Lewis Niles Black is an American stand-up comedian, playwright, social critic and actor. He is best known for his angry demeanour and belligerent comedic style, in which he simulates having a mental breakdown, his comedy routines escalate into angry rants about history, religion, or any other cultural trends. He hosted the Comedy Central series Lewis Black's Root of All Evil and makes regular appearances on The Daily Show with Trevor Noah delivering his "Back in Black" commentary segment, which he has been doing since The Daily Show was hosted by Craig Kilborn; when not on the road performing, Black resides in Manhattan, but maintains a residence in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. He is a spokesman for the Aruba Tourism Authority, appearing in television ads that first aired in late 2009 and 2010, as well as the voice of Anger in 2015's Pixar film, Inside Out, he was voted 51st of the 100 greatest stand-up comedians of all time by Comedy Central in 2004. Black has served as an "ambassador for voting rights" for the American Civil Liberties Union, since 2013.
Black was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Jeannette, a teacher, Sam Black, an artist and mechanical engineer. He was raised in a middle-class Jewish family in Silver Spring, graduating from Springbrook High School in 1966. Black recounts in his book Nothing's Sacred that he scored on the math section of his SAT exam and applied to Yale, Brown, Amherst and Georgetown; every college he applied to except Georgetown rejected him, by that point he had decided he did not want to go there, so he spent a year at University of Maryland before transferring to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. There, he studied playwriting and was a brother of Pi Lambda Phi International fraternity and a member of Student Congress. After graduating in 1970, he returned to Washington, where he worked at the Appalachian Regional Commission, wrote plays, performed stand-up comedy at the Brickskeller in Dupont Circle, he earned an MFA degree at the Yale School of Drama in 1977, was married for ten months when he was 26 years old.
Black's career began in theater as a playwright. He served as the playwright-in-residence and associate artistic director of Steve Olsen's West Bank Cafe Downstairs Theatre Bar in Hell's Kitchen in New York City, where he collaborated with composer and lyricist Rusty Magee and artistic director Rand Foerster on hundreds of one-act plays from 1981 to 1989. With Rusty Magee, Black wrote the musical The Czar of Rock and Roll, which premiered at Houston's Alley Theatre in 1990. Black's stand-up comedy began as an opening act for the plays. After a management change at the theater, Black left and began working as a comedian, as well as finding bit parts in television and films. Black's style of comedy is that of a man who, in dealing with the absurdities of life and contemporary politics, is approaching his personal limits of sanity, his techniques include sarcasm, profanity and his trademark angry finger-shaking, which bring emphasis to his topics of discussion. He once described his humor as "being on the Titanic every single day and being the only person who knows what is going to happen."Black has described his political affiliation as: "I'm a socialist, so that puts me outside any concept...the Canadians get it.
But most people don't get it. The idea of capping people's income just scares people.'Oh, you're taking money from the rich.' Ooh, what a horrifying thing. These people need $200 million". Black lists his comedic influences as George Carlin, Lenny Bruce, Richard Pryor, Lily Tomlin, Bill Hicks, Bob Newhart and Shelley Berman. In 1998, Black starred in his first comedy special on the series Comedy Central Presents, he starred in two additional episodes of the series in 2000 and 2002. He starred in another special for the network in 2002, titled Taxed Beyond Belief. In 2004 and 2005, Black hosted the World Stupidity Awards ceremony at Montreal's Just for Laughs comedy festival. In 2004, he had an HBO stand-up special titled Black on Broadway. Black hosted Comedy Central's Last Laugh'07, which aired on December 2, 2007 along with Dave Attell and D. L. Hughley. In 2006, Black performed at the Warner Theatre in Washington, D. C. for an HBO special, Red and Screwed. It aired in June and a DVD was released in October.
When explaining his choice of venue, Black said that "some asshole" was paid to count the number of times the word "fuck" was said in his previous HBO special, Black On Broadway, that the original location, the Kennedy Center, wanted him to cut back on its use. Black was told the number was 42, when it was 78. Black received a 2007 Grammy award for "Best Comedy Album" for his album The Carnegie Hall Performance. Black hosted the Comedy Central television series The Root of All Evil in 2008; the show pitted two people or pop-culture topics against each other as a panel of comedians argued, in the style of a court trial, more evil, e.g. "Paris Hilton vs. Dick Cheney" and "Internet Porn vs. YouTube". After hearing arguments from both sides, acting as judge, made the final decision as to, more evil. In 2008, Black hosted History of the Joke with Lewis Black, a 2-hour comedy-documentary on The History Channel. Comedy Central's "Stand-Up Month" in 2008 featured specials presented on HBO by Black, along with programs featuring Dane Cook and Chris Rock.
