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George Tyrrell

George Tyrrell was an Irish Jesuit priest and a modernist theologian and scholar. His attempts to evolve and adapt Catholic theology in the context of modern ideas made him a key figure in the modernist controversy within the Roman Catholic Church in the late 19th century. Tyrrell was born on 6 February 1861 in Ireland, his father, a journalist, died shortly. George was first cousin to Irish classical scholar Robert Yelverton Tyrrell. A childhood accident resulted in him becoming deaf in the right ear. Limited finances caused the family to move several times. Tyrrell was brought up as an Anglican, around 1869 attended Rathmines School near Dublin, he was educated from 1873 at the Church of Ireland Midleton College, although his mother had difficulty affording the fees, he left early. In 1876, he studied at Trinity College, around 1877 met Robert Dolling who had a strong influence on him. In August 1878, Tyrrell took a post at Wexford High School, but returned to Trinity in October, on the advice of Dolling, to train for the Anglican ministry.

In the spring of 1879, at Dolling's invitation, Tyrrell went to London to work at a sort of mission Dolling was starting. On Palm Sunday, he wandered into St Etheldreda's Church on Ely place. "Here was the old business, being carried on by the old firm, in the old ways. He converted and was received into the Catholic Church in 1879, he applied to join the Society of Jesus, but was advised by the provincial superior to wait a year. He spent the interim teaching at Jesuit schools in Malta, he was sent to the novitiate at Manresa House. As early as 1882, his novice master proposed that Tyrrell withdraw from the Jesuits due to a "mental indocility" and a dissatisfaction with a number of Jesuit customs and practices. Tyrrell stated that he believed he was more inclined to Benedictine spirituality. After taking his first vows he was sent to Stonyhurst to study philosophy. In 1879, Pope Leo XIII had issued the encyclical Aeterni Patris, encouraging the study of St. Thomas Aquinas. Tyrrell believed that the Jesuits endorsed Aquinas, but as interpreted by Jesuit theologian Francisco Suárez.

While Tyrrell admired Aquinas, he rejected Scholasticism as inadequate. Having completed his studies at Stonyhurst, he next returned to the Jesuit school on Malta, where he spent three years teaching, he went to St Beuno's College in Wales, to take up his theological studies. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1891. After a brief period of pastoral work in Lancashire, he returned to Roehampton for his Tertianship. In 1893, he spent some time at the Jesuit mission house in Oxford, before taking up pastoral work at St Helens, where he was happiest during his time as a Jesuit. A little over a year he was sent to teach philosophy at Stonyhurst, where he came into conflict with some of the faculty for not adhering to the traditional Jesuit approach to Thomas Aquinas, influenced by the work of Francisco Suárez. In 1896 he was transferred to the Jesuit House on Farm Street in London, it was while at Farm Street. He was influenced by Alfred Loisy‘s biblical scholarship. Tyrrell first met Friedrich von Hügel in October 1897 and they became close friends.

Part of Tyrrell's work while at Farm Street was to write articles for the Jesuit periodical The Month. He had the occasion to review some works by Wilfrid Ward, for a time, came to share Ward's view of moderate liberalism. In 1899 he published A Perverted Devotion; the article concerned the concept of Hell. Given "...the essential incapacity of finite mind to seize the absolute end which governs and moves everything towards itself..." Tyrrell recognized that some subjects were matters of "faith and mystery". He "...preferred to admit that the Christian doctrine of hell as a great mystery, one difficult to reconcile with any just appreciation of the concept of an all-loving God". He argued. Although reviewed by a number of English Jesuits, Including Herbert Thurston, who found no fault with it, the Father General determined that it was "offensive to pious ears". Tyrrell was assigned to a small mission in Richmond, where he appreciated the peace and quiet. In January 1901, he declined a re-assignment back to St. Helen's.

Between 1891 and 1906, Tyrrell published more than twenty articles in Catholic periodicals, many in the United States. Asked to repudiate his theories in 1906, Tyrrell declined and was dismissed from the Society of Jesus by superior general Franz X. Wernz. Pope Pius X's 1907 encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis condemned modernism. Tyrrell contributed two letters to The Times critical of the encyclical and was subsequently excommunicated. Tyrrell argued that most biblical scholarship and devotional reflection, such as the quest for the historic Jesus, involves elements of self-conscious self-reflection, his famous image, criticising Adolf von Harnack's Liberal Protestant view of Scripture, is of peering into a well, in which we see our own face reflected in the dark water deep below: "The Christ that Harnack sees, looking back through nineteen centuries of "Catholic darkness", is only the reflection of a Liberal Protestant face, seen at the bottom of a deep well."He argued that the pope should not act as an autocrat but a "spokesman for the mind of the Holy Spirit in the Church".

