A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South America, Africa and Zealandia; the development of most Chinatowns resulted from mass migration to an area without any or with few Chinese residents. Binondo in Manila, established in 1594, is recognised as the world's oldest Chinatown. Notable early examples outside Asia include San Francisco's Chinatown in the United States and Melbourne's Chinatown in Australia, which were founded in the mid-19th century during the California gold rush and Victoria gold rush, respectively. A more modern example, in Montville, was caused by the displacement of Chinese workers in the Manhattan Chinatown following the September 11th attacks in 2001; the Oxford Dictionary defines "Chinatown" as "... a district of any non-Chinese town a city or seaport, in which the population is predominantly of Chinese origin".
However, some Chinatowns may have little to do with China. Some "Vietnamese" enclaves are in fact a city's "second Chinatown", some Chinatowns are in fact pan-Asian, meaning they could be counted as a Koreatown or Little India. One example includes Asiatown in Ohio, it was referred to as a Chinatown but was subsequently renamed due to the influx of non-Chinese Asian Americans who opened businesses there. Today the district acts as a unifying factor for the Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, Laotian and Thai communities of Cleveland. Further ambiguities with the term can include Chinese ethnoburbs which by definition are "... suburban ethnic clusters of residential areas and business districts in large metropolitan areas where the intended purpose is to be "... as isolated from the white population as Hispanics". An article in The New York Times blurs the line further by categorizing different Chinatowns such as Chinatown, which exists in an urban setting as "traditional"; this contrasts with narrower definitions.
In some cities in Spain, the term barrio chino denotes an area, neighborhood or district where prostitution or other businesses related to the sex industry are concentrated. Some examples of this are the Chinatown of Salamanca and the Chinatown of Barcelona, although in Barcelona there was a small Chinese community in the 1930s. Trading centres populated predominantly by Chinese men and their native spouses have long existed throughout Southeast Asia. Emigration to other parts of the world from China accelerated in the 1860s with the signing of the Treaty of Peking, which opened the border for free movement. Early emigrants came from the coastal provinces of Guangdong and Fujian in southeastern China – where the people speak Toishanese, Hakka and Hokkien. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a significant amount of Chinese emigration to North America originated from four counties called Sze Yup, located west of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, making Toishanese a dominant variety of the Chinese language spoken in Chinatowns in Canada and the United States.
As conditions in China have improved in recent decades, many Chinatowns have lost their initial mission, to provide a transitional place into a new culture. As net migration has slowed into them, the smaller Chinatowns have decayed to the point of becoming purely historical and no longer serving as ethnic enclaves. Binondo's Chinatown located in Manila, Philippines is the oldest Chinatown in the world, established in 1594. Several Asian Chinatowns, although not yet called by that name, have a long history; those in Nagasaki, Binondo in Manila, Hoi An and Bao Vinh in central Vietnam all existed in 1600. Glodok, the Chinese quarter of Jakarta, dates to 1740. Chinese presence in India dates back to the 5th century AD. Chinatowns first appeared in the Indian cities of Calcutta and Chennai; the first Chinese settler in Calcutta was Young Atchew around 1780. The Chinatown centered on Yaowarat Road in Bangkok, was founded at the same time as the city itself, in 1782. An early enclave of Chinese people emerged in the 1830s in Liverpool, England when the first direct trading vessel from China arrived in Liverpool's docks to trade in goods including silk and cotton wool.
Many Chinese immigrants arrived in Liverpool in the late 1850s in the employ of the Blue Funnel Shipping Line, a cargo transport company established by Alfred Holt. The commercial shipping line created strong trade links between the cities of Shanghai, Hong Kong and Liverpool in the importation of silk and tea; the Chinatown in San Francisco is one of the largest in North America and the oldest north of Mexico. It served as a port of entry for early Chinese immigrants from the 1850s to the 1900s; the area was the one geographical region deeded by the city government and private property owners which allowed Chinese persons to inherit and inhabit dwellings within the city. Many Chinese found jobs working for large companies seeking a source of labor, most famously as part of the Central Pacific on the Transcontinental Railroad. Since it started in Omaha, that city had a notable Chinatown for a century. Other cities in North Ame
Central railway station, Sydney
The Central railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located at the southern end of the Sydney central business district in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The station is the largest and busiest railway station in New South Wales and serves as a major transport interchange for NSW TrainLink inter-city rail services, Sydney Trains commuter rail services, Sydney light rail services, State Transit bus services, private coach transport services. Abbreviated as Central or Central station, the station is known as Sydney Terminal and Central Railway Stations Group and Central Railway; the property is owned by an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999, it recorded 11.35 million passenger movements in 2013. Central station occupies a large city block separating Haymarket, Surry Hills, the central business district, bounded by Railway Square and Pitt Street in the west, Eddy Avenue in the north, Elizabeth Street in the east and the Devonshire Street Tunnel in the south.