That year, as part of Comedy Central's "Stand-Up Month", Black's routine finished at #5 on "Stand-Up Showdown 2008", a viewer-based countdown of the top Comedy Central Presents routine. In 2009, Black filmed two s
Anna Jane Jackson was an American actress of stage and television. She was the wife of actor Eli Wallach, with whom she co-starred. In 1956, she was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for her performance in Paddy Chayefsky's Middle of the Night. In 1963, she won an Obie Award for Best Actress for her performance in two Off-Broadway plays, The Typists and The Tiger. Jackson was born in Millvale, Pennsylvania in 1925, the daughter of Stella Germaine and John Ivan Jackson, a barber who ran a beauty parlor, she was the youngest of three children, after Catherine, eight years older, Beatrice, three years older. Her year of birth had been misreported for years as 1926, the year. Jackson's mother was of Irish Catholic descent and her father, whose original name was Ivan Jchekovitch, had emigrated from Croatia in 1918, her family moved to New York when she was eight years old. She attended Franklin K. Lane High School. In New York, Jackson trained at The Actor's Studio, she made her Broadway debut in 1945.
Her theater credits included Summer and Smoke and the Man, The Waltz of the Toreadors, Mr. Peters' Connections and Lost in Yonkers. Jackson's screen credits include The Tiger Makes Out, The Secret Life of an American Wife, How to Save a Marriage and Ruin Your Life and Other Strangers, Dirty Dingus Magee, Folks!, The Shining. Her many television appearances include Armstrong Circle Theatre, Academy Theatre, The Philco Television Playhouse, Studio One, The Untouchables, The Defenders, Marcus Welby, M. D. Rhoda, The Facts of Life, Highway to Heaven, Law & Order, ER, she narrated Stellaluna on an episode of the PBS series Reading Rainbow. In March 2017, the Harry Ransom Center announced the acquisition of Anne Jackson's archive along with her husband's, it will be made available to the public. Jackson was married to actor Eli Wallach, with whom she acted from March 5, 1948, until his death on June 24, 2014, they had three children, Peter and Roberta. Her marriage to Wallach was one of the most successful in the industry.
She taught at the HB Studio in Manhattan, continued to act in cameo roles. Jackson died at her home in Manhattan on April 12, 2016, aged 90. Anne Jackson on IMDb Anne Jackson at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Anne Jackson's papers at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection
Chita Rivera is an American actress and singer best known for her roles in musical theatre. She is the first Hispanic woman and the first Latino American to receive a Kennedy Center Honors award, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009. Rivera was born Dolores Conchita Figueroa del Rivero in Washington, D. C. the daughter of Katherine, a government clerk, Pedro Julio Figueroa del Rivero, a clarinetist and saxophonist for the United States Navy Band. Her father was Puerto Rican, her mother was of Scottish and Italian descent. Rivera was seven years old when her mother went to work at The Pentagon. In 1944, Rivera's mother enrolled her in the Jones-Haywood School of Ballet; when she was 15, a teacher from George Balanchine's School of American Ballet visited their studio. Rivera's audition was successful, she was accepted into the school and given a scholarship. In 1951, Rivera accompanied a friend to the audition for the touring company of Call Me Madam and ended up winning the role herself.
She followed this by landing roles in other Broadway productions such as Dolls and Can-Can. In 1957, she was cast in the role, destined to make her a Broadway star, the firebrand Anita in West Side Story.. Rivera starred in a national tour of Can-Can and played the role of Nickie in the film adaptation of Sweet Charity with Shirley MacLaine. On December 1, 1957, Rivera married dancer Tony Mordente, her performance was so important for the success of the show that the London production of West Side Story was postponed until she gave birth to the couple's daughter Lisa. In 1960, Rivera created the role of Rose in the Broadway smash Bye Bye Birdie, she won raves for her performance, but was passed over for the film version where the role was played by Janet Leigh. In 1963, Rivera was cast opposite Alfred Drake in Zenda; the Broadway-bound musical closed on the road. In 1975 she appeared as Velma Kelly in the original cast of the musical Chicago. In 1984 she starred in the musical The Rink with Liza Minnelli and won her first Tony Award for her role as Anna.