Tyrrell was disciplined under Pope Pius X for advocating "the right of each age to adjust the historico-philosophical expression

Corporate Finance Institute

Corporate Finance Institute is a financial analyst certification organization that provides online training and education for finance and investment professionals, including courses for financial modelling and other corporate finance topics. The organization provides courses with the objectives of providing students the skills CFI deems important for modern finance, such as Microsoft Excel, accounting and visuals, business strategy. All CFI courses are delivered online. CFI is the official provider of the Financial Valuation Analyst designation; the organization was incorporated as a joint venture with MDA Training, a London-based financial training company founded in 1988 by Professor Walter Reid, one of the founding professors of the London Business School. CFI offers the Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst certification for students to access all the courses provided by the Institute. Students may choose individual courses based on their needs, without accessing the certification program.

The analyst program includes 7 optional prerequisites to review the fundamentals, 9 core courses to build a foundation in financial modeling and valuation, plus a minimum of 3 elective courses that allow more focus on specific topics and skills. Students must earn a minimum passing grade of 80% in each course assessment to complete the requirements for the program and to receive a certificate of completion. Curriculum topic distributions are as follows: Financial Modeling Finance Theory and Math Excel Skills Business Valuation Budgeting & Forecasting Presentations & Visual Outputs Accounting Knowledge Corporate and Business Strategy Corporate Finance Institute is registered with the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy as a sponsor of continuing professional education on the National Registry of CPE Sponsors. Students are eligible to earn in total of 80 CPE credits upon completing all courses in CFI’s program. Financial modelling Valuation Professional certification Professional certification in financial services Official website

Anna of Veldenz, Countess Palatine of Simmern-Zweibr├╝cken

Anne of Veldenz was a Countess suo jure of Veldenz. She was a member of the Hohengeroldseck family. Anna was the heiress of Frederick III, the last Count of Veldenz from the Hohengeroldseck family, his wife Margaret of Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1409, she married to Stephen, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken, thereby bringing the County of Veldenz into the possession of the Dukes of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, she brought a 50% share in the County of Sponheim into the marriage. The Counts of Veldenz had acquired this share in 1425, as had been predicted by Count John V of Sponheim-Starkenburg in the 1425 Treaty of Sponheim. Anna's eldest son Frederick I would inherit her share in the County of Sponheim, her son Louis I would inherit the County of Veldenz proper. In the 19th century, a descendant of Anna became King of Bavaria, why the Veldenz lion is now part of the Bavarian coat of arms. From her marriage with Stephen, Anna had the following children: Anne Margaret Else, married to Michael von Corvey Frederick I Rupert Stephen Louis I John

Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul Railway Iron River Depot

The Chicago and Saint Paul Railway Iron River Depot, located in Iron River, was built by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad in 1913; the brick depot is rectangular in shape. The depot has a covered porch on one end; the station agent's office was located in the middle of the building, a freight room was on the other end. The CNW railroad came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to serve the local iron mines and timber industry, built a branch line that terminated in Iron River in 1913. Passenger service connected to the main line at Channing, Michigan until it ended in 1945; the railroad ceased bus service in 1956. The depot was sold to a local produce company for use as a warehouse; the depot was subsequently sold to an equipment company. In 1993, the depot was sold again; the new owners turned it into a restaurant and bakery. The new owners bought two old ex-Long Island Railroad passenger coaches and added them to the depot as part of a railroad-themed restaurant, but has since closed after the death of one owner.

The depot was listed on the National Register of Historic Places because of its architecture and because of its association with the development of Iron River. It is significant as the last remaining railway station in Iron River. Christensen, Robert O. Chicago and Saint Paul Railway Iron River Depot. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form on file at the National Park Service, Washington, DC, 2007. Historic Resources of Iron County, Michigan Multiple Resource Area National Park Service, Washington, DC

1992 NCAA Division II football season

The 1992 NCAA Division II football season, part of college football in the United States organized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division II level, began in August 1992, concluded with the NCAA Division II Football Championship on December 12, 1992, at Braly Municipal Stadium in Florence, hosted by the University of North Alabama. The Jacksonville State Gamecocks defeated the Pittsburg State Gorillas, 17–13, to win their first Division II national title; the Harlon Hill Trophy was awarded to Ronald Moore. Following the 1991 season, the Missouri Intercollegiate Athletic Association changed its name to the Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association after further expanding into Kansas with Emporia State; the 1992 NCAA Division II Football Championship playoffs were the 20th single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division II college football. The championship game was held at Braly Municipal Stadium in Florence, for the seventh time

