Funeral and burial of Abraham Lincoln
After the April 14, 1865 assassination of Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States, a three-week series of events mourned his death and memorialized his life. Funeral services and lyings in state were held in Washington, D. C. and in additional cities as a funeral train transported his remains for burial in his hometown of Springfield, Illinois. Lincoln's eldest son Robert Todd rode the train to Baltimore and disembarked and returned to the White House. Lincoln's wife Mary Todd Lincoln remained at the White House because she was too distraught to make the trip. Robert took a train to Springfield for his father's final funeral and burial; the remains of Lincoln's youngest son, William Wallace Lincoln were placed on the train, which left Washington, D. C. on April 21 at 12:30 pm and traveled 1,654 miles never exceeding 20 mph to the final stop at Springfield, arriving on May 3. Several stops, in principal cities and state capitals, were made along the way in which ceremonies and processions were held.
The train retraced the route Lincoln had traveled to Washington as the president-elect on his way to his first inauguration, more than four years earlier. Millions of Americans viewed the train along the route, participated in the ceremonies and processions. Lincoln was interred at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield; the site of the Lincoln Tomb, now owned and managed as a state historic site, is marked by a 117-foot -tall granite obelisk surrounded with several bronze statues of Lincoln, soldiers and sailors constructed by 1874. Mary Todd Lincoln and three of their four sons, Willie and Tad are buried there. After the assassination of Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth, his body was carried by an honor guard to the White House on Saturday April 15, 1865, he lay in state in the East Room of the White House, open to the public on Tuesday, April 18. On April 19, a funeral service was held and the coffin, attended by large crowds, was transported in a procession down Pennsylvania Avenue to the Capitol Rotunda, where a ceremonial burial service was held.
The body again lay in state on the 20th and on the early morning of the following day a prayer service was held for the Lincoln cabinet. At 7 a.m. on Friday, April 21, the Lincoln coffin was taken by honor guard to the depot. Edwin M. Stanton, Gideon Welles, Hugh McCulloch, John Palmer Usher, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, Montgomery C. Meigs left the escort at the depot, at 8 A. M. the train departed. At least 10,000 people witnessed the train's departure from Washington; the funeral train had nine cars, including a baggage car, hearse car, the President's car, built for use by the president and other officials and containing a parlor, sitting room, sleeping apartment. The President's carried the coffins of Lincoln and his son. New locomotives were substituted at several points; the Department of War declared the railroads used as military roads. Only persons authorized by the State Department were allowed to travel on the train, limited to 20 miles an hour for safety. A pilot train preceded it to ensure the track was clear.
Five relatives and family friends were appointed to accompany the funeral train: David Davis, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. An honor guard accompanied the train. Caldwell, Alfred Terry, George D. Ramsey, Daniel McCallum. Four accompanied the train in an official capacity: Captain Charles Penrose, as quartermaster and commissary of subsistence. S. Marshal for the District of Columbia. Governor Oliver P. Morton of Indiana. Lincoln's funeral train was the first national commemoration of a president's death by rail. Lincoln was observed and honored by the citizens of Washington, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio and Illinois in the following cities: The train passed 444 communities in 7 states. RemarksRemark #1: April 15–19, 1865: body of the deceased president in the White House. An escort of cavalry Union Light Guard, under the command of Lieutenant James B. Jameson, accompanied the remains, which were followed by Generals Augur, commanding Department of Washington. A. G. Hancock's corps, Captain D.
G. Thomas, clothing depot, Captain J. H. Crowell and Captain C. Baker, all walking bareheaded; the hearse moved up 10th street to G, thence to the White House. The martyred president's autopsy was performed in a second floor guest room by army pathologist J. Janvier Woodward and his assistant Edward Curtis.
Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer, the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office. He won the popular vote for three presidential elections—in 1884, 1888, 1892—and was one of two Democrats to be elected president during the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation and subsidies to business, farmers, or veterans, his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance and commitment to the principles of classical liberalism, he fought political corruption and bossism. As a reformer, Cleveland had such prestige that the like-minded wing of the Republican Party, called "Mugwumps" bolted the GOP presidential ticket and swung to his support in the 1884 election.
As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a severe national depression, which Cleveland was unable to reverse. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian and silverite seizure of the Democratic Party in 1896; the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, he drew corresponding criticism, his intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide in addition to the party in Illinois. Critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. So, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term. Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities.