In 1986, while performing in the Jerry Herman musical, Jerry's Girls, Rivera was in a severe accident when her car collided with a taxi on West 86th Street in Manhattan. Injuries sustained included the breaking of her left leg in twelve places, requiring eighteen screws and two braces to mend. After rehabilitation, Rivera continued to perform on stage. Miraculously revitalized, in 1988, she endeavored in a restaurant venture in partnership with the novelist, Daniel Simone; the eatery, located on 42nd Street between 9th and 10th Avenue, was named ` Chita' after her. It soon became a significant attraction for the after-theater crowds and remained open until 1994. In addition to her ballet instructors, Rivera credited Leonard Bernstein and Gwen Verdon, with whom she starred in Chicago, as being people from whom she learned a great deal, she appeared as Fastrada in a filmed-for-television version of the musical Pippin in 1981. In 1993, she received a Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical for her portrayal of Aurora in the musical Kiss of the Spider Woman, written by Kander and Ebb.
Rivera starred in the Goodman Theatre production of the musical The Visit as Claire Zachanassian in 2001. In 2008 she appeared in a revised production of the musical at the Signature Theatre in Arlington, Virginia, co-starring George Hearn. In 2003, Rivera returned to Broadway in the 2003 revival of Nine as Liliane La Fleur, received her eighth career Tony Award nomination and fourth Drama Desk Award nomination, she appeared with Antonio Banderas. She appeared on the revival's cast album. On television, Rivera was a guest on The Judy Garland Show, she guest-starred along with Michele Lee in a February 2005 episode of Will & Grace, in December of that year, Chita Rivera: The Dancer's Life, a retrospective of her career, opened on Broadway. She received another Tony nomination for her self-portrayal. Though she was expected to reprise her role in a Signature Theatre staging of The Visit in autumn of 2007, postponed to the following season. Instead, she performed at New York's Feinstein's At The Regency supper club in New York for two weeks.
Rivera performed in a staged concert of The Visit as a benefit at the Ambassador Theatre on November 30, 2011. Rivera made a cameo appearance in the 2002 movie version of Chicago. Rivera guest-starred on the Sprites as Queen of All Magical Beings; the episode debuted on March 15, 2008. In August 2009, US President Barack Obama awarded Rivera with the Presidential Medal of FreedomIn the 1960s Rivera had recorded two albums, Chita Rivera: Get Me To The Church On Time and And Now I Sing; these early 1960s albums will be reissued on CD by Stage Door Records in February 2013. In November 2008, Rivera released her third solo album. Rivera performed on The Carol Burnett Show. Show #422. Original air date February 22, 1971. In 2012, Rivera played "Princess Puffer" in the new Broadway revival of The Mystery of Edwin Drood at Studio 54, she was the Grand Marshal of the Puerto Rican Day Parade in New York City on June 9, 2013. Rivera returned to Broadway in The Visit, the final musical written by John Kander, Fred Ebb and Terrence McNally.
The musical opened at the Lyceum Theatre on March 26, 2015 and closed on June 14, 2015
Amy Davis Irving is an American actress of film and television. Her accolades include an Obie Award, two Golden Globe Award nominations, one Academy Award nomination. Born in Palo Alto, California to actors Jules Irving and Priscilla Pointer, Irving spent her early life in San Francisco before her family relocated to New York City during her teenage years. In New York, she made her Broadway debut in The Country Wife at age 13. Irving subsequently studied theater at San Francisco's American Conservatory Theatre and at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art before making her feature film debut in Brian De Palma's Carrie, followed by a lead role in the 1978 supernatural thriller The Fury. In 1980, Irving appeared in a Broadway production of Amadeus before being cast in Yentl, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. In 1988, she received an Obie Award for her Off-Broadway performance in a production of The Road to Mecca, was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her performance in the comedy Crossing Delancey.
