Cape Coral, Florida
Cape Coral is a city located in Lee County, United States, on the Gulf of Mexico. Founded in 1957 and developed as a planned community, the city grew to a population of 154,305 by the year 2010; the city's population estimate was 165,831 for 2013 and 179,804 for 2016. With an area of 120 square miles, Cape Coral is the largest city between Miami, it is a principal city in the Cape Coral -- Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population estimate for the statistical area was 679,513 for 2014; the city is known as a "Waterfront Wonderland". Cape Coral history began in 1957 when two brothers from Baltimore, Maryland and Jack Rosen, flew over the peninsula known as Redfish Point, across the Caloosahatchee River near present-day Fort Myers. Cape Coral was founded as Redfish Point. Leonard and Jack Rosen, who were real-estate developers and a small group of partners, purchased a 103-square-mile tract known as Redfish Point for $678,000 in that year and, in 1958, began development of the city as a master-planned, pre-planned community.
The Gulf American Land Corporation, was formed to develop the area. GAC developed a marketing model, a total departure from traditional selling methods. Approval was secured from the Lee County to master-plan the entire property into lots. Instead of listing the lots with real estate agents, GAC developed the land-sales, dinner-party model, operating from banquet rooms in local hotels. People were invited to attend by offering a free dinner for two; the model, referred to as team-selling, allowed for a well-trained team to close deals in 90 minutes. Buyers would sign a contract and agree to come to the property within six months and cancel if not satisfied. Ezio Valentini, an Italian real estate developer, became Director of Sales; the program was so successful that offices were opened in 24 states and an arrangement was made with an airline to charter flights to fly buyers to the property. Instead of borrowing from banks and lenders, the developers factored the sales contracts to pay for building the infrastructure.
Canals were dug, streets paved and businesses built. Cape Coral was promoted like no other Florida development. Celebrities were brought in to tout the benefits of "the Cape"; the first building in Cape Coral was the Rosens' sales office. It was built where George's Auto now stands, at Coronado Pkwys. Cape Coral's first permanent resident was the Rosens' general manager. Cape Coral's first four homes were completed on Riverside and Flamingo Drives. Development continued through the early 1960s on Redfish Point, south of Cape Coral Parkway. By 1963, the population was 2,850; the public yacht club, a golf course, medical clinic and shopping center were up and running. A major addition for Cape Coral was the construction of the 3,400 feet long Cape Coral Bridge across the Caloosahatchee River, which opened in early 1964. Before the bridge, a trip to Fort Myers was more than 20 mi via Del Prado Boulevard and over the Edison Bridge to cross the river; the city incorporated in August 1970, its population continued to grow until the real estate slowdown that gripped the region beginning in 2008.
In 2016 Forbes Magazine named the City of Cape Coral as # 9 of the 25 "Best Places To Retire In 2016" In 2017 Forbes named Cape Coral #1 out of 25 in "America's Fastest Growing Cities of 2017" According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 120 square miles, of which 110.09 square miles is land and 9.91 square miles is water. Cape Coral is a large peninsula and is bordered in the south and east by the Caloosahatchee River and in the west by Matlacha Pass; the city of Fort Myers lies across the Caloosahatchee River to the east, Matlacha and Pine Island lie across Matlacha Pass to the west. Matlacha Pass is home to Matlacha Pass National Wildlife Refuge and the state's Matlacha Pass Aquatic Preserve; the city has over 400 miles of more than any other city in the world. Most of the canals are navigable and some have access to the Gulf of Mexico. Cape Coral's canal system is so extensive; the city is near the southern coastal boundary of the humid subtropical climate is located, traversing the north of the urban area bordering a tropical savanna climate under the Köppen climate classification system The area averages 355 days of sunshine each year, but experiences precipitation on 145 days per year.
While the summers are warm and rainy, the winters in Cape Coral are dry with moderate temperatures. The city receives about 56 inches of rain each year, the majority of which falls from June to September. During the summer months, afternoon rains are brief; the city is affected by the annual hurricane season, which begins on June 1 and continues through November. As of 2010, Cape Coral was the eleventh largest city in Florida by population. More than 60 percent of the population is between the ages of 15–64 and residents under 25 outnumber residents over 65. Southwest Florida's 18–24 age group is growing at a faster rate than the state of Florida and the United States; as of 2010, there were 78,948 households out. In 2000, 29.5% households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.2% are married couples living together, 9.3% have a female householder with no husband present, 25.9%
Robert Roland Chudnick, known professionally as Red Rodney, was an American jazz trumpeter. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he became a professional musician at 15, working in the mid-1940s for the big bands of Jerry Wald, Jimmy Dorsey, Georgie Auld, Elliot Lawrence, Benny Goodman, Les Brown, he was inspired by hearing Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker to change his style to bebop, moving on to play with Claude Thornhill, Gene Krupa, Woody Herman. He accepted an invitation from Charlie Parker to join his quintet. and was a member of the band from 1949–1951. Being the only white member of the group, when playing in the southern United States he was billed as "Albino Red" as a ruse to avoid prejudice against mixed race musical combos. During this time he recorded extensively. During the 1950s, he recorded with Ira Sullivan, he started a pattern of dropping in and out of jazz. During 1969, Rodney played in Las Vegas with fellow Woody Herman colleague, trombonist Bill Harris, as part of the Flamingo casino house band led by Russ Black.