L. Gardner and Sons

L. Gardner and Sons Ltd was a British builder of diesel engines for stationary, marine and rail applications; the company was founded in Hulme, England in 1868. It started building engines around 1895; the firm ceased engine production in the mid-1990s. About 1868 Lawrence Gardner set up as a sewing machine maker in Upper Duke Street, Stretford Road, Manchester, he died in 1890. From about 1895 the company was building gas engines and, in 1899 it moved into Barton Hall Engine Works, Manchester. In 1903 it became a limited company, L Gardner and Sons Ltd. Norris and Henty Ltd, of London, were appointed as sales agents. Diesel engine production began in around 1903. In 1912 a new sales subsidiary, Norris and Gardners Ltd, was formed. During World War I the company made parts for heavy guns and engines for tanks. During the 1920s there was rapid development in the design of diesel engines. In 1929 a Gardner "4L2" marine engine was fitted into a Lancia bus; this conversion was successful and prompted Gardner to introduce the "LW" series of diesel engines, designed for road vehicles but modified and supplied as a marine engines with factory-fitted bilge pumps.

The LW engine was a modular design, with separate cast iron cylinder blocks and cylinder heads comprising either 2 or 3 cylinders. A 5-cylinder engine would thus use a "2" and a "3", whereas a 6-cylinder engine could have either 3 "2"s or 2 "3"s. Boat engines had a cast iron crankcase, whereas road vehicles would have an aluminium alloy crankcase. Any boat engine with an alloy crankcase would be a marinised road engine. During the 1930s a number of LW-series engines were installed in large luxury cars including Lagondas and Rolls-Royces; the Gardner engine's reliability and economy, coupled to its remarkable refinement and smooth running abilities, made it the only suitable compression-ignition engine at the time During World War II Gardner's war work consisted of building diesel engines of their own design. Their 4LK bus engines were used as the main powerplant in the Royal Navy's X class and XE class midget submarines. After the war the'LW' diesel engine continued to be built in large numbers for lorries and buses and was supplemented by the more modern'LX'.

In the mid-sixties, the LW range was upgraded to develop 20 bhp per cylinder, known as LW20. The 6LX was upgraded in 1967 from 150 bhp @1700rpm to 180 bhp @1850rpm. An 8-cylinder version was developed which developed 240 bhp @ 1850rpm, was said to be the smoothest running automotive diesel built; the larger'6L3' and'8L3' engines were used in railway locomotives, such as British Rail Class 01 and British Rail Class 04 and in vessels of up to 120 feet such as MV Havengore, the famous maxi yachts Condor and Condor of Bermuda, S. Y. Crescent and others. In the summer of 1986, after months of denials, Perkins Engines purchased Gardner to complement their line of lighter diesel engines. Production was shut down until October, as Gardner's truck engine market share had slumped precariously. Gardner's market for buses and coaches was doing better. L. Gardner and Sons ceased production of new engines in the early 1990s; the introduction of emissions regulations for road-going Gardner diesels would have required the development of modified or new engine designs, in the marine market there was a shift away from big, low-speed, high-torque engines such as Gardners towards adapted high-speed automotive turbodiesels.

Two spin-off firms from the original company are still in existence: Gardner Marine Diesels overhauls, re-manufactures and installs a wide range of marine-spec Gardners and both they and Walsh Engineering supply genuine Gardner engine parts for all types of Gardner engines worldwide. Another firm, Marine Power Services, specialise in the restoration and marinisation of Gardners for the inland waterways and the manufacture of component castings incl LW range exhaust and water manifolds. In Ireland, Tangent Engineering are devoted to Gardner and operating world wide, their specialism is installing Gardners in gensets and peculiar vehicles: Land Rovers and vintage fire tenders: And on the other side of the world in Australia, Mainline Diesel Engineering, headed by business principal Kevin Riley, trained by L. Gardner & Sons in the UK as a diesel fitter, supplies parts and restores Gardner engines to the same high specification Gardner was renowned for. Gardner 4LK, 60 hp @ 2100 RPM, Natural 4-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 3,800 cc Gardner 4LW, 75 hp @ 1700 RPM, Natural 4-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 5,580 cc Gardner 5LW, 85 hp @ 1700 RPM, Natural 5-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 7,000 cc Gardner 6LW 102 hp @ 1700 RPM, Natural 6-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 8,370 cc Gardner 6LX, 150 hp @ 1700 RPM, Natural 6-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 10,450 cc Gardner 6LXB, 180 hp @ 1850 RPM, Natural 6-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 10,450 cc Gardner 8LXB, 240 hp @ 1850 RPM, Natural 8-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 13,933 ccThe 6LXC engine is not mentioned.

Source The Anson Engine Museum has an extensive collection of historic Gardner engines. Smith, Donald H; the Modern Diesel, pp 151–154, published by Iliffe & Sons, London, 13th edition 1959 L. Gardner & Sons Limited: Legendary Engineering Excellence by Graham Edge L. Gardner and Sons Limited: the history of a British industrial firm. PhD thesis publi