The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
U.S. Route 31
U. S. Route 31 or U. S. Highway 31 is a major north–south highway connecting southern Alabama to northern Michigan, its southern terminus is at an intersection with US 90/US 98 in Alabama. Its northern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 75 south of Michigan. US 31 once crossed the Straits of Mackinac by car ferry to intersect US 2 north of St. Ignace, Michigan, in the Upper Peninsula and formerly reached Mackinaw City along the southern approaches of the Mackinac Bridge, it formerly entered downtown Mobile, via a long bridge over Mobile Bay. US 31 begins in Spanish Fort, Alabama at a junction with US 90 and 98; the route originated in Mobile, co-routed with US 90 and 98. Whereas Interstate 65 leaves the Mobile Metropolitan Area via a route on the west side of the city, US 31 leaves the Mobile area via a route on the eastern side of the metro area, passing through Bay Minette. I-65 has replaced US 31 as the preferred route for through traffic, making US 31 a local connecting route. Near Atmore, the route passes close to the Florida Panhandle's extreme northwestern corner, missing by 1000 feet.
At Flomaton, US 31 begins a 15-mile virtual east-west concurrency with US 29 that continues to Brewton. North of Brewton, US 31 assumes a northeast-southwest trajectory, passing through rural areas and small towns in Escambia and Conecuh Counties. In Evergreen, US 31 north and US 84 share a brief concurrency heading east out of town. Although US 31 parallels Interstate 65 throughout Alabama, the two routes do not directly junction each other until they reach Pintlala in southern Montgomery County, 164 miles north of Mobile; the two routes do not junction each other again for another 22 miles. US 31 is routed along a bypass of the state capital. At Prattville, this route intersects U. S. Route 82. North of Prattville, US 31 passes through rural areas of Autauga and Chilton Counties along two-lane roadways. Between Prattville and Alabaster, US 31 has three interchanges with I-65. Between Saginaw and Warrior, US 31 is routed along multi-laned routes as it passes through the Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Area.
It passes through suburbs such as Alabaster, Pelham and Vestavia Hills. In Homewood, US 31 merges with U. S. Route 280 and is routed along the Elton B. Stephens Expressway, a 2.6 mile limited access highway that connects the south suburbs with downtown Birmingham. US 31 and 280 are co-routed; this interchange serves as the western terminus of US 280, north of the interchange US 31 is routed along surface streets as it proceeds northwardly out of Birmingham. US 31 continues to be routed along multi-lane streets and highways as it continues north of Birmingham, meeting the eastern terminus of I-22 just south of Fultondale, passing through the small town, along with Gardendale and Kimberly closely paralleling I-65. At Warrior, the roadway shrinks to two lanes. Two miles north of Warrior, US 31 and I-65 begin a three-mile concurrency between the interstate route's Exits 284 and 287; the interstate route was constructed over US 31's roadway through this segment. Between the split from I-65 and Garden City, US 31 is routed along a narrow two-lane route.
North of Garden City, passing through Cullman, Hartselle and Athens, it is routed along multi-lane and divided roadways. At Athens, I-65 and US 31 begin a concurrency that continues to just north of the Tennessee state line. In both states, US 31 is unsigned. In addition to junctions cited, US 31 junctions U. S. Route 80 in Montgomery, Interstate 459 in Hoover, U. S. Route 78 in Birmingham, U. S. Route 278 in Cullman, U. S. Route 72 Alternate in Decatur, U. S. Route 72 in Athens. Given US 31's former importance as a major connecting route in Alabama, in several cities it is known by the name of the city it leads to. For example, south of Montgomery it is still named Mobile Highway, northwardly it is referred to as the Birmingham Highway. South of Birmingham it is referred to as Montgomery Highway, northwardly it is referred to as the Decatur Highway. Throughout north Alabama plaques and signage refer to the route as the Beeline Highway. US 31 is co-routed with unsigned State Route 3 throughout the state until its junction with I-65 north of Athens.
The first mile of US 31 in Tennessee is concurrent with I-65, somewhat parallel to which it runs until it splits up in downtown Nashville, to become 31W and 31E, a uncommon occurrence in U. S. highways, though not unlike that which occurs to U. S. Route 49 in Mississippi. While upon crossing the state line from Alabama into Tennessee, US 31 runs to the east of I-65, it crosses over I-65, changing names from Main Street to Elkton Pike on the overpass. According to this name change, US 31 runs through Elkton shortly after making this crossing. After passing through Elkton, US 31 wanders, away from I-65, towards the city of Pulaski. On its way to Pulaski, US 31 intersects with US 64, does so once again in the center of the city. In Pulaski, US 31 serves as 1st Street in the downtown area. Just north of the downtown area of Pulaski, US 31 Alternate branches off US 31, serving first as East Grigsby Street as Lewisburg Highway, never to be visible from US 31 again until reaching downtown Nashville. Continuing north, US 31 meanders, following Richland Creek for a portion of the way, named Columbia Highway.