He had no endowments. He possessed honesty, firmness and common sense, but he possessed them to a degree other men do not." By the end of his second term, public perception showed him to be one of the most unpopular U. S. presidents, he was by rejected by most Democrats. Today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader ranked among the upper-mid tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey, to Ann and Richard Falley Cleveland. Cleveland's father was a Congregational and Presbyterian minister, from Connecticut, his mother was the daughter of a bookseller. On his father's side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635, his father's maternal grandfather, Richard Falley Jr. fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, was the son of an immigrant from Guernsey. On his mother's side, Cleveland was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and German Quakers from Philadelphia.
Cleveland was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell, where his father was pastor at the time, he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, where Grover spent much of his childhood. Neighbors described him as "full of fun and inclined to play pranks," and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Cleveland's father moved to Clinton, New York, to work as district secretary for the American Home Missionary Society. Despite his father's dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a two-year mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville; the experience was valuable and brief, the living conditions quite austere. Grover returned to his schooling at the completion of the apprentice contract.
In 1853, when missionary work began to take a toll on his health, Cleveland's father took an assignment in Holland Patent, New York and the family moved again. Shortly after, he died from a gastric ulcer, with Grover reputedly hearing of his father's death from a boy selling newspapers. Cleveland received his elementary education at the Fayetteville Academy and the Clinton Liberal Academy. After his father died in 1853, he again left school to help support his family; that year, Cleveland's brother William was hired as a teacher at the New York Institute for the Blind in New York City, William obtained a place for Cleveland as an assistant teacher. He returned home to Holland Patent at the end of 1854, where an elder in his church offered to pay for his college education if he would promise to become a minister. Cleveland declined, in 1855 he decided to move west, he stopped first in New York, where his uncle, Lewis F. Allen, gave him a clerical job. Allen was an important man in Buffalo, he introduced his nephew to influential men there, including the partners in the law firm of Rogers and Rogers.
Millard Fillmore, the 13th president of the United States, had worked for the partnership. Cleveland took a clerkship with the firm, began to read the law, was admitted to the New York bar in 1859. Cleveland
Harper's Weekly, A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City. Published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916, it featured foreign and domestic news, essays on many subjects, humor, alongside illustrations, it carried extensive coverage of the American Civil War, including many illustrations of events from the war. During its most influential period, it was the forum of the political cartoonist Thomas Nast. Along with his brothers James and Wesley, Fletcher Harper began the publishing company Harper & Brothers in 1825. Following the successful example of The Illustrated London News, Harper started publishing Harper's Magazine in 1850; the monthly publication featured established authors such as Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray, within several years, its circulation and interest grew enough to sustain a weekly edition. In 1857, his company began publishing Harper's Weekly in New York City. By 1860 the circulation of the Weekly had reached 200,000.
Illustrations were an important part of the Weekly's content, it developed a reputation for using some of the most renowned illustrators of the time, notably Winslow Homer, Granville Perkins and Livingston Hopkins. Among the recurring features were the political cartoons of Thomas Nast, recruited in 1862 and worked with the Weekly for more than 20 years. Nast was a feared caricaturist, is called the father of American political cartooning, he was the first to use an elephant as the symbol of the Republican Party. He drew the legendary character of Santa Claus. Harper's Weekly was the most read journal in the United States throughout the period of the Civil War. So as not to upset its wide readership in the South, Harper's took a moderate editorial position on the issue of slavery prior to the outbreak of the war. Publications that supported abolition referred to it as "Harper's Weakly"; the Weekly had supported the Stephen A. Douglas presidential campaign against Abraham Lincoln, but as the American Civil War broke out, it supported Lincoln and the Union.
A July 1863 article on the escaped slave Gordon included a photograph of his back scarred from whippings. The photograph inspired many free blacks in the North to enlist; some of the most important articles and illustrations of the time were Harper's reporting on the war. Besides renderings by Homer and Nast, the magazine published illustrations by Theodore R. Davis, Henry Mosler, the brothers Alfred and William Waud. In 1863, George William Curtis, one of the founders of the Republican Party, became the political editor of the magazine, remained in that capacity until his death in 1892, his editorials advocated civil service reform, low tariffs, adherence to the gold standard. After the war, Harper's Weekly more supported the Republican Party in its editorial positions, contributed to the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868 and 1872, it supported the Radical Republican position on Reconstruction. In the 1870s, the cartoonist Thomas Nast began an aggressive campaign in the journal against the corrupt New York political leader William "Boss" Tweed.