Irving went on to appear in the original Broadway production of Broken Glass and the revival of Three Sisters. In film, she starred in the ensemble comedy Deconstructing Harry, reprised her role in The Rage: Carrie 2 before co-starring opposite Michael Douglas in Steven Soderbergh's crime-drama Traffic, she subsequently appeared in the independent films Thirteen Conversations About Adam. From 2006–2007, she starred in the Broadway production of The Coast of Utopia. In 2018, she reunited with Soderbergh. Irving was born on September 1953 in Palo Alto, California, her father was film and stage director Jules Irving and her mother is actress Priscilla Pointer. Her brother is writer and director David Irving and her sister, Katie Irving, is a singer and teacher of deaf children. Irving's father was of Russian-Jewish descent, as was one of Irving's maternal great-great-grandfathers. Irving was raised in Christian Science, her family observed no religious traditions, she spent her early life in San Francisco, where her father co-founded the Actor's Workshop, where she was active in local theater as a child.
She attended the American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco in the late 1960s and early 1970s, appeared in several productions there. She trained at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art; as a teenager, Irving relocated with her family to New York City, where her father was appointed the director of the Lincoln Center Repertory Theater. There, Irving graduated from the Professional Children's School, she made her Off-Broadway debut at age 17 in And Chocolate on Her Chin. Irving's first stage appearance was at 9 months old in the production "Rumplestiltskin" where her father brought her on the stage to play the part of his child who he trades for spun gold. At age 2, she portrayed a bit-part character in a play which her father directed, she had a walk-on role in the 1965-66 Broadway show The Country Wife at age 12. Her character was to sell a hamster to Stacy Keach in a crowd scene; the play was directed by family friend Robert Symonds, the owner/operator of Lincoln Center, who became her stepfather after her father died and her mother remarried.
Within six months of returning to Los Angeles from London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art in the mid-1970s, Irving was cast in a major motion picture and was working on various TV projects such as guest spots in Police Woman, Happy Days, a lead role in the mini-series epic Once an Eagle opposite veterans Sam Elliott and Glenn Ford, a young Melanie Griffith. She played Juliet in Romeo and Juliet at the Los Angeles Free Shakespeare Theatre in 1975, returned to the role at the Seattle Repertory Theatre. Irving auditioned for the role of Princess Leia in Star Wars, she starred in the Brian DePalma-directed films The Fury as Gillian Bellaver, Carrie as Sue Snell. In 1999 she reprised her role as Sue Snell in "The Rage: Carrie 2", she starred with Richard Dreyfuss in 1980 in The Competition. In 1980 she appeared in Honeysuckle Rose which marked her on-screen singing debut. Both her and Dyan Cannon's characters were country-and-western singers, both actresses did their own singing in the film. In 1983 she featured in Barbra Streisand's directorial debut, for which she received an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress.
In 1984 she co-starred in Micki + Maude, In 1988 she was in Susan Sandler's Crossing Delancey. That same year, she gave another singing performance in the live-action/animated film Who Framed Roger Rabbit, providing the singing voice for Jessica Rabbit. In 1997 she appeared in Woody Allen's Deconstructing Harry. Irving appeared in the TV show Alias as Emily Sloane, portrayed Princess Anjuli in the big-budget miniseries epic The Far Pavilions and headlined the lavish TV production Anastasia: The Mystery of Anna. More Irving appeared in the films Traffic, Tuck Everlasting, Thirteen Conversations About One Thing and an episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit in 2001. Irving's stage work includes on-Broadway shows such as Amadeus at the Broadhurst Theatre for nine months, Heartbreak House with Rex Harrison at the Circle in the Square Theatre, Broken Glass at the Booth Theatre and Three Sisters with Jeanne Tripplehorn and Lili Taylor at the Roundabout Theatre. Additional Off-Broadway cre
Arthur Laurents was an American playwright, stage director and screenwriter. After writing scripts for radio shows after college and training films for the U. S. Army during World War II, Laurents turned to writing for Broadway, producing a body of work that includes West Side Story and Hallelujah, Baby!, directing some of his own shows and other Broadway productions. His early film scripts include Rope for Alfred Hitchcock, followed by Anastasia, Bonjour Tristesse, The Way We Were, The Turning Point. Born Arthur Levine, Laurents was the son of middle-class Jewish parents, a lawyer and a schoolteacher who gave up her career when she married, he was born and raised in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn, a borough of New York City, New York, the elder of two children, attended Erasmus Hall High School. His sister Edith suffered from chorea as a child, his paternal grandparents were Orthodox Jews, his mother's parents, although born Jewish, were atheists. His mother kept a kosher home for her husband's sake, but was lax about attending synagogue and observing the Jewish holidays.
His Bar Mitzvah marked the end of Laurents's religious education and the beginning of his rejection of all fundamentalist religions, although he continued to identify himself as Jewish. However, late in life he admitted to having changed his last name from Levine to the less Jewish-sounding Laurents, "to get a job."After graduating from Cornell University, Laurents took an evening class in radio writing at New York University. William N. Robson, his instructor, a CBS Radio director/producer, submitted his script Now Playing Tomorrow, a comedic fantasy about clairvoyance, to the network, it was produced in the Columbia Workshop series on January 30, 1939, with Shirley Booth in the lead role, it was Laurents' first professional credit. The show's success led to him being hired to write scripts for various radio shows, among them Lux Radio Theater. Laurents' career was interrupted when he was drafted into the U. S. Army in the middle of World War II. Through a series of clerical errors, he never saw battle, but instead was assigned to the U.
S. Army Pictorial Service located in a film studio in Astoria, where he wrote training films and met, among others, George Cukor and William Holden, he was reassigned to write plays for Armed Service Force Presents, a radio show that dramatized the contributions of all branches of the armed forces. According to John Clum, "Laurents was always a mirror of his times. Through his best work, one sees a staged history of leftist and gay politics in the decades after World War II." After graduating from Cornell University in 1937, Laurents went to work as a writer for radio drama at CBS in New York. His military duties during World War II, which consisted of writing training films and radio scripts for Armed Service Force Presents, brought him into contact with some of the best film directors—distinguished director George Cukor directed his first script. Laurents's work in radio and film during World War II was an excellent apprenticeship for a budding playwright and screenwriter, he had the good fortune to be based in New York City.
His first stage play, Home of the Brave, was produced in 1945. The sale of the play to a film studio gave Laurents the entrée he needed to become a Hollywood screenwriter though he continued, with mixed success, to write plays; the most important of his early screenplays is his adaptation of Rope for Alfred Hitchcock. Soon after being discharged from the Army, Laurents met ballerina Nora Kaye, the two became involved in an on-again, off-again romantic relationship. While Kaye was on tour with Fancy Free, Laurents continued to write for the radio but was becoming discontented with the medium. At the urging of Martin Gabel, he spent nine consecutive nights writing a play In 1962, Laurents directed I Can Get It for You Wholesale, which helped to turn then-unknown Barbra Streisand into a star, his next project was the stage musical Anyone Can Whistle, which he directed and for which he wrote the book, but it proved to be an infamous flop. He had success with the musicals Hallelujah, Baby! and La Cage Aux Folles, which he directed, however Nick & Nora was not successful.
In 2008, Laurents directed a Broadway revival of Gypsy starring Patti LuPone, in 2009, he tackled a bilingual revival of West Side Story, with Spanish translations of some dialogue and lyrics by Lin-Manuel Miranda. While preparing West Side Story, he noted, "The musical theatre and cultural conventions of 1957 made it next to impossible for the characters to have authenticity." Following the production's March 19 opening at the Palace Theatre, Ben Brantley of The New York Times called the translations "an only successful experiment" and added, "Mr. Laurents has exchanged insolence for innocence and, as with most such bargains, there are dividends and losses." The national tour was directed by David Saint, Laurents' assistant director on the Broadway production. The Spanish lyrics and dialog were reduced from about 18% of the total to about 10%. Laurents' first Hollywood experience proved to be a frustrating disappointment. Director Anatole Litvak, unhappy with the script submitted by Frank Partos and Millen Brand for The Snake Pit, hired Laurents to rewrite it.
