SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

George Square

George Square is the principal civic square in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is one of six squares in the city centre, the others being Cathedral Square, St Andrew's Square, St Enoch Square, Royal Exchange Square, Blythswood Square on Blythswood Hill. Named after King George III and laid out in 1781 but not developed for another twenty years, George Square is surrounded by architecturally important buildings including on the east side the palatial Municipal Chambers known as the City Chambers, whose foundation stone was laid in 1883, on the west side by the Merchants House. Built by Glasgow Corporation the Chambers are the continuing headquarters of Glasgow City Council. Joseph Swan`s panoramic engraving of 1829 shows the early development of the square and its surrounding buildings; the square boasts an important collection of statues and monuments, including those dedicated to Robert Burns, James Watt, Sir Robert Peel and Sir Walter Scott. Medieval Glasgow had a large area of common pasture to the north of the city.

Every day, the town herd took the cattle of the burghers along an unpaved road called Cow Lone which led from the Trongate's West Port to pasture on the common on to Cowcaddens where the cattle were milked in the evening before returning. Long narrow back gardens or riggs ran north from Trongate properties, forming the Langcroft area, along its northern boundary Back Cow Lone provided an alternative route west from the High Street. Cow Lone ran north between the Meadowflat lands and the Ramshorn croft, bounded to the north by Rottenrow lane, on the east by Deanside Brae, down via Greyfriar's Wynd to Candleriggs; these lands became George Hutcheson's property in 1609. Hutcheson's Hospital tried to lease areas to small crofts or gardeners but the ground was poor. In 1772 the city magistrates bought the lands of Meadowflats. From 1750 wealth from tobacco and cotton brought rapid expansion westwards, with new streets laid out along the riggs, including Virginia Street in 1753 and Miller Street in 1762.

Cow Lone, impassible in wet weather, was renamed Queen street after Queen Charlotte in 1766, paved as far as the junction with Back Cow Lone, which in 1772 was straightened and renamed Ingram Street. In that year the town's surveyor, James Barrie, produced a grid plan for the Ramshorn lands, similar to planned development in London and Craig's 1766 gridded plan for Edinburgh's New Town. Barrie produced another plan in 1781, in 1782 Glasgow's council adopted a grid incorporating a large square; this provided "a regular plan to the line of the streets in which every purchaser was bound to keep" extended over Meadowflats. In 1782 a house for two families was built in George Square there was a four year pause before rapid growth began. Directly in line with the projected extension of Queen Street, a large mansion was built around 1783 in grounds just south of Rottenrow lane as Bailie George Crawford's Lodging known as Glasgow House. George's square, as it was known was named after King George III.

New streets named after royalty included Frederick street. Around 1790 the developments north of Trongate became known as Glasgow's New Town. Between 1787 and the 1820s Georgian terraces were built around the perimeter of George's square; the west side was a three-storey high block of six tenements, which had three entrances with passageways to turnpike stairs at the back for the upper flats. These "plain dwellings" were "the residences of many most respectable families", but were criticised as looking like soldier's barracks or a cotton mill; the east side was a two-storey high terrace of "comfortable dwelling-houses with a double flight of steps to the second storey". By 1807 a hotel occupied the south end of this terrace, it became the George Hotel. On the south and north sides, terraces of large townhouses had three storeys above a basement lit by a sunken area fenced off from the pavement; as Glasgow historian James Denholm wrote of "George's square" in 1804, "The buildings here are elegant those upon the north.

The north side was completed 1807–1818 with three imposing townhouses built between Queen Street and Hanover Street. James Ewing of Strathleven bought Glasgow House in 1815, its grounds became known as the "Queen Street Park". Crows nested in tall trees around his mansion, he was nicknamed "Craw Ewing"; the centre of George Square had been used as a tip for surplus soil and debris around a stagnant pool, it was enclosed with a paling fence and used for grazing sheep. The first statue, erected in 1819 on the south of the square facing Miller Street, commemorated Sir John Moore of Corunna. In 1825 the Corporation instructed Stewart Murray, the curator and landscape architect of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sandyford, to improve the square, he landscaped it with winding walks and shrubs, fenced around with an iron railing. Flower shows were held in tents; the centre spot was used to commemorate Sir Walter Scott with the first monument dedicated to him. The 80 foot fluted Doric column of Giffnock "liver rock" sandstone was designed by the competition winning architect David Rhind, who appointed John Greenshields to design the statue above, executed by John Ritchie.

The monument was completed by 1837, some years before Scott was commemorated in Edinburgh. From March to July 1834 the Steam Carriage Company of Scotland ran an hourly service to Paisley from its terminus at the northeast corner of the squar

Hermes Street

Hermes Street was a major shopping thoroughfare in central Nicosia. It runs into Ektoros Street in the East. Before Venetian times the River Pedieos course ran through the centre of the town, however this was diverted when the new walls were built; the old river bed became an open sewer until the arrival of the British in 1878. They found the cities sanitation to be in an appalling state so they decided the ownership of the land be given to anyone who could assist in rebuilding the area. Hermes Street was built in 1881 with the help of labourers from the Kaimakli area, they built many shops on street level. The authorities gave many of the premises to the builders as a reward for their efforts; the Street found itself located on the edge of the Greek Quarter of the City from 1958 until 1974. Two thirds of the street is located abandoned within the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus. From the Ledra Street crossing a metal gate blocks access into Hermes Street, however part of the street is still accessible from Manis Street.

Ledra Street Onasagorou Street Rigenis Street

Meteor-M No.2-1

Meteor-M No.2-1, was a Russian satellite, part of Meteor-M series of polar-orbit weather satellite. It was launched using Soyuz-2.1b rocket with a Fregat upper stage on 28 November 2017. The cause of failure was determined to be faulty programming; the satellite was programmed with a launch point of Baikonur Cosmodrome, instead of the Vostochny Cosmodrome causing the satellite to enter an incorrect orbit. This was the second launch from the Vostochny Cosmodrome, the first civilian launch site in Russia. In addition to the ₽2.6bn Meteor-M weather satellite, 18 other scientific and commercial satellites from Russia, Sweden, the US, Japan and Germany were lost as well