George W. Bush

George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush is referred to as George W. Bush, Bush Junior, or Bush 43 to distinguish him from his father, George H. W. Bush, who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. Bush is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the second son to become the American president after his father, the first being John Quincy Adams. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected president of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a narrow and contested win that involved a Supreme Court decision to stop a recount in Florida.

He became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. In response to the September 11 terrorist attacks, Bush launched a "War on Terror" that began with the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and expanded to the Iraq War in 2003. Signature legislation passed during his presidency included broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, the Medicare Modernization Act, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in a close election. After his re-election, Bush received criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional approval for multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system.

Bush was among the most popular, as well as unpopular, U. S. presidents in history. Bush returned to Texas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library opened in 2013. His presidency has been rated below average in historians' polls, although his favorability ratings have improved since leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was the first child of George Herbert Walker Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade.

He spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village, Texas in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year, he attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. After his application to the University of Texas School of Law was rejected, Bush entered Harvard Business School in the fall of 1973, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out.

Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year; the couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his family's summer home in Kennebunkport, for driving under the influence of alcohol, he was cited for DUI, fined $150, got his Maine driver's license suspended. Bush said his wife has had a stabilizing effect on his life, he attributes her influence to his 1986 decision to give up alcohol. While Governor of Texas, Bush said of his wife, "I saw an elegant, beautiful woman who turned out not only to be elegant and beautiful, but sm

Northern Territory v Mengel

Northern Territory v Mengel, was a significant Australian court case, decided in the High Court of Australia on 19 April 1995. The decision dealt with the conceptual framework of tort law and held that liability under tort depended on the plaintiff establishing the defendant was either negligent or intended to cause harm to the plaintiff, it overruled the decision in Beaudesert Shire Council v Smith. The Mengel family owned Neutral Station, a cattle station 200 km north of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory, they purchased Banka Banka Station which had better rainfall so they could move cattle there in a drought. One of their heifers had reacted to a test that indicated a possibility that it was infected with brucellosis. Two inspectors from the Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, as part of a government-sponsored campaign to eradicate brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle, told the Mengels that there were restrictions on the movement of their cattle which meant they were only able to be moved to an abattoir for slaughter.

It was accepted that there was no statutory or other authority for the acts of the Inspectors. In the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory Asche CJ held that the Mengels were entitled to recover damages for an action on the case based on the decision in Beaudesert, awarding the Mengel family damages of $305,371 plus interest; the Northern Territory appealed against the decision, while the Megel family cross-appealed against the amount of damages awarded. The Full Court, Priestley J, with whom Angel and Thomas JJ agreed, dismissed the government's appeal and increased the damages to $425,125 plus interest; the majority judgment was that of Mason CJ, Toohey, Gaudron & McHugh JJ, holding that the Northern Territory's appeal should be upheld and the Mengel's claim dismissed. Brennan and Deane JJ each gave separate judgments but agreed with the majority, it was held in Beaudesert that "independently of trespass, negligence or nuisance but by an action for damages upon the case, a person who suffers harm or loss as the inevitable consequence of the unlawful and positive acts of another is entitled to recover damages from that other"The majority held that claim was not within the Beaudesert principle because: what happened was that the Inspectors told the Mengels that there were movement restrictions when, in fact and in law, there were none.

That did not involve an act forbidden by law in any relevant sense. Nor did it require authority in a way justifying its description as "unauthorized".... Damage was suffered when the Mengels acted on the basis that their cattle were subject to the movement restrictions communicated to them and if it is assumed that, to happen in the ordinary course, there is nothing to suggest that it was bound to happen; the majority reconsidered the decision in Beaudesert and held that it should not be followed because of the: lack of authoritative support for the principle'. "Cases and articles referring to Northern Territory v Mengels". LawCite


The Agogna is a 140-kilometre stream which runs through the Italian regions of Piedmont and Lombardy. It is a left side tributary of the river Po; the river's origin is in the area between Lake Orta and Lake Maggiore in the province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola. It flows south into the province of Novara and flows past Borgomanero and Cureggio before being joined by a branch of the Terdoppio; the river continues to flow south past Novara. The river crosses into the province of Pavia and into the Lomellina area and receives its left tributary, the Erbognone; the river flows into the Po at Balossa Bigli, part of the comune of Mezzana Bigli, near the border between the province of Pavia and the province of Alessandria. During the Napoleonic conquest of Italy, the Agogna gave its name to a department of the Kingdom of Italy with Novara as capital. Le Oasi della Federazione Nazionale Pro Natura, click on the L’Agogna Morta for a description of a nature reserve on the banks of the river in Borgolavezzaro and Nicorvo.

Centro di Formazione Ambientale Monferrato, in particular the section on the LIPU Oasi di Agognate nature reserve through which the Agogna runs