Nast turned down a $500,000 bribe to end his attack. Tweed was convicted of fraud. Nast and Harper's played an important part in securing Rutherford B. Hayes' 1876 presidential election. On Hayes remarked that Nast was "the most powerful, single-handed aid had". After the election, Nast's role in the magazine diminished considerably. Since the late 1860s, Nast and George W. Curtis had differed on political matters and on the role of cartoons in political discourse. Curtis believed that mockery by caricature should be reserved for Democrats, did not approve of Nast's cartoons assailing Republicans such as Carl Schurz and Charles Sumner, who opposed policies of the Grant administration. Harper's publisher Fletcher Harper supported Nast in his disputes with Curtis. In 1877, Harper died, his nephews, Joseph W. Harper Jr. and John Henry Harper, assumed control of the magazine. They were more sympathetic to Curtis' arguments for rejecting cartoons that contradicted his editorial positions. In 1884, however and Nast agreed that they could not support the Republican candidate James G. Blaine, whose association with corruption was anathema to them.
Instead they supported Grover Cleveland. Nast's cartoons helped Cleveland become the first Democrat to be elected president since 1856. In the words of the artist's grandson, Thomas Nast St Hill, "it was conceded that Nast's support won Cleveland the small margin by which he was elected. In his last national political campaign, Nast had, in fact,'made a president.'"Nast's final contribution to Harper's Weekly was his Christmas illustration in December 1886. Journalist Henry Watterson said that "in quitting Harper's Weekly, Nast lost his forum: in losing him, Harper's Weekly lost its political importance." Nast's biographer Fiona Deans Halloran says "the former is true to a certain extent, the latter unlikely. Readers may have missed Nast's cartoons, but Harper's Weekly remained influential." After 1900, Harper's Weekly devoted more print to political and social issues, featured articles by some of the more prominent political figures of the time, such as Theodore Roosevelt. Harper's editor George Harvey was an early supporter of Woodrow Wilson's candidacy, proposing him for the Presidency at a Lotos Club dinner in 1906.
After that dinner, Harvey would make sure that he "emblazoned each issue of Harper's We
A gangway connection is a flexible connector fitted to the end of a railway coach, enabling passengers to move from one coach to another without danger of falling from the train. The London and North Western Railway was the first British railway to provide passengers with the means to move from one coach to another whilst the train was in motion. In 1869 the LNWR built a pair of saloons for the use of Queen Victoria; the Queen preferred to wait. In 1887, George M. Pullman introduced his patented vestibule cars. Older railroad cars had open platforms at their ends, which were used both for joining and leaving the train, but could be used to step from one car to the next; this practice was dangerous, so Pullman decided to enclose the platform to produce the vestibule. For passing between cars, there was a passageway in the form of a steel-framed rectangular diaphragm mounted on a buffing plate above the centre coupler; the vestibule prevented passengers from falling out, protected passengers from the weather when passing between cars.
In the event of an accident, the design helped prevent cars from overriding each other, reducing the risk of telescoping. Pullman's vestibule cars were first used in 1887. Among the first to use them was the Pennsylvania Railroad on the Pennsylvania Limited service to Chicago; the Great Northern Railway introduced the Gould-design gangway connection to Great Britain in 1889, when E. F. Howlden was Wagon Superintendent. On 7 March 1892, the Great Western Railway introduced a set of gangwayed coaches on their Paddington to Birkenhead service. Built to the design of William Dean, it was the first British side-corridor train to have gangway connections between all the coaches, although they were provided not to enable passengers to move around the train, but rather to allow the guard to reach any compartment quickly. Electric bells were provided; when the guard was not so required, he kept the communicating doors locked. Passengers could still use the side-corridor within the coach to reach the toilet.
The gangway connections of the early GWR corridor coaches were offset to one side. Some coaches intended for use at the ends of trains had the gangway connection fitted at one end only; the GWR introduced restaurant cars in 1896. On 17 May 1923, the GWR introduced some new coaches on their South Wales services. In 1925 the GWR started to use the "suspended" form of gangway connection instead of the "scissors" pattern. From 1938, GWR coaches which were expected to need coupling to LNER or SR coaches were fitted with gangway adaptors, to allow the dissimilar types to be connected. From the beginning, the London and Scottish Railway used the British Standard type of gangway connector, with its "scissors" pattern as used by the GWR; some coaches needed for LNER or SR lines were given gangway adaptors, so that they could safely couple to coaches fitted with the Pullman-type gangway. On the formation of British Railways on 1 January 1948, operators decided to produce a new range of standard coaches, instead of perpetuating existing designs—but the new types had to be compatible with the old.
