A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort. In Scotland it refers to flats divided horizontally in an established building type, including desirable properties in affluent ares, but in other countries the term refers to a run-down apartment building or slum building. In parts of England Devon and Cornwall, the word refers to an outshot, or additional projecting part at the back of a terraced house with its own roof; the term tenement referred to tenancy and therefore to any rented accommodation. The New York State legislature defined it in the Tenement House Act of 1867 in terms of rental occupancy by multiple households, as Any house, building, or portion thereof, rented, let, or hired out to be occupied or is occupied, as the home or residence of more than three families living independently of one another and doing their own cooking upon the premises, or by more than two families upon a floor, so living and cooking and having a common right in the halls, yards, water-closets, or privies, or some of them.
In Scotland, it continues to be the most common word for a multiple-occupancy building, but elsewhere it is used as a pejorative in contrast to apartment building or block of flats. Tenement houses were either adapted or built for the working class as cities industrialized, came to be contrasted with middle-class apartment houses, which started to become fashionable in the 19th century. Late-19th-century social reformers in the US were hostile to both tenements and apartment houses; as the United States industrialized during the 19th century and workers from the countryside were housed in former middle-class houses and other buildings, such as warehouses, which were bought up and divided into small dwellings. Beginning as early as the 1830s in New York City's Lower East Side or the 1820s on Mott Street, three- and four-story buildings were converted into "railroad flats," so called because the rooms were linked together like the cars of a train, with windowless internal rooms; the adapted buildings were known as "rookeries," and these were a particular concern, as they were prone to collapse and fire.
Mulberry Bend and Five Points were the sites of notorious rookeries that the city worked for decades to clear. In both rookeries and purpose-built tenements, communal water taps and water closets were squeezed into the small open spaces between buildings. In parts of the Lower East Side, buildings were older and had courtyards occupied by machine shops and other businesses; such tenements were prevalent in New York, where in 1865 a report stated that 500,000 people lived in unhealthy tenements, whereas in Boston in 1845, less than a quarter of workers were housed in tenements. One reason New York had so many tenements was the large numbers of immigrants. Prior to 1867, tenements covered more than 90 percent of the lot, were five or six stories high, had 18 rooms per floor, of which only two received direct sunlight. Yards were a few feet wide and filled with privies. Interior rooms were unventilated. Early in the 19th century, many of the poor were housed in cellars, which became less sanitary after the Croton Aqueduct brought running water to wealthier New Yorkers: the reduction in well use caused the water table to rise, the cellar dwellings flooded.
Early housing reformers urged the construction of tenements to replace cellars, beginning in 1859 the number of people living in cellars began to decline. The Tenement House Act of 1867, the state legislature's first comprehensive legislation on housing conditions, prohibited cellar apartments unless the ceiling was 1 foot above street level; this was amended by the Tenement House Act of 1879, known as the Old Law, which required lot coverage of no more than 65 percent. As of 1869, New York State law defined a “tenement house” as “any house or building, or portion thereof, rented, leased let or hired out, to be occupied, or is occupied as the home or residence of three families or more living independently of each other, doing their cooking upon the premises, or by more than two families upon any floor, so living and cooking, but having a right in the halls, yards, water-closets or privies, or some of them.” L 1867, ch 908. The New York City Board of Health was empowered to enforce these regulations, but it declined to do so.
As a compromise, the "Old Law tenement" became the standard: this had a "dumbbell" shape, with air and light shafts on either side in the center, it covered 80 percent of the lot. James E. Ware is credited with the design. Public concern about New York tenements was stirred by publication in 1890 of Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives, in 1892 by Riis's The Children of the Poor; the New York State Assembly Tenement House Committee report of 1894 surveyed 8,000 buildings with 255,000 residents and found New York to be the most densely populated city in the world, at an average of 143 people per acre, with part of the Lower East Side havin
South Australian Legislative Council
The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. Its central purpose is to act as a house of review for legislation passed through the lower house, the House of Assembly, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The upper house has 22 members elected for eight-year terms by proportional representation, with 11 members facing re-election every four years, it is elected in a similar manner to the Australian Senate. Casual vacancies—where a member resigns or dies—are filled by a joint sitting of both houses, who elect a replacement; the Legislative Council was the first parliament in South Australia, having been created in 1840, seventeen years before the Assembly. It was appointed by the Governor, only served in an advisory capacity, as the governor retained all legislative powers, it was expanded in 1843, when several prominent landowners were allowed to join. In the same year, proceedings were opened to the general public. Public demand for some form of representative government had been growing throughout the 1840s, this was reflected in a series of reforms in 1851, which created a representative Legislative Council.
After the changes, it consisted of 24 members, four official and four non-official members, both nominated by the governor on behalf of the Crown, 16 elected members. The right to vote for these positions was not universal, being limited to propertied men. In addition, the reforms meant that the Governor no longer oversaw proceedings, with the role being filled by a Speaker, elected by the members. In 1856, the Legislative Council prepared what was to become the 1857 Constitution of South Australia; this laid out the means for true self-government, created a bicameral system, which involved delegating most of its legislative powers to the new House of Assembly. While all adult males could vote in the new Assembly, the Council continued to limit voting rights to the wealthier classes; the entire province was a single electorate for the Legislative Council, electing 18 members. In 1882, the Legislative Council was increased to 24 members by the a special election brought on by the Constitution Act Further Amendment Act 1881, the Province was divided into four districts which each elected six members: Central, North-Eastern and Southern districts.
Women earned the right to vote in the Council at the same time as the Assembly, in 1895, the first Parliament in Australia to do so, under the radical Premier Charles Kingston. In 1902, following the Federation of Australia, the Constitution Act Amendment Act, 1901 reduced the size of the legislative council from 24 back to 18 members - 6 from Central District and four each from Northern, North-Eastern and Southern districts. North-Eastern District was replaced by Midland District from the 1910 election, the restricted franchise was extended to include ministers of religion, school head teachers, railway stationmasters, the officer in charge of a police station. In 1913 the franchise extended to the inhabitant occupier of a house and the council expanded to 20 people, four from each of five districts, with the Central district being replaced by Central District No. 1 and Central District No. 2. "Contingency voting", a form of preferences, was introduced from 1930. The council had its purpose in replicating the British House of Lords as a restricted'house of review' in a colonial context.
When the Province of South Australia received its original constitution in 1857, it was the most democratic in the British Empire, combining a universal-suffrage lower house, with a restricted-suffrage upper house. The purpose of the Legislative Council was, as with the 19th century House of Lords, to safeguard the "longer term interests of the nation rather than just reacting to short term ephemeral issues of the day"; the council's numbers have varied. From inception to 1902 it had 24 members; the electoral districts were drawn to favour regional areas with a 2:1 bias in place, with half of the council being elected each time. From 1915 to 1975, Labor did not gain more than two members at each election, with the conservative parties always holding a sizeable majority. From 1975, the Council was increased with half to be elected at each election; the conservative members in the council were independent, differed markedly from their counterparts in the House of Assembly. During the long reign of Liberal and Country League Premier Sir Thomas Playford, they would prove to be an irritant, Labor support was sometimes required for bills to pass.
When a Labor government was elected in 1965 and began introducing social legislation, anathema to LCL councillors, they would delay and modify such bills. The councillors, saw their actions necessary to "oppose... radical moves that I feel would not be in the permanent will of the people." The House of Assembly contained some progressive Liberals, its membership would abide by the party line. The council contained none, its members rebelled against the decisions of the party leadership and the popular will of the people. After electoral legislation had been implemented in 1967 by Steele Hall that produced a fairer electoral system for the House of Assembly, the council remained unchanged, it was only in 1973 under Don Dunstan that changes were made. Dunstan, a social reformist, tired of the co
Nepean Bay is a bay located on the north-east coast of Kangaroo Island in the Australian state of South Australia about 130 kilometres south-south-west of Adelaide. It was named by the British navigator, Matthew Flinders, after Sir Evan Nepean on 21 March 1802. Nepean Bay lies between Point Marsden and Kangaroo Head on the north-east coast of Kangaroo Island facing into Investigator Strait. Nepean Bay itself includes the following coastal inlets from west to east - Bay of Shoals, Western Cove and Eastern Cove. Eastern Cove itself includes an inlet consisting of a channel known as American River and a lagoon system known as Pelican Lagoon; the Bay of Shoals is a body of water, located north of the settlement of Kingscote and whose mouth is located between Cape Rouge in the north and Beatrice Point in the south over a distance of about 5 kilometres. The bay has a maximum charted depth of 2.7 metres. Its mouth is bounded by a spit known as'The Spit' which extends from Cape Rouge to within 0.5 nautical miles of Beatrice Point, includes the islets of Busby and Beatrice and is reported as being exposed during local tides, i.e. ‘drying.’ Access for watercraft into the bay is via a natural channel at its southern end near Beatrice Point.