Parts of the station and marshalling yards extend as far south as Cleveland Street are located on the site of the former Devonshire Street Cemetery. There have been three terminal stations in Sydney. Although the Sydney Railway Company first applied to the government for four blocks of land between Hay and Cleveland Streets in 1849, the Surveyor General favoured Grose Farm, now the grounds of The University of Sydney, it was less costly to develop. The Company exchanged land in the first and third blocks, between Hay and Devonshire Streets, for an increased area of eight hectares in the fourth block, the Government Paddocks, between Devonshire and Cleveland Streets. Hence the site of the first Sydney railway terminus was located here from 1855; the original Sydney station was opened on 26 September 1855 in an area known as Cleveland Fields. This station, called Sydney Terminal, had Devonshire Street as its northern boundary, it was but unofficially called Redfern station, while at that time the present Redfern station was called Eveleigh.
The first and second Sydney Terminals were never located in Redfern, being to the north of Cleveland Street, Redfern's northern boundary. When this station became inadequate for the traffic it carried, a new station was built in 1874 on the same site and called Sydney Terminal; this was a brick building with two platforms. It grew to 14 platforms before it was replaced by the present-day station to the north of Devonshire Street; the new station was built on a site occupied by the Devonshire Street Cemetery, a convent, a female refuge, a police barracks, a parsonage, a Benevolent Society. The remains exhumed from the cemetery were re-interred at several other Sydney cemeteries including Rookwood and Waverley cemeteries. Bodies were moved to Botany by flat cars. In major metropolitan areas the rail terminus tended to be located within the inner core of the city; the site of the first and second station termini was inconveniently located for the city. A horse-bus service operated from the station to the city, both Engineer-in-Chief, John Whitton, Chief Commissioner for Railways, B. H. Martindale, recognised the urgency of a city rail extension.
In 1877 John Young, a prominent Sydney builder and local politician proposed a scheme to provide a circular city extension to the railway. The route included stations at Oxford Street, William Street and Woolloomooloo in the east, Circular Quay Dawes Point and a line parallel to Darling Harbour in the west. John Whitton designed a grand city terminus at the corner of Hunter and Castlereagh Streets two years later. Neither of these schemes eventuated. In 1897 Norman Selfe drew up a scheme for the gradual enlargement and extension of the railway to the northern end of the city and in the same year Railway Commissioner, E. M. G. Eddy, proposed a terminal city station at the corner of Elizabeth Street and St James' Road; the route of the latter was the same as that for 1879, the new site for the terminus included half of the northern end of Hyde Park. Although 6 hectares of the burial ground in Devonshire Street was offered as compensation, public sentiment still opposed the loss of Hyde Park; the Royal Commission in 1897 again considered the city railway extension because of dangerous congestion at Redfern and recommended using Hyde Park.
After an investigative trip overseas, Henry Deane, Engineer-in-Chief, prepared alternative proposals for a new railway terminal for the government in 1900. The second scheme proposal called for the resumption of the Devonshire Street cemeteries, but this was cheaper and less contentious than the acquisition of Hyde Park, it was the second scheme, adopted. When the third station was built in 1906, it moved closer to the city, it fronted Garden Road, realigned to from Eddy Avenue. If Belmore Park is included, all the land now occupied by the railway at Central and Redfern coincides with the Company's original selection of four blocks between Hay and Cleveland Streets; the present station was opened on 4 August 1906 and opening for passengers on 5 August 1906. The new station included the previous Mortuary railway station used to transport funeral parties to Rookwood Cemetery; the last train departed platform 5 of the 1874 station at midnight. During the remainder of that night, the passenger concourse was demolished and the line extended through the old station into the new station.
