra centred along Commercial Road was for several decades one of Melbournes gay villages. South Yarra is home to some of Melbournes most prestigious residential addresses, residential land price records have been set by properties in Domain Road, Walsh Street and Fairlie Court. South Yarra was originally inhabited by the Wurundjeri tribe of the Kulin Aboriginal nation, the area was settled by European settlers in the 1830s, around the time of the establishment of Melbourne. During the 1840s, it became popular with citizens of Melbourne as a suburban retreat from the town.
Several large houses were built and, together with neighbouring Toorak, South Yarra Post Office was open briefly in 1854, reopened on 21 June 1858. During the 1920s and 1930s, many of the gardens of the older mansions were subdivided. On 12 October 1988, police officers Steven Tynan and Damian Eyre were murdered in Walsh Street, on 8 July 2002, the Salt nightclub in Daly Street was the site of a dispute which resulted in the murder of three men. On 19 September 2005, seven men were guilty of murder. The nightclub was particularly notorious for criminal activity and was shut down. South Yarra has several local attractions, perhaps the best known is Chapel Street. The South Yarra section of the street is the most fashionable. A major landmark is The Jam Factory, old factories converted into a shopping centre. The Prahran Market, located in South Yarra, is one of Melbournes most popular, Toorak Road runs off Chapel Street and although not known as well as Toorak Village, is a popular strip that contains a wide range of shops.
There are several heritage registered buildings in South Yarra, including the Melbourne High School, many historic mansions can be found in South Yarra. Other grand South Yarra houses include Wavendon, formerly home to film director Fred Schepisi, in Walsh Street, Domain Road, with its proximity to the Kings Domain, the Royal Botanic Gardens and Government House, is at the centre of the exclusive Domain precinct
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Southern Ocean to the south, the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants, around 11% of the national total. 92% of the lives in the south-west corner of the state. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, york was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831, Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890, and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today its economy relies on mining and tourism.
The state produces 46% of Australias exports, Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean, the total length of the states eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km of coastline, including 7,892 km of island coastline, the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. Most of the state is a low plateau with an elevation of about 400 metres, very low relief. This descends relatively sharply to the plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile, even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, molybdenum, the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of chemical fertilisers, particularly superphosphate and herbicides.
These have resulted in damage to invertebrate and bacterial populations, the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora, large areas of the states wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate and it was originally heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world
The Foundation of Perth 1829
The Foundation of Perth 1829 is a 1929 oil-on-canvas painting by George Pitt Morison. It depicts the ceremony by which the town of Perth, Western Australia was founded on 12 August 1829, Morison painted the work as part of Western Australias centenary celebrations, and presented it to the Art Gallery of Western Australia in February 1929. The painting took George Pitt Morison almost eighteen months to research and he studied a number of contemporary accounts of the ceremony, and had access to photographs of the people present. It is generally regarded as an accurate reconstruction. The official ceremony depicted in the image was held on a hill overlooking the Swan River. As no stones were available, it was decided to mark the occasion by felling a tree. The only woman to accompany the party so far up the river from Fremantle, the Foundation of Perth depicts Mrs Dance holding the axe and about to make the first cut. Immediately to the right of her in the painting is an axe-man, the Foundation of Perth 1829 has become an enduring and influential image in the history of Western Australia.
It was used extensively in both the 1929 centenary celebrations, and the WAY1979 sesquicentennial celebrations, the painting is often not even acknowledged as a historical reconstruction, and many people have come to accept it as an authentic record of the ceremony
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Art Gallery of Western Australia
The Art Gallery of Western Australia is a public gallery that is part of the Perth Cultural Centre, in Perth, Western Australia. It is located near the Western Australian Museum and State Library of Western Australia, the current gallery opened in 1979. The States art collection consists of over 15,500 works of art, the Art Gallery was originally housed in the Jubilee Building with the State Museum and Library. The foundation stone was laid for the Art Gallery in July 1901 by the Duke of Cornwall and York, sir James Dromgole Linton recommended purchases for the State Art Collection. The Art Gallery Administration Building is housed in the former Police Quarters, designed by architect Hillson Beasley and it was built during the economic boom created by the 1890s Kalgoorlie gold rush. The Administration Building moved into the Police Quarters in the 1970s during the mining boom. The Main Gallery Building was built in 1977, and was spurred by the mining boom. Western Australia was placing more importance on cultural institutions, construction of the Alexander Library began in the same period.
The architect of the Main Gallery Building was K. Sierakowski from the Public Works Department and it was designed in the Bauhaus method with a Brutalist exterior, which was popular in European design. The slab and shear head column system was an architectural feature in WA at the time. The Art Gallerys first collection was eclectic, the first collection consisted of Indian and Asian craft work, followed by art created by European Australians and copies of English art. The Aesthetic Movement inspired the collection with its definition of art. Ongoing exhibitions include Indigenous traditional and contemporary art from the Northern Territory and Western Australia, an annual exhibition called Year 12 Perspectives highlights works from Western Australian Art and Art & Design students, including paintings, digital art, fashion design and sculpture
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Western Australian Museum
The Western Australian Museum is the state museum for Western Australia. It has six sites, in Perth within the Perth Cultural Centre. The Western Australian Museum is an authority within the Culture. Established in 1891 in the Old Perth Gaol, it was known as the Geological Museum, in 1892, ethnological and biological exhibits were added, and in 1897, the museum officially became the Western Australian Museum and Art Gallery. During 1959, the collection was transferred to the new herbarium and the museum. The museum focussed its collecting and research interests in the areas of sciences, archaeology. Over the 1960s and 1970s, it began to work in the then-emerging areas of historic shipwrecks. The Western Museum has six branches and four collection facilities. The museum offers services to all areas of Western Australia. On 9 September 1891, the Geological Museum was opened at the site of the Old Gaol, the Old Gaol still forms a significant part of the Western Australian Museum — Perth and is one of the oldest standing buildings in Western Australia.
From 1971 to 2003, a part of the research. This site was closed due to concerns with asbestos, and demolition concluded in late 2011, throughout the Western Australian Museums history the prominent James Street location has remained central to the museums identity and the location of many large permanent and touring exhibits. Exhibitions on fashion, natural history, cultural heritage and history have attracted large numbers of visitors, diamonds to Dinosaurs, An exhibition exploring 12 billion years of WAs history, featuring specimens such as rocks from the Moon and Mars, pre-solar diamonds and dinosaur skeleton casts. Katta Djinoong, This exhibition depicts the history and culture of the Aboriginal peoples of Western Australia from past to present, Dampier Marine Gallery, This exhibit explores the biodiversity of the waters around the Dampier Archipelago. Mammal and Butterfly Galleries, These galleries contain extensive collections of various animals, the Western Australian Museum — Perth features the Discovery Centre, designed to help children and adults interact and learn about the museums collections and research.
The Western Australian Museum has two branches in Fremantle and Shipwreck Galleries, the Western Australian Museum - Maritime is located on Victoria Quay, and contains galleries with themes such as the Indian Ocean, the Swan River, maritime trade and naval defence. One of the highlights is the yacht, Australia II. Nearby in Cliff Street, the Western Australian Museum — Shipwreck Galleries is recognised as the foremost maritime archaeology, the museum is housed in an 1850s-era Commissariat building and contains a reconstructed hull from the Batavia, which was wrecked off the coast of Western Australia in 1629