Kingscote Harbour is the sheltered water between Bay of Western Cove. The harbour is sheltered by the Beatrice Islets, it faces the northern part of the town of Kingscote. Western Cove is a body of water whose mouth is located between Beare Point in the west and Morrison Point in the east separated by a distance of about 8 nautical miles; the cove has a maximum depth of about 10 metres at its mouth. Its shoreline is described as:The S shore, between Morrison Point and a red cliffy point about 3 miles W, is high and rocky. A range of wooded hills along the S shore falls to the W. Red cliffs extend about 1.5 miles W from the red cliffy point, from there to the head of the cove is a continuous sandy beach. The land at the head of the cove is low and swampy and continues so to Beare Point… Eastern Cove is the body of water whose mouth is located between Morrison Point in the west and Kangaroo Head in the east separated by a distance of about 6 nautical miles; the cove has a maximum depth of 14 metres at its mouth.
Its shoreline is described as: The shore of Eastern Cove, between Kangaroo Head and American Beach, 2.5 miles S, is rugged and rocky. Between the SW end of American Beach and Rocky Point, it consists of alternate beaches and low, rocky points. A sandy beach forms the S shore between Rocky Point and Strawbridge Point, 2.75 miles WNW. The S side of the cove is low with wooded hills at the back. Eastern Cove includes Ballast Head Harbor on the western side near Ballast Head. Matthew Flinders named Nepean Bay after Sir Evan Nepean, First Secretary to the Admiralty, on 21 March 1802. Settlements on its shores include Kingscote, Brownlow KI and Nepean Bay on the shores of Western Cove, American River, Baudin Beach and Island Beach on the shores of Eastern Cove. Protected areas located within and adjoining the bay’s extent include: Aquatic reserves - American River. Conservation parks - Beatrice Islet, Busby Islet, Cygnet Estuary, Nepean Bay and Pelican Lagoon. Marine parks - Encounter Marine Park Nepean Citations ReferencesBoating Industry Association of South Australia.
Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia's waters an atlas & guide, Boating Industry Association of South Australia, ISBN 978-1-86254-680-6 Anon. Conservation Parks of Kangaroo Island Management Plan. Adelaide: Department of Environment and Planning, South Australia. ISBN 0-7243-8983-0. "Encounter Marine Park Management plan summary". Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Retrieved 17 June 2014. South Australia. Department of Marine and Harbors, The Waters of South Australia a series of charts, sailing notes and coastal photographs, Dept. of Marine and Harbors, South Australia, ISBN 978-0-7243-7603-2 Flinders, Matthew. A Voyage to Terra Australis: undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country, prosecuted in the years 1801, 1802, 1803 in His Majesty's ship the Investigator, subsequently in the armed vessel Porpoise and Cumberland Schooner. Adelaide. In two volumes, with an Atlas: Libraries Board of South Australia. Retrieved 27 March 2013. "American River Aquatic Reserve".
Primary Industries and Regions SA. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2014
Bandon, County Cork
Bandon is a town in County Cork, Ireland. It lies on the River Bandon between two hills; the name in Irish means Bridge of the Bandon, a reference to the origin of the town as a crossing-point on the river. In 2004 Bandon celebrated its quatercentenary; the town, sometimes called the Gateway to West Cork, had a population of 6,957 at the 2016 census. Bandon is in the Cork South-West constituency. In September 1588, at the start of the Plantation of Munster, Phane Beecher of London acquired, as Undertaker, the seignory of Castlemahon, it was in this seignory that the town of Bandon was formed in 1604 by Phane Beecher's son and heir Henry Beecher, together with other English settlers John Shipward, William Newce and John Archdeacon. The original settlers in Beecher's seignory came from various locations in England; the town proper was inhabited by Protestants, as a by-law had been passed stating "That no Roman Catholic be permitted to reside in the town". A protective wall extended for about a mile around the town.
Written on the gates of Bandon at this time was a warning "Entrance to Jew, Turk or Atheist. A response was scrawled under the sign noting: "The man who wrote this wrote it well, for the same thing is writ on the gates of hell." Buildings sprang up on both sides of the river and over time a series of bridges linked both settlements. Like other towns in Cork it benefitted from the patronage of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, although he was not, as he liked to claim, its "founder". In 1689 it was the scene of a clash between Jacobite and Williamite forces during the War of the Two Kings. After an uprising by Protestant inhabitants who expelled the Irish Army garrison, a larger force under Justin MacCarthy arrived and retook the town. Sir John Moore, leader of the British Army and was killed at the Battle of Corunna in Spain in 1809, was governor of the town in 1798. In the 19th century, the town grew as a leading industrial centre which included brewing, distilling and cotton milling; the now closed Allman's Distillery produced at one point over 600,000 gallons of whiskey annually.
The industrial revolution in the 1800s and the advent of the railways had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural ecosystem of the area. Local weaving operations could not compete with mass-produced cheap imports. Major General Arthur Ernest Percival was commander of the British garrison in Bandon in 1920–21 during the Irish War of Independence, he was subsequently the commanding officer of the British troops who surrendered Singapore to the Japanese forces in 1941. In 1945 he was invited by Douglas MacArthur to witness the surrender of Japanese forces in Tokyo in 1945 which ended the Second World War. Irish army leader Michael Collins was killed in an ambush at Béal na Bláth, about 9.6 km outside Bandon. Between 1911 and 1926, the non-Catholic population of Bandon dropped from 688 to 375, a decline of 45.5%. Peter Hart argued in The IRA and its Enemies that during the Irish War of Independence, Bandon's Protestant population, unionist, suffered from Irish Republican Army reprisals.
In particular, ten Protestant men were shot over 27–29 April 1922, "because they were Protestant." Niall Meehan argued, that Hart was mistaken. The killings were not "motivated by either land agitation or by sectarian considerations." In Peter Hart, the Issue of Sources, Brian Murphy noted a British intelligence assessment, A Record of the Rebellion in Ireland in 1920–1921, that Hart cited selectively. Hart wrote, "the truth was that, as British intelligence officers recognised, "in the south the Protestants and those who supported the Government gave much information because, except by chance, they had not got it to give.””. Murphy observed, "Hart does not give the next two sentences from the official Record which read": an exception to this rule was in the Bandon area where there were many Protestant farmers who gave information. Although the Intelligence Officer of the area was exceptionally experienced and although the troops were most active it proved impossible to protect those brave men, many of whom were murdered while all the remainder suffered grave material loss.
Murphy therefore concluded in a 1998 review of Hart's research, "the IRA killings in the Bandon area were motivated by political and not sectarian considerations". He amended this in 2005 to "Possibly, military considerations, rather than political, would have been a more fitting way to describe the reason for the IRA response to those who informed." In 2013 Bandon Mayor Gillian Coughlan described a song about these historical events by Professor David Fitzpatrick of TCD as "insulting to the memory of people who fought and to people who died". Castle Bernard, the seat of Lord Bandon, was burned in the Irish War of Independence. Local festivals include the Bandon Summer Fest - a family festival run by volunteers over the August Bank Holiday weekend; the Bandon Music Festival takes place every June Bank Holiday weekend, has included acts like Mick Flannery, The Flaws, Jack L, Fred and The Delerentos. The Bandon Walled Town Festival runs every year on the last weekend of August, celebrates the heritage of the town with cultural and family entertainment.
Bandon has a twin city agreement with Oregon, in the United States. That city was founded in 1873 by Lord George Bennet, a native of the Irish Bandon who named the American one after it, and, known for having introduced gorse into the US ecology with some disastrous results. Bandon is 27 km southwest of Cork City, on the N
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Burial at sea
Burial at sea is the disposal of human remains in the ocean from a ship or boat. It is performed by navies, is done by private citizens in many countries. Burial-at-sea services are conducted at many different locations and with many different customs, either by ship or by aircraft. Either the captain of the ship or aircraft or a religious representative performs the ceremony; the ceremony may include burial in a casket, burial sewn in sailcloth, burial in an urn, or scattering of the cremated remains from a ship. Burial at sea by aircraft is done only with cremated remains. Other types of burial at sea include the mixing of the ashes with concrete and dropping the concrete block to form an artificial reef such as the Atlantis Reef. Below is a list of religions that allow burial with some details of the burial. There are few traditional Buddhist burials at sea. Traditionally, the deceased are cremated and the ashes are placed in a grave or columbarium. In East Asian or Mahayana Buddhism, a physical gravesite is considered important for the conduct of memorial and ancestor rites.
The Buddhist Churches of America, the North American branch of Japanese Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, has created a service for Buddhist burials at sea for military service members. In Thailand ashes are placed in a wreath with lit candles and floated off to sea from a vessel followed by a procession of mourning wreaths, with lit candles also; the Roman Catholic Church prefers normal casket burials over cremations, but does allow for cremation subject to the condition that the ashes are entombed or buried. Catholics believe it is not proper to scatter or pour the cremated remains over the sea, water, or on the land. According to the Roman Catholic Church this action does not give due respect to the remains of the deceased, nor does it allow for the closure and healing of family and friends, they see that the custom of housing the remains with family or friends and not placing the deceased in the ground does not offer loved ones a specific and sacred place to visit the individual. Visiting the deceased in a holy place provides believers with a space to offer prayers, commune with those who have gone before them in faith, reminds them to await the resurrection of their own bodies.
Burial at sea in a casket or in an urn is approved for cases. The committal prayer number 406§4 is used in this case; the Anglican Communion has detailed procedures for burial at sea. The ship has to be stopped, the body has to be sewn in canvas, suitably weighted. Anglican chaplains of the Royal Navy bury cremated remains of ex-Naval personnel at sea. Scattering of cremated remains is discouraged, not least for practical reasons The Book of Common Prayer of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, a member of the Anglican Communion provides a specific prayer of committal for burials at sea: At the Burial of the Dead at Sea; the same Office may be used. Many Lutheran naval veterans and seamen prefer to be buried at sea. In those cases either the casket or urn is set to sea; the procedure is similar as that with the Anglican church. Some parishes have specific consecrated sea areas. Traditionally, the deceased are cremated, the bones and ashes are collected, the ashes/remains are immersed in the Ganges River if possible or in any other river if not.
The sacred texts of Islam prefer burial on land, "so deep that its smell does not come out and the beasts of prey do not dig it out". However, if a person dies at sea and it is not possible to bring the body back to land before decay, or if burial at land becomes impossible, burial at sea is allowed. A weight is tied to the feet of the body, the body is lowered into the water; this would preferably occur in an area where the remains are not eaten by scavengers. In the Sunni Fiqh book Umdat al-Salik wa Uddat al-Nasik, the condition for sea burial is: It is best to bury him in the cemetery... If someone dies on a ship and it is impossible to bury him on land, the body is placed between two planks and thrown into the sea. According to Jewish law, a dead person must be buried and burial requires covering in earth; this law is derived from Devarim 21:23 "Bury, you will bury him the same day. The legal text Shulchan Aruch brings a case example explaining that if a person is known to have drowned in a closed body of water such as a small pond where there can be certainty that the victim had not somehow survived, the family does not begin ritual mourning and remains in extended state of most intense mourning aninut until either the body is found or after an exhaustive search despairs of recovering and burying the body.
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Glenelg, South Australia
Glenelg is a beach-side suburb of the South Australian capital of Adelaide. Located on the shore of Holdfast Bay in Gulf St Vincent, it has become a tourist destination due to its beach and many attractions, home to several hotels and dozens of restaurants. Glenelg became infamous for being the site of the Beaumont children disappearance in 1966. Established in 1836, it is the oldest European settlement on mainland South Australia, it was named after Lord Glenelg, a member of British Cabinet and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. Through Lord Glenelg the name derives from Glenelg, Scotland. In Scottish Gaelic the name is Gleann Eilg; the name Glenelg is noteworthy for being a palindrome. Prior to the 1836 European settlement of South Australia and the rest of the Adelaide Plains was home to the Kaurna group of Indigenous Australians, they knew the area as "Pattawilya" and the local river as "Pattawilyangga", now named the Patawalonga River. Evidence has shown that at least two smallpox epidemics had killed the majority of the Kaurna population prior to 1836.
The disease appeared to have come down the River Murray from New South Wales. The first British settlers set sail for South Australia in 1836. Several locations for the settlement were considered, including Kangaroo Island, Port Lincoln and Encounter Bay; the Adelaide plains were chosen by Colonel William Light, Governor John Hindmarsh proclaimed the province of South Australia at the site of The Old Gum Tree in Glenelg North on 28 December 1836. The first post office in Glenelg opened on 5 December 1849. A telegraph office was opened in September 1859 and the two offices amalgamated in 1868; the present post office building on Moseley Square was built in 1912. The sale of the surveyed lots that constitute the Town of Glenelg was remarkable: the right to purchase, at ₤1 per "town acre", was allocated by means of a ballot held in February 1839; the "winner" was a syndicate of six led by William Finke, with Osmond Gilles, his nephew John Jackson Oakden and H. R. Wigley notable members. Among the town's earliest public buildings were the Independent church, opened 7 March 1848, St Peter's church, opened 28 March 1852 and the Pier Hotel, opened Christmas Day 1856, all the work of Henry J. Moseley, for whom Moseley Street and Moseley Square were named.
No trace of the original structures remains. The Corporate Town of Glenelg was proclaimed in 1855, separating local governance of the township of Glenelg from that of the West Torrens and Brighton district councils. Construction of the Glenelg Institute, now the Glenelg Town Hall, started in 1875; the institute opened with lecture rooms, a concert hall and a library. The classical structure was designed by Edmund Wright, whose works include the Adelaide Town Hall and Adelaide General Post Office on King William Street; the hall sits on Moseley Square, just off the beach. The Holdfast Bay city council acquired the hall in 1887. Today it houses tourist information centre and restaurants. In August 1857, construction of Glenelg's first jetty commenced. Costing over £31,000 to build, the structure was 381 metres long; the jetty was used not only by fishermen but to accept cargo from ships, including a mail service operated by P&O, until Port Adelaide replaced it as Adelaide's main port. Passengers were able travel from the Glenelg jetty to Kangaroo Island by steamer.
Several additions to the jetty were made. A lighthouse was built in 1872 at the jetty's end, but a year it caught fire and was cast into the sea to save the rest of the structure. A replacement lighthouse was built in 1874, was 12.1 metres tall. Other additions included public baths, an aquarium, a police shed and a three-story kiosk with tea rooms; the kiosk structure housed a family. The kiosk was wrecked in a storm in 1943, the jetty was damaged by a freak cyclone in 1948. Most of the structure washed away and the remaining structure was deemed unsafe. Just two weeks the local council began drafting plans for a new jetty and construction was completed in 1969; the new structure was just 215 metres long, less than two-thirds of the length of the original jetty. The second jetty continues to stand today, at the end of Jetty Road. On 1 January 2016, two boys were drowned after falling into the water from rocks to north of the Glenelg jetty. Glenelg has been a popular spot for leisure for much of its history.
Following the success of Luna Park, Melbourne, a similar amusement park was constructed on Glenelg's foreshore in 1930. Luna Park Glenelg was placed in voluntary liquidation in 1934, all the rides were disassembled, purchased by the directors, transported to Sydney, where they were used to create Luna Park Milsons Point; the park's managers claimed that the reasons for the closure were the inability to make money from the park as it was, opposition to changes from Council and residents, who were afraid that "undesirables" would be attracted to the area. Built near the former Luna Park site was Magic Mountain, which first opened in 1982, it featured water slides, mini-golf, bumper boats, dodgem cars and many other amusements and was popular with many Adelaide residents. It was extensively criticised, called an eyesore and likened to a "giant dog dropping" in the media; as part of the Holdfast Shores development, Magic Mountain was demolished in 2004 and replaced with The Beachouse, a 5-storey modern centre with a more conservative design which still incorporates the historic car