The Western Mail arrived at 05:50 on 5 August 1906 at
Bridge Street, Sydney
Bridge Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Bridge Street runs for 500 metres in a west–east direction with traffic flowing in both directions, it is situated in the northern portion of the central business district. The western terminus of Bridge Street is at George Street, with the eastern terminus at Macquarie Street, adjacent to the Chief Secretary's Building. From west to east, Bridge Street crosses Phillip streets. Bridge Street was named by Governor Macquarie in 1810, derived from a small bridge located near the intersection with Pitt Street; the bridge used to cross the Tank Stream in the early days of the colony, with the stream now flowing underground via a series of suburban tunnels. Many years before Bridge Street was named, it was the site of Sydney's first Government House and was the abode of first Governor of New South Wales, Captain Arthur Phillip. After establishing the site of the settlement, a substantial "temporary" government house was located on the corner of what is now Bridge Street and Phillip Street.
It was built under the direction of James Bloodsworth, a convict builder responsible for the construction of most of the colony's buildings between 1788 and 1800. This building, the first'permanent' building in Sydney, was completed by 1789 using English bricks, native stone and a quantity of convict baked sandstock bricks from the Sydney region. After the initial completion the house was of two stories in height, contained six rooms and was the hub of the colony for 56 years. Eight successive governors complained of the living conditions within, each making improvements by adding their own extension, it was here on 4 June 1789, that Governor Phillip and his guests celebrated the birthday of King George III. In 1845 the entire complex was demolished to extend the street to Macquarie Street; the foundations of the house were exposed by archaeologists in 1983. The site, on the corner with Phillip Street, is now occupied by the Museum of Sydney. In March 1899, workmen installing a telegraph tunnel discovered a copper plate wedged between two stones.
It was found that it was the foundation stone of the first Government House, laid 15 May 1788. The plate is now displayed at the Museum of Sydney. Bridge Street has a number of significant sites; the following were listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate. The Department of Lands building is a sandstone building designed by the Colonial Architect, James Barnet, built 1877-90, it is three storeys high and features a copper dome and a clock tower, a distinctive feature in the area. The building is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register; the Department of Education building is a six-storey, sandstone building designed by the government architect, George McRae. It was built ca. 1912 and reinforced concrete. The building is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register. Burns Philp Building: this three-storey, commercial building was built from 1898-1901, it was designed by Arthur Anderson of Anderson in a Romanesque style. Like the other buildings, it was constructed predominantly of sandstone, with a combination of dressed stone and rough stone.
The interior features elaborate cedar-work. The building is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register; the Chief Secretary's building designed by Barnet with additions by Walter Liberty Vernon, is situated on the south corner of Bridge and Macquarie Streets and constructed in ca. 1878, consisting of dressed sandstone. The building is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register; the former Premier's Office or Old Treasury Building is situated on the north corner of Bridge and Macquarie Streets. This two-storey sandstone building was designed by Mortimer Lewis in a Classical Revival style and built ca. 1849. A large extension was designed by Vernon and built ca. 1896. It has more been converted for hotel use as part of the InterContinental Hotel Sydney. In 1999 the building was added to the NSW State Heritage Register. Macquarie Place Park is an historic site is situated on the north side of Bridge Street and was part of the first Government House. Governor Lachlan Macquarie intended it to be a significant public square but it was whittled down over the years.
It includes the obelisk designed by Francis Greenway and constructed in 1818. In 2010 the site was added to the NSW State Heritage Register. Booth House: at 44 Bridge Street, on the corner of Young and Bridge Streets and situated on land which formed part of the gardens of First Government House. Built in 1938, this nine-storey building is an excellent and rare expression of the Functionalist style meeting a need for continuous natural light, through bands of windows, to accommodate wool-broking activities on completion. A stylised ram's head is etched into the red granite lintel above the entrance, pale green terracotta tiles remain under copper cladding the uprights between the windows, it is now an unusual mix of residential units. Liner House known as Moran House, located at 13-15 Bridge Street, is a heritage-listed office building completed in 1960 for shipping agents, Wilh. Wilhelmsen; the building has since been repurposed and in 1999 was added to the NSW State Heritage Register. Media related to Bridge Street, Sydney at Wikimedia Commons
The Rocks, New South Wales
The Rocks is an urban locality, tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney's city centre, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour north-west of the Sydney central business district; the Rocks became established shortly after the colony's formation in 1788. It was known as Tallawoladah by the Cadigal people; the original buildings were first traditional vernacular houses, of wattle and daub, with thatched roofs, of local sandstone, from which the area derives its name. From the earliest history of the settlement, the area had a reputation as a slum and the arriving convicts' side of town frequented by visiting sailors and prostitutes. After November 1790, many of the inhabitants were aboriginals. In 1823, the district had a population of about 1,200. During the late nineteenth century, the area was dominated by a gang known, it maintained this rough reputation until the 1870s. By the early 20th century, many of the area's historic buildings were in serious decay.