US 31 runs by Lynnville in this process. As US 31 enter
San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, known locally as the Bay Bridge, is a complex of bridges spanning San Francisco Bay in California. As part of Interstate 80 and the direct road between San Francisco and Oakland, it carries about 260,000 vehicles a day on its two decks, it has one of the longest spans in the United States. The toll bridge was conceived as early as the gold rush days, but construction did not begin until 1933. Designed by Charles H. Purcell, built by American Bridge Company, it opened on November 12, 1936, six months before the Golden Gate Bridge, it carried automobile traffic on its upper deck, trucks and commuter trains on the lower, but after the Key System abandoned rail service, the lower deck was converted to all-road traffic as well. In 1986 the bridge was unofficially dedicated to James Rolph; the bridge has two sections of equal length. The western section is a double suspension bridge with two decks, westbound traffic being carried on the upper deck while eastbound is carried on the lower one.
The largest span of the original eastern section was a cantilever bridge. During the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a portion of the eastern section's upper deck collapsed onto the lower deck and the bridge was closed for a month. Reconstruction of the eastern section of the bridge as a causeway connected to a self-anchored suspension bridge began in 2002. Unlike the western section and the original eastern section of the bridge, the new eastern section is a single deck with the eastbound and westbound lanes on each side making it the world's widest bridge, according to Guinness World Records, as of 2014. Demolition of the old east span was completed on September 8, 2018; the bridge consists of two crossings and west of Yerba Buena Island, a natural mid-bay outcropping inside San Francisco city limits. The western crossing between Yerba Buena and downtown San Francisco has two complete suspension spans connected at a center anchorage. Rincon Hill is the western anchorage and touch-down for the San Francisco landing of the bridge connected by three shorter truss spans.
The eastern crossing, between Yerba Buena Island and Oakland, was a cantilever bridge with a double-tower span, five medium truss spans, a 14-section truss causeway. Due to earthquake concerns, the eastern crossing was replaced by a new crossing that opened on Labor Day 2013. On Yerba Buena Island, the double-decked crossing is a 321-foot concrete viaduct east of the west span's cable anchorage, the 540-foot Yerba Buena Tunnel through the island's rocky central hill, another 790.8-foot concrete viaduct, a longer curved high-level steel truss viaduct that spans the final 1,169.7 feet to the cantilever bridge. The toll plaza on the Oakland side has eighteen toll lanes. Metering signals are about 1,000 feet west of the toll plaza. Two full-time bus-only lanes bypass the toll booths and metering lights around the right side of the toll plaza; the two far-left toll lanes are high-occupancy vehicle lanes during weekday commute periods. Radio and television traffic reports will refer to congestion at the toll plaza, metering lights, or a parking lot in the median of the road for bridge employees.
During the morning commute hours, traffic congestion on the westbound approach from Oakland stretches back through the MacArthur Maze interchange at the east end of the bridge onto the three feeder highways, Interstate 580, Interstate 880, I-80 toward Richmond. Since the number of lanes on the eastbound approach from San Francisco is structurally restricted, eastbound backups are frequent during evening commute hours; the western section of the Bay Bridge is restricted to motorized freeway traffic. Pedestrians and other non-freeway vehicles are not allowed to cross this section. A project to add bicycle/pedestrian lanes to the western section has been proposed but is not finalized. A Caltrans bicycle shuttle operates between Oakland and San Francisco during peak commute hours for $1.00 each way. Freeway ramps next to the tunnel provide access to Yerba Buena Treasure Island; because the toll plaza is on the Oakland side, the western span is a de facto non-tolled bridge. Those who only travel from Oakland to Yerba Buena Island, not the entire length to the main part of San Francisco, must pay the full toll.
San Francisco, at the entrance to the bay, was placed to prosper during the California Gold Rush. All goods not produced locally arrived by ship, but after the first transcontinental railroad was completed in May 1869, San Francisco was on the wrong side of the Bay, separated from the new rail link. The fear of many San Franciscans was that the city would lose its position as the regional center of trade; the concept of a bridge spanning the San Francisco Bay had been considered since the Gold Rush days. Several newspaper articles during the early 1870s discussed the idea. In early 1872, a "Bay Bridge Committee" was hard at work
Paul Philippe Cret
Paul Philippe Cret was a French-born Philadelphia architect and industrial designer. For more than thirty years, he taught a design studio in the Department of Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. Born in Lyon, Cret was educated at that city's École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied at the atelier of Jean-Louis Pascal, he came to the United States in 1903 to teach at the University of Pennsylvania. Although settled in America, he happened to be in France at the outbreak of World War I, he enlisted and remained in the French army for the duration, for which he was awarded the Croix de Guerre and made an officer in the Legion of Honor. Cret's practice in America began in 1907, his first major commission, designed with Albert Kelsey, was the Pan American Union Building in Washington DC, a breakthrough that led to many war memorials, civic buildings, court houses, other solid, official structures. His work through the 1920s was in the Beaux-Arts tradition, but with the radically simplified classical form of the Folger Shakespeare Library, he flexibly adopted and applied monumental classical traditions to modernist innovations.
Some of Cret's work is remarkably streamlined and forward-thinking, includes collaborations with sculptors such as Alfred Bottiau and Leon Hermant. In the late 1920s the architect was brought in as design consultant on Fellheimer and Wagner's Cincinnati Union Terminal, the high-water mark of Art Deco style in the United States, he became an American citizen in 1927. In 1931, the regents of The University of Texas at Austin commissioned Cret to design a master plan for the campus, build the Beaux-Art Main Building, the university's signature tower. Cret would go on to collaborate on about twenty buildings on the campus. In 1935, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, became a full Academician in 1938. Cret's contributions to the railroad industry included the design of the side fluting on the Burlington's Pioneer Zephyr and the Santa Fe's Super Chief passenger cars, he was a contributor to Architectural Record, American Architect, The Craftsman. He penned the article "Animals in Christian Art" for the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Cret won the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects in 1938. Ill health forced his resignation from teaching in 1937, he served on the U. S. Commission of Fine Arts from 1940 to 1945. After years of limited activity, Cret died in Philadelphia of heart disease and was interred at The Woodlands Cemetery. Cret's work was displayed in the exhibit, From the Bastille to Broad Street: The Influence of France on Philadelphia Architecture, at the Athenaeum of Philadelphia in 2011. An exhibit of his train designs, All Aboard! Paul P. Cret's Train Designs, was at the Athenaeum of Philadelphia from July 5, 2012 to August 24, 2012. With a collection of 17,000 drawings and more than 3,000 photographs, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia has the largest archive of Paul P. Cret materials. Cret taught in the Department of Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania for over 30 years, designed such projects as the Rodin Museum in Philadelphia, the master plan for the University of Texas in Austin, the Benjamin Franklin Bridge in Philadelphia, the Duke Ellington Bridge in Washington, DC.
Louis Kahn studied at the University of Pennsylvania under Cret, worked in Cret's architectural office in 1929 and 1930. Other notable architects who studied under Cret include Alfred Easton Poor, Charles I. Barber, William Ward Watkin, Edwin A. Keeble, Chinese architect Lin Huiyin. Cret designed war memorials, including the National Memorial Arch at Valley Forge National Historical Park, the Pennsylvania Memorial at the Meuse-Argonne Battlefield in Varennes-en-Argonne, the Chateau-Thierry American Monument in Aisne, the American War Memorial at Gibraltar, the Flanders Field American Cemetery and Memorial in Waregem, Belgium. On the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated Cret's Eternal Light Peace Memorial. Following Cret's death in 1945, his four partners assumed the practice under the partnership Harbeson, Livingston & Larson, which for years was referred to by staff members as H2L2; the firm adopted this "nickname" as its formal title in 1976.
H2L2 celebrated 100 years in 2007. Witold Rybczynski has speculated that Cret is not better known today due to his influence on fascist and Nazi architecture, such as Albert Speer's Zeppelinfeld at the Nuremberg Nazi party rally grounds. 1908–09 – Stock Pavilion, Wisconsin 1908–10 – Organization of American States Building, Washington, D. C. 1914–17 – National Memorial Arch, Valley Forge National Historical Park, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania 1916–17 – Indianapolis Central Library, Indiana 1922–26 – Benjamin Franklin Bridge, Philadelphia – Camden, New Jersey 1923–25 – Barnes Foundation, Pennsylvania 1923–27 – Detroit Institute of Arts, Michigan 1926–29 – Rodin Museum, Philadelphia 1928–29 – George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge, Kentucky 1929 – Integrity Trust Company Building, Philadelphia 1929–32 – Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D. C. 1930 – Chateau-Thierry American Monument, France 1930–32 – Henry Avenue Bridge over Wissahickon Creek, Philadelphia 1931–32 – Connecticut Avenue Bridge over Klingle Valley, Washington, D.
C. 1932 – Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, 925 Chestnut St. Philadelphia 1932–33 Hershey Commun
Interstate 265 is a two-sectioned Interstate Highway which forms part of a highway ringing the Louisville, metropolitan area, which includes Southern Indiana. In Kentucky, it travels through Jefferson County, from I-65 in the southern part of Louisville to I-71, where it continues north temporarily signed as KY 841 until reaching the Lewis and Clark Bridge. In Indiana, the highway continues west temporarily signed as SR 265, until reaching I-65, where the road continues west to I-64 as I-265, where it ends; the entire Kentucky stretch of the road is co-signed with Kentucky Route 841. The highway is named the Gene Snyder Freeway, after the former congressman, called "the Snyder" by locals, it is considered part of Louisville's beltline. On December 18, 2016, State Road 265 was extended east of State Road 62, which crosses the Ohio River connecting with KY 841, extended north of U. S. 42 in Kentucky as part of the Ohio River Bridges Project, creating a bypass around the eastern side of the city of Louisville.
Interstate 265 in the U. S. state of Indiana presently runs 6.94 miles from I-64 at the western edge of New Albany to I-65 in Clarksville. From that point east, the freeway continues as Indiana State Road 265, pending approval from the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials to sign it as I-265 now that it connects to the Kentucky portion of that Interstate highway. INDOT lists the official length of I-265 as longer — 0.21 miles — than the distance the FWHA records. Indiana State Road 265 is a four-lane, Interstate standard divided freeway that runs 6.17 miles west-to-east from I-65 at I-265 to the Lewis and Clark Bridge over the Ohio River. This freeway was always intended to become an extension of I-265 when the connection to Kentucky was completed, though well over a year after the bridge's opening the highway remains signed as "State Road 265"; the entire 7-mile Indiana segment of I-265 and the first 3 miles of Indiana State Road 265 run concurrently with SR 62.
In various discussions for over 30 years, the Lewis and Clark Bridge is part of a new 6.5-mile highway that connects State Road 265 in Indiana to KY 841 in Kentucky. The completion of the bridge connected the two disjointed highways to form a three-quarter beltway around the Louisville, metro area; the bridge was opened to traffic on December 18, 2016. However, the new stretch of highway is not yet signed as "I-265"; the Indiana segment is signed only as Indiana State Road 265, while the Kentucky segment is signed only as KY 841, meaning there are still two separate sections of I-265 as opposed to one continuous section from I-65 in Kentucky to I-64 in Indiana. There are no plans to construct a bridge on the west end of I-265. Kentucky Route 841 is a 38.8-mile-long state highway in the suburbs of Louisville. The route is encircling Louisville on its southern and eastern sides; the western terminus of the route is at U. S. Route 31W and US 60 in the southwest Louisville community of Valley Station, where KY 841 continues to the west as KY 1934.
The eastern terminus is at the Clark Bridge. KY 841 and I-265 overlap for 24.477 miles between I-65 exit 125 and I-71 exit 9. The Gene Snyder Freeway, from I-65 to I-71 has seen an increase in serious accidents; the primary factors stem from its low-level grass median which offers little to no protection for crossover incidents. Driver inattention and increased traffic and congestion has led to a decline in the overall level-of-service. In 2006, cable barriers were installed in the median for 10 miles between I-71 and I-64, with further installation possible in the near future. Signed just as KY 841, the Jefferson Freeway was constructed with two sections, one between KY 155 and US 60 and a second section between KY 1447 and US 42 in the 1960s as short connectors to the eastern suburban expansion as well as a new Ford plant. I-264 by 1970 was woefully congested and was in dire need of reconstruction and other improvements, therefore I-265 was proposed as an outer beltway to provide pass-through motorists relief from the congestion of I-264.
Construction started in the early 1980s and was finished that decade and signed in 1987. The road is signed I-265 from the I-65 interchange to the I-71 interchange. From I-65 west to US 31W and I-71 north/west to the Lewis and Clark Bridge, is signed as KY 841 due to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials numbering rules. KY 841 is signed throughout the entire designation of I-265; the exit numbering for the entire beltway starts at the western terminus of KY 841. Studies have been conducted for the reconfiguration of the I-265 and I-64 interchange, it is an underpowered cloverleaf with no collector–distributor lanes, a relic of the original Jefferson Freeway. In late 2005, members of the Louisville Metro Council proposed a committee to begin planning a western bridge to link the southwestern end of the highway in Kentucky to Indiana; however the proposal of the western bridge was not put into action yet. Roads in Louisville, Kentucky KentuckyRoads.com: I-265
George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark was an American surveyor and militia officer from Virginia who became the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the militia in Kentucky throughout much of the war, he is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia and Vincennes during the Illinois Campaign, which weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory. The British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Clark has been hailed as the "Conqueror of the Old Northwest". Clark's major military achievements occurred before his thirtieth birthday. Afterwards, he led militia in the opening engagements of the Northwest Indian War but was accused of being drunk on duty, he was disgraced and forced to resign, despite his demand for a formal investigation into the accusations. He left Kentucky to live on the Indiana frontier but was never reimbursed by Virginia for his wartime expenditures.
He spent the final decades of his life evading creditors and living in increasing poverty and obscurity. He was involved in two failed attempts to open the Spanish-controlled Mississippi River to American traffic, he became an invalid after suffering the amputation of his right leg. He was aided in his final years by family members, including his younger brother William, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, he died of a stroke on February 13, 1818. George Rogers Clark was born on November 19, 1752 in Albemarle County, near Charlottesville, the hometown of Thomas Jefferson, he was the second of 10 children of John and Ann Rogers Clark, who were Anglicans of English and Scottish ancestry. Five of their six sons became officers during the American Revolutionary War, their youngest son William was too young to fight in the war, but he became famous as a leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The family moved from the Virginia frontier to Caroline County, Virginia around 1756, after the outbreak of the French and Indian War, lived on a 400-acre plantation that grew to include more than 2,000 acres.
Clark had little formal education. He lived with his grandfather so that he could receive a common education at Donald Robertson's school with James Madison and John Taylor of Caroline, he was tutored at home, as was usual for Virginian planters' children of the period. His grandfather trained him to be a surveyor. In 1771 at age 19, Clark left his home on his first surveying trip into western Virginia. In 1772, he made his first trip into Kentucky via the Ohio River at Pittsburgh and spent the next two years surveying the Kanawha River region, as well as learning about the area's natural history and customs of the Indians who lived there. In the meantime, thousands of settlers were entering the area as a result of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768. Clark's military career began in 1774, he was preparing to lead an expedition of 90 men down the Ohio River when hostilities broke out between the Shawnee and settlers on the Kanawha frontier that culminated in Lord Dunmore's War. Most of Kentucky was not inhabited by Indians.
Tribes were angry in the Ohio country who had not been party to the treaty signed with the Cherokee, because the Kentucky hunting grounds had been ceded to Great Britain without their approval. As a result, they were unsuccessful. Clark spent a few months surveying in Kentucky, as well as assisting in organizing Kentucky as a county for Virginia prior to the American Revolutionary War; as the American Revolutionary War began in the East, Kentucky's settlers became involved in a dispute about the region's sovereignty. Richard Henderson, a judge and land speculator from North Carolina, had purchased much of Kentucky from the Cherokee in an illegal treaty. Henderson intended to create a proprietary colony known as Transylvania, but many Kentucky settlers did not recognize Transylvania's authority over them. In June 1776, these settlers selected Clark and John Gabriel Jones to deliver a petition to the Virginia General Assembly, asking Virginia to formally extend its boundaries to include Kentucky.
Clark and Jones traveled the Wilderness Road to Williamsburg where they convinced Governor Patrick Henry to create Kentucky County, Virginia. Clark was given 500 lb of gunpowder to help defend the settlements and was appointed a major in the Kentucky County militia, he was just 24 years old, but older settlers looked to him as a leader, such as Daniel Boone, Benjamin Logan, Leonard Helm. In 1777, the Revolutionary War intensified in Kentucky. British lieutenant governor Henry Hamilton armed his Indian allies from his headquarters at Fort Detroit, encouraging them to wage war on the Kentucky settlers in hopes of reclaiming the region as their hunting ground; the Continental Army could spare no men for an invasion in the northwest or for the defense of Kentucky, left to the local population. Clark spent several months defending settlements against the Indian raiders as a leader in the Kentucky County militia, while developing his plan for a long-distance strike against the British, his strategy involved seizing British outposts north of the Ohio River to destroy British influence among their Indian allies.
In December 1777, Clark presented his plan to Virginia's Governor Patrick Henry, he asked for permission to lead a secret expedition to capture the British-held villages at Kaskaskia and Vincennes in the Illinois country. Governor Henry commissioned him as a lieutenant colonel in the