Two of the pre-BR companies favoured the British Standard gangway, whereas the other two used the Pullman type. In the design of their new Mark 1 coaches, British Railways decided to standardise on the Pullman type in view of its resistance to telescoping; these gangways consisted of a flat steel plate. At the bottom it was riveted to the buffing plate, whilst the top was supported on the coach end by two telescopic spring units. On the coach end was a wooden doorframe; when two coaches were coupled, a curtain was used to cover the inside surfaces of the diaphragms and faceplates. The doorframe was fitted with a lockable door, of either sliding or hinged type, depending on the interior layout of that end of the coach. Coaches built for the Travelling Post Office services had their gangway connections offset to one side. There were two main reasons: there was a perceived security risk should these coaches be coupled to ordinary passenger-carrying coaches, the differing gangway positions minimising the risk of intrusion.
A disadvantage was that when a van was added to a TPO train, it might need to be turned around before it could be used. After the formation of British Railways, most new Mark 1 TPO vans were provided with centre gangways, though a batch intended to work with older vans were given offset gangways; these were altered to the standard arrangement in 1973. Until they had been the only BR Mark 1 gangwayed coaches not to have the Pullman gangway; the London and North Eastern Railway decided that from the start of their summer timetable on 1 May 1928, the Flying Scot
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States, part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. It ran 363 miles from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie, it was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, the United States; the canal was first proposed in the 1780s re-proposed in 1807. A survey was authorized and executed in 1808. Proponents of the project wore down opponents; the canal has 34 numbered locks starting with Black Rock Lock and ending downstream with the Troy Federal Lock. Both are owned by the federal government, it has an elevation difference of about 565 feet. It opened on October 26, 1825. In a time when bulk goods were limited to pack animals, there were no railways, water was the most cost-effective way to ship bulk goods.
The canal was denigrated by its political opponents as "Clinton's Folly" or "Clinton's Big Ditch". It was the first transportation system between the Eastern Seaboard and the western interior of the United States that did not require portage, it was faster than carts pulled by draft animals and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal gave New York City's port an incomparable advantage over all other U. S. ushered in the state's 19th century political and cultural ascendancy. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York and opened regions farther west to settlement, it was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. The canal's peak year was 1855. In 1918, the western part of the canal was enlarged to become part of the New York State Barge Canal, which extended to the Hudson River running parallel to the eastern half of the Erie Canal. In 2000, the United States Congress designated the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor to recognize the national significance of the canal system as the most successful and influential human-built waterway and one of the most important works of civil engineering and construction in North America.
The canal has been used by recreational watercraft since the retirement of the last large commercial ship, Day Peckinpaugh, in 1994. The canal saw a recovery in commercial traffic in 2008. From the first days of the expansion of the British colonies from the coast of North America into the heartland of the continent, a recurring problem was that of transportation between the coastal ports and the interior; this was not unique to the Americas, the problem still exists in those parts of the world where muscle power provides a primary means of transportation within a region. An ancient solution was implemented in many cultures — floating vessels move more than land vehicles since friction becomes less. Close to the seacoast, rivers provided adequate waterways, but the Appalachian Mountains, 400 miles inland, running over 1,500 miles long as a barrier range with just five places where mule trains or wagon roads could be routed, presented a great challenge. Passengers and freight had to travel overland, a journey made more difficult by the rough condition of the roads.
In 1800, it took 2-1/2 weeks to travel overland from New York to Cleveland, Ohio. The principal exportable product of the Ohio Valley was grain, a high-volume, low-priced commodity, bolstered by supplies from the coast, it was not worth the cost of transporting it to far-away population centers. This was a factor leading to farmers in the west turning their grains into whiskey for easier transport and higher sales, the Whiskey Rebellion. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it became clear to coastal residents that the city or state that succeeded in developing a cheap, reliable route to the West would enjoy economic success, the port at the seaward end of such a route would see business increase greatly. In time, projects were devised in Virginia, Maryland and deep into the coastal states; the successes of the Canal du Midi in France, Bridgewater Canal in Britain, Eider Canal in Denmark spurred on what was called in Britain "canal mania". The idea of a canal to tie the East Coast to the new western settlements was discussed as early as 1724: New York provincial official Cadwallader Colden made a passing reference to improving the natural waterways of western New York.
Gouverneur Morris and Elkanah Watson were early proponents of a canal along the Mohawk River. Their efforts led to the creation of the "Western and Northern Inland Lock Navigation Companies" in 1792, which took the first steps to improve navigation on the Mohawk and construct a canal between the Mohawk and Lake Ontario, but it was soon discovered that private financing was insufficient. Christopher Colles surveyed the Mohawk Valley, made a presentation to the New York state legislature in 1784, proposing a shorter canal from Lake Ontario; the proposal was never implemented. Jesse Hawley had envisioned encouraging the growing of large quantities of grain on the western New York plains for sale on the Eastern seaboard. However, he went bankrupt trying to ship grain to the coast. While in Canandaigua debtors' prison, Hawley began pressing for the construction of a canal along the 90-mile (140 km
Paul de Rousiers
Paul de Rousiers was a French social economist and industrial lobbyist. He was a follower of Pierre Guillaume Frédéric le Play, believed in industrial syndicates that would be independent of both workers and owners, would be dedicated to the progress of their industries, he undertook studies of society and economic organization in the United States and Germany, where he visited the rural areas, cities, farms and factories, spoke to workers, owners and intellectuals to gain an understanding of the interplay of social and economic forces. His work gained him considerable respect. In 1903 Paul de Rousiers became secretary-general of the French shipowners' association, a position he held for most of the rest of his life. In this role he proved a effective lobbyist, he provided valuable information and legal services to the members, helped in their negotiations with trade unions. He remained involved in social economics, taught a course at the École libre des sciences politiques. Paul de Rousiers was a prolific author throughout publishing many books and articles.
Marie Pierre Paul de Rousiers was born in Rochechouart, Haute-Vienne, on 16 January 1857. His father, a graduate of the naval school, was an officer in the navy and owned an agricultural estate in Rhus, in the commune of Saint-Maurice-des-Lions, where Les Rousiers had lived for several generations; this is. After the death of his father in 1865 he entered the Jesuit college in Poitiers and obtained his baccalauréat in 1872, he prepared for the examination for admission to the Naval School in Brest, which he failed twice. De Rousiers turned to the study of the law at the Catholic Institute in Paris, his professor of political economy, Claudio Jannet, was a disciple of Pierre Guillaume Frédéric le Play, head of the Société d'économie sociale and the Unions de la paix sociale. De Rousiers met Le Play through Edmond Demolins, through whom he joined the group that met in Le Play's salon every Monday. De Rousiers pursued his study of law and obtained a license, worked in 1877 as chief of staff to the prefect of Aveyron, while continuing to study social science.
His theoretical apprenticeship ended with the publication in 1881 of the Programme de gouvernement et d'organisation sociale d'après l'observation comparée des divers peuples, with a preface by Le Play. This was a collective work by the small group led by Demolins. Paul de Rousiers married Camille d'Artigues in May 1879, he joined the Société d'économie sociale and the Unions de la paix sociale, from this time was committed to development of social science. From 1883 he became a regular contributor to Réforme sociale, a bi-monthly journal edited by Demolins; the term "social geography" was first used both by geographer Élisée Reclus and by sociologists of the Le Play School independently. The first proven occurrence of the term derives from a review of Reclus' Nouvelle géographie universelle from 1884, written by Paul de Rousiers, a member of the Le Play School. In 1885, three years after the death of Le Play, Henri de Tourville and Demolins split from the movement and founded a new journal, Science sociale.
They brought with them a few adherents including de Rousiers and Robert Pinot, future director of the Musée social and secretary-general of the Comité des forges. De Rousiers continued to work within this small group; the publisher Firmin-Didot provided funding for Paul de Rousiers to visit the United States from March to June 1890. He wrote of what he found in La Vie américaine, an analysis of American society based on deliberate investigation including visits to factories and farms, observations of life in the cities and countryside, interviews with representatives of different social groups including owners, politicians and professionals, his goal was to understand the sociological forces behind the growing economic power of the US, starting to cause serious concern in Europe. De Rousiers interviewed George Pullman, who exerted huge control over the workforce who lived in his Pullman City, he wrote of Pullman's manufacturing complex, "Everything is done with precision. One feels that some brain of superior intelligence, backed by a long technical experience, has thought out every possible detail."
The book appeared in English in 1892. In 1893 de Rousiers made two visits of four months to England and Scotland to Belfast, where in September 1893 he participated in a trade union congress; as in America, he made many observations in Birmingham and the Scottish Lothians, visited factories and mines, interviewed workers, union leaders and intellectuals such as Sidney Webb. Based his investigation he produced a major work on La question ouvrière en Angleterre, translated as The Labour Question in Britain. Le Trade-unionisme en Angleterre was a collective work that Paul de Rousiers organized at the request of the directors of the Musée social. Robert Pinot, the effective leader of the Musée and a close friend of de Rousiers, had placed him at the head of a team of four pupils of the École Libre des Sciences Politiques who conducted inquiries in September and October 1895; the Musée social supported a second study on the same subject in the US from July to December 1896. De Rousiers led a team that included Pierre Claudio-Jannet and Louis Vigouroux.
This resulted in several articles and two books, La Concentration des forces ouvrières dans l'Amérique du Nord by Vigouroux and Les Industries monopolisées aux Etats-Unis by de Rousiers. After his second visit to th
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t