In 1900, bubonic plague broke out, the state government resumed areas around The Rocks and Darling Harbour, with the intention of demolishing them and rebuilding them. More than 3,800 houses and wharves were inspected and hundreds demolished, but the continuation of these plans were brought to a halt due to the outbreak of World War I. During the 1920s, several hundred buildings were demolished during the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. In 1968, the state government gave control of The Rocks to the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority, with the intention of demolishing most of the original buildings, re-developing them as high-density residential dwellings. In February 1971, a group of local residents formed the Rocks Residents Group to oppose the plans, they felt that the new dwellings would result in increased rents, which would force out the traditional residents of the area. The residents' group requested a green ban from the Builder's Labourers Federation, who had become active in preventing controversial developments over the previous four years.
By 1973, the union had imposed the ban, after discussions with the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority, a'People's Plan' was developed. By October 1973, it appeared that the redevelopment would proceed as planned, using non-union labour. For two weeks, demonstrations by local residents and unionists followed, with numerous arrests being made. Liberal Premier Robert Askin was in the midst of an election campaign, used the protests as a means of conveying his law and order message to voters. However, the green ban stayed in place until 1975, when the state union leadership was overthrown, was successful, as can be seen in the buildings that survive today. Instead of demolishing The Rocks, renovations transformed the area into a commercial and tourist precinct. Today the Rocks is a gentrified area, but still contains a significant proportion of Housing Commission properties, there is still a significant problem of urban poverty and street crime in this district; as housing stock becomes dilapidated, government policy is to sell the now valuable public housing units to private owners, in the expectation that they will restore the properties.
The Sirius building and the associated "Save Our Sirius" protest group was formed to protest relocation of its residents. The Rocks has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: In the 2016 Census, there were 774 people in The Rocks. 39.8% of people were born in Australia and 51.1% of people only spoke English at home. The close proximity to Circular Quay and the views of the iconic Harbour Bridge, as well as the historic nature of many of the buildings, makes the Rocks popular with tourists, it features a variety of souvenir and craft shops, as well as historic pubs. The Rocks Market operates each weekend, with around 100 stalls. During the week, shopping options include galleries exhibiting Australian artists, such as Ken Done and Ken Duncan, as well as Australian clothing and Australian opal shops. There are numerous historic walks through the area, visiting historical buildings such as Cadmans Cottage and Sydney Observatory, the Dawes Point Battery, the first fortified position in New South Wales.
Two separate pubs in The Rocks claim to be Sydney's oldest surviving pubs: the Fortune of War and the Lord Nelson. Others in the area include the Observer, the Orient, the Mercantile, the Palisade and the Hero of Waterloo. A passenger boat terminal and the Museum of Contemporary Art is situated beside the Rocks area; the precinct can be accessed by rail, as it is within walking distance of Circular Quay station. Water Polo by the Sea is held there every year by Australian Water Polo with the Australia men's national water polo team take on the International All Stars. Susannah Place Museum is a historic house museum situated in The Rocks, it is a block of four terrace houses, built in 1844 and had domestic occupants until 1990. It is a documentation of the urban working class community in The Rocks; the terraces in various states of modernity show the evolution of occupation over 150 years Ambrose Pratt: King of the Rocks, novel. Hutchinson, London 1900 D. Manning Richards. Destiny in Sydney: An epic novel of convicts and Chinese embroiled in the birth of Sydney, Australia.
First book in Sydney series. Washington DC: Aries Books, 2012. ISBN 978-0-9845410-0-3 Grace Karskens, The Rocks: Life in Early Sydney, Melbourne University Press, 1997; the Rocks Grace Karskens - UNSW. "The Rocks". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 29 September 2015. Caroline Butler-Bowden - Sydney Living Museums and Grace Karskens - UNSW. "Painting Old Sydney". Dictionary of Sy
High Street is a metonym for the concept of the primary business street of towns or cities in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations. To distinguish it from "centres" of nearby places it is preceded unofficially by the name of its settlement. In a town it implies the focal point for business shops and street stalls in town and city centres; as a generic shorthand presupposed upon linear settlements it may be used to denote more precise concepts such as the urban retail sector, town centre sectors of employment, all small shops and services outlets and wider concepts taking in social concepts. The number of High Streets reached a peak in Victorian England. Since the 20th-century, the prosperity of High Streets has been in decline, forcing many shop closures and prompting the UK Government to consider initiatives to reinvigorate and preserve the High Street. High Street is the most common street name in the UK, which according to a 2009 statistical compilation has 5,410 High Streets, 3,811 Station Roads and 2,702 Main Streets.