Partos and Brand insisted the bulk of the shooting script was theirs, produced carbon copies of many of the pages Laurents had written to bolster their claim. Having destroyed the original script and all his notes and rewritten pages after completing the project, Laurents had no way to prove most of the work was his, the Writers Guild of America denied him scre
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Proof is a 2000 play by the American playwright David Auburn. Proof was developed at George Street Playhouse in New Brunswick, New Jersey, during the 1999 Next Stage Series of new plays; the play premiered Off-Broadway in May 2000 and transferred to Broadway in October 2000. The play won the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for the Tony Award for Best Play; the play concerns Catherine, the daughter of Robert, a deceased mathematical genius in his fifties and professor at the University of Chicago, her struggle with mathematical genius and mental illness. Catherine had cared for her father through a lengthy mental illness. Upon Robert's death, his ex-graduate student Hal discovers a paradigm-shifting proof about prime numbers in Robert's office; the title refers both to that proof and to the play's central question: Can Catherine prove the proof's authorship? Along with demonstrating the proof's authenticity, the daughter finds herself in a relationship with 28-year-old Hal. Throughout, the play explores Catherine's fear of following in her father's footsteps, both mathematically and mentally and her desperate attempts to stay in control.
Act IThe play opens with Catherine sitting alone in the backyard of her old house. Robert, her father, approaches her with a bottle of champagne to celebrate her 25th birthday. Catherine complains that she hasn't done any worthwhile work in the field of mathematics, at least not to the same level as her father, a well-known math genius, he reassures her that she can still do good work as long as she stops lying in bed till all hours and wasting time reading magazines. Catherine confesses, he begins to comfort her but alludes to a "bad sign" when he points out that he is, in fact, dead. He died a week ago. Robert disappears, she awakens when one of Robert's students, exits the house. He's been studying the hundreds of notebooks Robert left behind after his death, looking for any work that could be published. Catherine assures him that the notebooks are filled with scribbles and nonsense since her father wrote them when he was at his most delusional. Hal, attempting to flirt, invites her to go see his band that night.
Catherine becomes suspicious of him and demands to see. She roots through it to find nothing but becomes infuriated when a notebook falls out of Hal's jacket, she dials the police while accusing him of trying to steal her father's work and pass it off as his own. He admits that he was sneaking it away but only to give it back to her as a birthday present, he opens to a page. In it, Robert writes it's a "good day" and thanks to Catherine for taking care of him and expresses hope for the future. Hal leaves Catherine with the notebook, she begins to cry. The next day Claire, Catherine's sister who just flew in from New York, is setting up a large brunch for them in the backyard. Catherine enters and Claire tries to goad her into idle chitchat as Catherine seethes. Claire declares she's getting married and invites Catherine to stay with her and her fiance in New York. Catherine assures her she'll come in January for the wedding, but Claire keeps pressing her to go earlier; when Catherine demands to know why Claire is inundating her with questions, Claire tells her the police came over earlier to check in on Catherine.
Catherine admits to calling the police the previous night and tries to explain her altercation with Hal but only ends up sounding unhinged to the dubious Claire. Hal asks to continue his work sorting the notebooks. Catherine lets him inside and Claire drops a hint for Catherine to try flirting with Hal by offering a bagel. Catherine storms into the house; that night, after the funeral, Claire holds a party in the house for her friends as well as Hal and Robert's students. Catherine escapes to the porch where Hal offers her a beer. Hal confesses that he's not so sure about his own mathematical abilities since he considers math to be a "young man's game". Catherine tries to reassure him with a quote from Gauss. Hal responds by kissing her, much to Catherine's surprise, he apologizes for trying to steal the notebook and she apologizes for calling the police. They kiss again and Hal asks Catherine if she remembers meeting him years earlier, she says she does and recalls she thought he was "not boring".
They continue to kiss. The next morning Catherine sits outside. Hal exits the house and tells her he'd like to spend the rest of the day with her. Catherine tells him to look inside, he goes into the house. A moment Claire comes into the backyard hungover. Catherine, now in a good mood, tries to make nice with Claire. Claire takes the opportunity to continue to push Catherine to moving to New York. Catherine asks why she would move to New York to which Claire confesses that she's selling the house. Catherine becomes enraged at the idea and she accuses Claire of abandoning her to take care of their sick father alone. Claire insists that the reason she did so was to keep working to pay for the house as well as Catherine's education. Catherine reveals that she had to quit school to tend to Robert and accuses Claire of trying to have her committed. Claire admits that she's researched doctors and facilities for Catherine but insists that she wasn't planning on having her committed. In the middle of the row, Hal appears clutching a notebook containing his excitement.
He tells Claire that Catherine is in possession of one of Robert's notebooks which holds a important proof. Claire asks Catherine where she found it and Catherine tells them she didn't find it, she wrote it. Act IIWe flashback