Similar work continued through 1972. In the early 1970s he was bankrupted by medical costs following a stroke, he returned to jazz. In 1975 he was incarcerated in Minnesota for drug offenses. While jailed he gave music lessons to guitarist Wayne Kramer of the MC5, he performed with Dizzy Gillespie. From 1980 to 1982, Rodney made five albums with Sullivan. On these albums he started to play post bop jazz, he continued to record into the 1990s. He performed on a Charlie Parker tribute album by drummer for the Rolling Stones, he provided an early showcase for saxophonist Chris Potter, a member of his group and only 19 years old when Rodney recorded Red Alert in late 1990. He performed at Jazz at the JVC Jazz Festival, he worked as an adviser for a movie about Charlie Parker directed by Clint Eastwood. Michael Zelniker played him in the movie. Rodney died on May 1994, from lung cancer. 1951: First Sessions – Volume 3 1952: Red Rodney Quintets 1957: Red Rodney 1957 with Ira Sullivan, Tommy Flanagan, Oscar Pettiford, Philly Joe Jones or Elvin Jones 1959: Fiery 1959: Red Rodney Returns 1973: Bird Lives!
1974: Superbop with Sam Noto 1975: The Red Tornado 1976: Yard's Pad with Arne Domnerus, Red Mitchell, Ed Thigpen, Bengt Hallberg. 1977: Home Free - released 1979 1978: Red and Blues 1979: The 3R's with Richie Cole and Ricky Ford - released 1982 1980: Live at the Village Vanguard with Ira Sullivan 1980: Hi Jinx at the Vanguard with Ira Sullivan - released 1984 1980: Alive in New York with Ira Sullivan - released 1986 1981: Night and Day with Ira Sullivan 1981: Spirit Within with Ira Sullivan - released 1982 1982: Sprint with Ira Sullivan - released 1983 1984: Social Call with Charlie Rouse 1986: No Turn on Red 1988: Red Giant 1988: One for Bird 1988: Red Snapper 1992: Then and Now 1993: The Tivoli Session 1945: Charlie Ventura: 1945–1946 1946: Buddy Rich: 1946–1948 1948: Woody Herman: Keeper of the Flame 1949: Charlie Parker: The Complete Charlie Parker on Verve 1949: Charlie Parker: Swedish Schnapps 1950: Charlie Parker: Bird at St. Nick'sWith Dizzy Gillespie To Diz with Love With Clifford Jordan Dr. Chicago With Lee Konitz Live at Laren With Ira Sullivan Ira Sullivan Does It All With the Bob Thiele Collective Louis Satchmo Fresh Air on WHYY, December 30, 2002 Morton and Cook, Brian.
The Penguin Guide to Jazz, New Edition, Penguin, 1994 Morton and Cook, Brian. The Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD, sixth Edition, Penguin, 2002, ISBN 0140515216
Terry Gibbs is an American jazz vibraphonist and band leader. He has performed or recorded with Tommy Dorsey, Chubby Jackson, Buddy Rich, Woody Herman, Benny Goodman, Alice Coltrane, Louie Bellson, Charlie Shavers, Mel Tormé, Buddy DeFranco, others. Gibbs worked in film and TV studios in Los Angeles. In the 1950–1951 season, Gibbs was a popular guest on Star Time on the DuMont Television Network. Thereafter, he was a regular in 1953–1954 on NBC's Judge for Yourself. In the late 1950s, he appeared on NBC's The Steve Allen Show, on which he played lively vibraphone duets with the entertainer and composer. In 1997, he appeared on Steve Allen's 75th Birthday Celebration on PBS. Gibbs was the bandleader on the short-lived That Regis Philbin Show; as an instrumentalist, together with his big band, the Dream Band, Gibbs has won prestigious polls, such as those of Downbeat and Metronome. When Gibbs moved from New York to California in 1958 he began planning for his next big band album. In early 1959 he booked extended residencies at two Los Angeles night clubs, the Seville and the Sundown for what became known as the Dream Band.
The band played on a Sunday, Monday or Tuesday night when the cream of Hollywood jazz and studio musicians would be available. The core band always remained stable with Mel Lewis holding down the drum chair; some of the key players were lead altoist Joe Maini, tenor saxists Bill Holman and Med Flory, trumpeters Al Porcino and Conte Candoli and trombonists Frank Rosolino and Bob Enevoldsen. New arrangements were commissioned from Bill Holman, Marty Paich, Med Flory, Manny Albam and Al Cohn, among others, to feature Gibbs’ vibes in front of the band; the band released four albums from 1959 to 1961. 1959: Launching a New Band – some versions are titled Launching a New Sound in Music 1960: Swing Is Here! 1961: The Exciting Terry Gibbs Big Band!!!!!! – reissued as Dream Band, Vol. 4: Main Stem 1961: Explosion! – reissued as Dream Band, Vol. 5: The Big CatFour additional albums of unissued live material recorded in 1959 have been released since 1986. Dream Band The Dream Band, Vol. 2: The Sundown Sessions Dream Band, Vol. 3: Flying Home Dream Band, Vol. 6: One More Time In the mid 1960s, Gibbs opened a music store in Canoga Park, with former Benny Goodman drummer Mel Zelnick.
Terry Gibbs and Mel Zelnick Music Stop was the first teaching facility of the drum guru Freddie Gruber and Henry Bellson, brother of Louie. Good Vibes Terry Gibbs Sextet Terry Gibbs Mallets a-Plenty Vibes on Velvet Swing... Not Spring! Harry Babasin and the Jazz Pickers/Terry Gibbs Jazz Band Ball Swingin' Terry Gibbs Plays the Duke More Vibes on Velvet with the sax section from the Dream Band Launching a New Band, aka Launching a New Sound in Music Dream Band The Dream Band, Vol. 2: The Sundown Sessions Dream Band, Vol. 3: Flying Home Vibrations Dream Band, Vol. 6: One More Time Swing Is Here Music from Cole Porter's Can Can Steve Allen Presents Terry Gibbs at the Piano The Exciting Terry Gibbs Big Band – reissued as Dream Band, Vol. 4: Main Stem Explosion! – reissued as Dream Band, Vol. 5: The Big Cat That Swing Thing! Straight Ahead Terry Gibbs Plays Jewish Melodies in Jazztime El Nutto Gibbs/Nistico Hootenanny My Way Take It from Me Latino It's Time We Met Terry Gibbs Quartet Reza Bopstacle Course Sessions Live: Terry Gibbs, Pete Jolly, Red Norvo Live at the Lord Smoke'em Up Jazz Party: First Time Together Air Mail Special The Latin Connection Chicago Fire Holiday for Swing Tribute to Benny Goodman: Memories of You Kings of Swing Play That Song: Live at the 1994 Floating Festival Wham Terry Gibbs and Buddy DeFranco Play Steve Allen From Me to You: A Tribute to Lionel Hampton 52nd & Broadway: Songs of the Bebop Era Feelin' Good: Live in Studio Findin' the Groove 92 Years Young: Jammin at the Gibbs House Gibbs, Terry.
Good Vibes: A Life in Jazz. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810845862. Terry Gibbs discography at Discogs Terry Gibbs on IMDb
Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s
Atlantic Recording Corporation is an American record label founded in October 1947 by Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson. Over its first 20 years of operation, Atlantic earned a reputation as one of the most important American labels, specializing in jazz, R&B, soul by Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, Wilson Pickett and Dave, Ruth Brown and Otis Redding, its position was improved by its distribution deal with Stax. In 1967, Atlantic became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Bros.-Seven Arts, now the Warner Music Group, expanded into rock and pop music with releases by Led Zeppelin and Yes. In 2004, Atlantic and its sister label. Craig Kallman is the chairman of Atlantic. Ahmet Ertegün served as founding chairman until his death on December 14, 2006, at age 83. In 1944, brothers Nesuhi and Ahmet Ertegun remained in the United States when their mother and sister returned to Turkey after the death of their father Munir Ertegun, Turkey's first ambassador to the U. S; the brothers were fans of jazz and rhythm & blues, amassing a collection of over 15,000 78 RPM records.
Ahmet ostensibly stayed in Washington to undertake post-graduate music studies at Georgetown University but immersed himself in the Washington music scene and entered the record business, enjoying a resurgence after wartime restrictions on the shellac used in manufacture. He convinced the family dentist, Dr. Vahdi Sabit, to invest $10,000 and hired Herb Abramson, a dentistry student. Abramson had worked as a part-time A&R manager/producer for the jazz label National Records, signing Big Joe Turner and Billy Eckstine, he had no interest in its most successful musicians. In September 1947, he sold his share in Jubilee to his partner, Jerry Blaine, invested $2,500 in Atlantic. Atlantic was run by Abramson and Ertegun. Abramson's wife Miriam ran the label's publishing company, Progressive Music, did most office duties until 1949 when Atlantic hired its first employee, bookkeeper Francine Wakschal, who remained with the label for the next 49 years. Miriam gained a reputation for toughness. Staff engineer Tom Dowd recalled, "Tokyo Rose was the kindest name some people had for her" and Doc Pomus described her as "an extraordinarily vitriolic woman".
When interviewed in 2009, she attributed her reputation to the company's chronic cash-flow shortage: "... most of the problems we had with artists were that they wanted advances, and, difficult for us... we were undercapitalized for a long time." The label's office in the Ritz Hotel in Manhattan proved too expensive, so they moved to a room in the Hotel Jefferson. In the early fifties, Atlantic moved from the Hotel Jefferson to offices at 301 West 54th St and to 356 West 56th St. Atlantic's first recordings were issued in late January 1948 and included "That Old Black Magic" by Tiny Grimes and "The Spider" by Joe Morris. In its early years, Atlantic concentrated on modern jazz although it released some country and western and spoken word recordings. Abramson produced "Magic Records", children's records with four grooves on each side, each groove containing a different story, so the story played would be determined by the groove in which the stylus happened to land. In late 1947, James Petrillo, head of the American Federation of Musicians, announced an indefinite ban on all recording activities by union musicians, this came into effect on January 1, 1948.
The union action forced Atlantic to use all its capital to cut and stockpile enough recordings to last through the ban, expected to continue for at least a year. Ertegun and Abramson spent much of the late 1940s and early 1950s scouring nightclubs in search of talent. Ertegun composed songs under the alias "A. Nugetre", including Big Joe Turner's hit "Chains of Love", recording them in booths in Times Square giving them to an arranger or session musician. Early releases included music by Sidney Bechet, Barney Bigard, The Cardinals, The Clovers, Frank Culley, The Delta Rhythm Boys, Erroll Garner, Dizzy Gillespie, Tiny Grimes, Al Hibbler, Earl Hines, Johnny Hodges, Jackie & Roy, Lead Belly, Meade Lux Lewis, Professor Longhair, Shelly Manne, Howard McGhee, Mabel Mercer, James Moody, Joe Morris, Art Pepper, Django Reinhardt, Pete Rugolo, Pee Wee Russell, Bobby Short, Sylvia Syms, Billy Taylor, Sonny Terry, Big Joe Turner, Jimmy Yancey, Sarah Vaughan, Mal Waldron, Mary Lou Williams. In early 1949, a New Orleans distributor phoned Ertegun to obtain Stick McGhee's "Drinking Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee", unavailable due to the closing of McGhee's previous label.
Ertegun knew Stick's younger brother Brownie McGhee, with whom Stick happened to be staying, so he contacted the McGhee brothers and re-recorded the song. When released in February 1949, it became Atlantic's first hit, selling 400,000 copies, reached No. 2 after spending six months on the Billboard R&B chart – although McGhee himself earned just $10 for the session. Atlantic's fortunes rose rapidly: recorded 187 songs were recorded in 1949, more than three times the amount from the previous two years, received overtures for a manufacturing and distribution deal with Columbia, which would pay Atlantic a 3% royalty on every copy sold. Ertegun asked about artists' royalties, which he paid, this surprised Columbia executives, who did not, the deal was scuttled. On the recommendation of broadcaster Willis Conover and Abramson visited Ruth Brown at the Crystal Caverns club in Washington and invited her to audition for Atlantic, she was injured in a car accident en route to New York City, but Atlantic supported her for nine months and signed her.
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina, its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, one of the most active in the world 3,329 m high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate; the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Sicily; the Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou and the House of Habsburg.
It was unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee, since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture with regard to the arts, literature and architecture, it is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples and Selinunte. Sicily has a triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, about 16 km wide in the southern part.
The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2; the terrain of inland Sicily is hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines; the cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m; the mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions, it stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily; the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831, it is located between the island of Pantelleria. The autonomous region includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands and Lampedusa; the island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island.
The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Platani in the southwest. Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can carry it in the hills and in coastal cities on the northern coast of the island; the interi
Gerald Joseph Mulligan was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist and arranger. Though Mulligan is known as one of the leading jazz baritone saxophonists – playing the instrument with a light and airy tone in the era of cool jazz – he was a significant arranger, working with Claude Thornhill, Miles Davis, Stan Kenton, others. Mulligan's pianoless quartet of the early 1950s with trumpeter Chet Baker is still regarded as one of the best cool jazz groups. Mulligan was a skilled pianist and played several other reed instruments. Several of his compositions, such as "Walkin' Shoes" and "Five Brothers", have become jazz standards. Gerry Mulligan was born in Queens Village, New York, the son of George and Louise Mulligan, his father was a Wilmington, native of Irish descent. Gerry was the youngest of four sons with George and Don preceding him. George Mulligan's career as an engineer necessitated frequent moves through numerous cities; when Gerry was less than a year old, the family moved to Marion, where his father accepted a job with the Marion Power Shovel Company.
With the demands of a large home and four young boys to raise, Mulligan's mother hired an African-American nanny named Lily Rose, who became fond of the youngest Mulligan. As he became older, Mulligan began spending time at Rose's house and was amused by Rose's player piano, which Mulligan recalled as having rolls by numerous players, including Fats Waller. Black musicians sometimes came through town, because many motels would not take them, they had to stay at homes within the black community; the young Mulligan met such musicians staying at Rose's home. The family's moves continued with stops in southern New Jersey, Chicago and Kalamazoo, where Mulligan lived for three years and attended Catholic school; when the school moved into a new building and established music courses, Mulligan decided to play clarinet in the school's nascent orchestra. Mulligan made an attempt at arranging with the Richard Rodgers song "Lover", but the arrangement was seized prior to its first reading by an overzealous nun, taken aback by the title on the arrangement.
When Gerry Mulligan was 14, his family moved to Detroit and to Reading, Pennsylvania. While in Reading, Mulligan began studying clarinet with dance-band musician Sammy Correnti, who encouraged Mulligan's interest in arranging. Mulligan began playing saxophone professionally in dance bands in Philadelphia, an hour and a half or so away; the Mulligan family next moved to Philadelphia, where Gerry attended the West Philadelphia Catholic High School for Boys and organized a school big band, for which he wrote arrangements. When Mulligan was sixteen, he approached Johnny Warrington at local radio station WCAU about writing arrangements for the station's house band. Warrington began buying Mulligan's arrangements. Mulligan dropped out of high school during his senior year to pursue work with a touring band, he contacted bandleader Tommy Tucker. While Tucker did not need an additional reedman, he was looking for an arranger and Mulligan was hired at $100 a week to do two or three arrangements a week.
At the conclusion of Mulligan's three-month contract, Tucker told Mulligan that he should move on to another band, a little less "tame". Mulligan went back to Philadelphia and began writing for Elliot Lawrence, a pianist and composer who had taken over for Warrington as the band leader at WCAU. Mulligan moved to New York City in January 1946 and joined the arranging staff on Gene Krupa's bebop-tinged band. Arrangements of Mulligan's work with Krupa include "Birdhouse", "Disc Jockey Jump" and an arrangement of "How High the Moon", quoting Charlie Parker's "Ornithology" as a countermelody. Mulligan next began arranging for the Claude Thornhill Orchestra sitting in as a member of the reed section. Thornhill's arranging staff included Gil Evans, whom Mulligan had met while working with the Krupa band. Mulligan began living with Evans, at the time that Evans' apartment on West 55th Street became a regular hangout for a number of jazz musicians working on creating a new jazz idiom. In September 1948, Miles Davis formed a nine-piece band that featured arrangements by Mulligan and John Lewis.
The band consisted of Davis on trumpet, Mulligan on baritone saxophone, trombonist Mike Zwerin, alto saxophonist Lee Konitz, Junior Collins on French horn, tubist Bill Barber, pianist John Lewis, bassist Al McKibbon and drummer Max Roach. The band only played a handful of live performances. However, over the next couple of years, Davis reformed the nonet on three occasions to record twelve pieces for release as singles; these were compiled on a Capitol Records long-playing record, titled Birth of the Cool. Mulligan wrote and arranged three of the tunes recorded, arranged a further three, he was one of only four musicians who played on all the recordings. Despite the chilly reception by audiences of 1949, the Davis nonet has been judged by history as one of the most influential groups in jazz history, creating a sound that, despite its East Coast origins, became known as West Coast Jazz. During his period of occasional work with the Davis nonet between 1949 and 1951, Mulligan regularly performed with a