The smallest High Street in Britain is located in the small market town of Holsworthy in Devon. The street itself consists of only three shops. In Middle English the word "high" denoted a meaning of excellence or superior rank. "High" applied to roads as they improved: "highway" was a new term taken up by the church and their vestries to during the 17th century as a term for all public roads between settlements. From the 19th-century, which saw a proliferation in the number of public roads, in countries using the term motorway, the term highway fell out of common speech and was supplanted by the legal definition, denoting any public road, as in the Highway Code, thus the term "High Street" assumed a different meaning. In Britain, the term, ` High Street', has both a specific meaning. People refer to shopping on the high street when they mean the main retail precinct, but refer to shopping on the High Street when they mean a specific street carrying the name of High Street or one of its variants.
Many British colonies, including Canada and New Zealand, adopted the term to refer to the main retail shopping precinct in a given city or town. In Britain, some 3,000 streets called "High Street" and about 2,300 streets with variations on the name have been identified, giving a grand total of 5,300. Of these, more than 600 High Streets are located in London's boroughs. Following the Great Fire of London, the city of London was rebuilt. New planning laws, governing rebuilding, designated four types of street based on the size of their carriageways and the types of buildings. Shops were permitted in the principal street or'high street', but not in the by-lanes or back streets; this may have been based on the need for high visibility in order to regulate retail trade, as well as to avoid congestion in the narrow lanes and back streets. Accordingly, from the 17th-century, the term "High Street" assumed a narrower meaning and came to describe thoroughfares with significant retail in large villages and towns.
In the late 17th and 18th-centuries, the number of High Streets increased markedly. The 19th-century was a "golden era" for High Street shops; the rise of the middle class in Victorian England contributed to a more favourable attitude to shopping and consumption. Shopping centres became the places to see and be seen - places for recreational shopping and promenading. By the 20th century, the viability of high streets began to decline. In the second half of the 20th-century, traditional British High Street precincts came under pressure from out-of-town shopping malls, with the balance shifting towards the latter. In the late 20th-century and mortar retailers confronted another major threat - from online retailers operating in a global marketplace. To confront this threat, High Street precincts have been forced to evolve - some have become smaller as shops shut their doors, others have become more like social spaces with a concentration of retail services including cafes and entertainment venues while yet others have positioned themselves as more up-market shopping precincts with a preponderance of stores selling luxury branded goods.
In the United Kingdom geographic concentration of goods and services has reduced the share of the economy contributed to by workers in the high street. High street refers to only a part of commerce; the town centre in many British towns combines a group of outdoor shopping streets, with an adjacent indoor shopping centre. High Streets through the centuries Initiatives to preserve the traditional British High Street are evident. Research into the customer's shopping preferences and patterns reveals that the continued vitality of towns is predicated on a number of different variables. Research has highlighted the ongoing challenges faced by towns and cities and suggested that "he town centre serves not only social, utilitarian or hedonic shopping purposes but supports out-of-hours entertainment and leisure services; the way that consumers perceive and use town centres has fundamentally changed." In order to address the issues threatening the sustainability of towns it is important to consider consumer behaviour and customer experience.
This is in line with research that proposes that for high street retail to thriv
Admiral Arthur Phillip was a Royal Navy officer and the first Governor of New South Wales who founded the British penal colony that became the city of Sydney, Australia. After much experience at sea, Phillip sailed with the First Fleet as Governor-designate of the proposed British penal colony of New South Wales. In January 1788, he selected its location to be Port Jackson. Phillip was a far-sighted governor who soon saw that New South Wales would need a civil administration and a system for emancipating the convicts, but his plan to bring skilled tradesmen on the voyage had been rejected, he faced immense problems of labour and supply. His friendly attitude towards Aboriginal people was sorely tested when they killed his gamekeeper, he was not able to assert a clear policy about them; the arrival of the Second and Third Fleets placed new pressures on the scarce local resources, but by the time Phillip sailed home in December 1792, the colony was taking shape, with official land-grants and systematic farming and water-supply.
Phillip retired in 1805, but continued to correspond with his friends in New South Wales and to promote the colony's interests. Captain Arthur Phillip was born on 11 October 1738, the youngest of two children to Jacob Phillip and Elizabeth Breach, his father Jacob was born in Germany. He was a languages teacher who may have served in the Royal Navy as an able seaman and purser's steward, his mother Elizabeth was the widow of an ordinary seaman, John Herbert, who had served in Jamaica aboard HMS Tartar and died of disease on 13 August 1732. At the time of Arthur Phillip's birth, his family maintained a modest existence as tenants near Cheapside in the City of London. There are no surviving records of Phillip's early childhood, his father Jacob died in 1739. On 22 June 1751 he was accepted into the Greenwich Hospital School, a charity school for the sons of indigent seafarers. In keeping with the school's curriculum, his education was focused on literacy and navigational skills, including cartography.
He was a competent something of a perfectionist. His headmaster, Reverend Francis Swinden observed that in personality, Phillip was "unassuming, business-like to the smallest degree in everything he undertakes". Phillip remained at the Greenwich School for two and a half years longer than the average student stay of twelve months. At the end of 1753 he was granted a seven-year indenture as an apprentice aboard Fortune, a 210-ton whaling vessel commanded by merchant mariner Wiliam Readhead, he left the Greenwich School on 1 December and spent the winter aboard the Fortune awaiting the commencement of the 1754 whaling season. Phillip spent the summer of 1754 hunting whales near Svalbard in the Barents Sea; as an apprentice, his responsibilities included stripping blubber from whale carcasses and helping to pack it into barrels. Food was scarce and Fortune's thirty crew members supplemented their diet with bird's eggs, scurvy grass and where possible, reindeer; the ship returned to England on 20 July 1754.
The whaling crew were paid off and replaced with twelve sailors for a winter voyage to the Mediterranean. As an apprentice, Phillip remained aboard as Fortune undertook an outward trading voyage to Barcelona and Livorno carrying salt and raisins, returning via Rotterdam with a cargo of grains and citrus; the ship returned to England in April 1755 and sailed for Svalbard for that year's whale hunt. Phillip was still a member of the crew, but abandoned his apprenticeship when the ship returned to England on 27 July. On 16 October he enlisted in the Royal Navy and was assigned the rank of ordinary seaman aboard the 68-gun HMS Buckingham; as a member of Buckingham's crew, Phillip saw action in the Seven Years' War, including the Battle of Minorca in 1756. By 1762 he had transferred to HMS Stirling Castle, was promoted to Lieutenant in recognition of active service in the Battle of Havana; the War ended in 1763 and Phillip returned to England on half pay. In July 1763 he married Margaret Denison, a widow 16 years his senior, moved to Glasshayes in Lyndhurst, establishing a farm there.
The marriage was unhappy, the couple separated in 1769 when Phillip returned to the Navy. The following year he was posted as second lieutenant aboard HMS Egmont, a newly built 74-gun ship of the line. In 1774 Phillip joined the Portuguese Navy as a captain. While with the Portuguese Navy, Phillip commanded a frigate, the Nossa Senhora do Pilar. On this ship he took a detachment of troops from Rio de Janeiro to Colonia do Sacramento on the Rio de la Plata to relieve the garrison there; this voyage conveyed a consignment of convicts assigned to carry out work at Colonia. During a storm encountered in the course of the voyage, the convicts assisted in working the ship and, on arrival at Colonia, Phillip recommended that they be rewarded for saving the ship by remission of their sentences. A garbled version of this found its way into the English press when Phillip was appointed in 1786 to lead the expedition to Sydney. Phillip played a leading part in the capture of the Spanish ship San Agustín, on 19 April 1777, off Santa Catarina.
The San Agustin was commissioned into the Portuguese Navy as the Santo Agostinho, command of her was given to Phillip. The action was reported in the English press: Madrid, Aug. 28. Letters from Lisbon bring the following Account from Rio Janeiro: That the St. Augustine, of 70 Guns, having been separated from the Squadron of M. Casa Tilly, was attacked by two Portugueze Ships, against which they defended themselves for a Day and a Night, but b
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright reddish yellow, soft and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element, it is solid under standard conditions. Gold occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, in alluvial deposits, it occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less it occurs in minerals as gold compounds with tellurium. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. A rare element, gold is a precious metal, used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015; the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine; as of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, stretched about twice before it breaks; such nanowires distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent; the transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3 identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3. By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is reddish-yellow; this color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.
Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less addition of manganese, aluminium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red. Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, its only occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171Au. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, β+ decay; the exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, 196Au, which decays most by electron capture with a minor β− decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay. At least 32 nuclear isomers have been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric