George Washington

George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War for Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787, which established the U. S. Constitution and a federal government. Washington has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the Continental Army. He commanded American forces, allied with France, in the defeat and surrender of the British during the Siege of Yorktown, he resigned his commission after the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Washington played a key role in adopting and ratifying the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College.

He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington owned slaves, in order to preserve national unity he supported measures passed by Congress to protect slavery, he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed his slaves in a 1799 will. He endeavored to assimilate Native Americans into Anglo-American culture but combated indigenous resistance during occasions of violent conflict, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged broad religious freedom in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen".

He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the greatest U. S. presidents. The Washington family was a wealthy Virginia family. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England, to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River. George Washington was born February 22, 1732, at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. By English common law Washington was a naturalized subject of the King, as were all others born in the English colonies, his father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler. The family moved to Little Hunting Creek in 1735 to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1738; when Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education his elder brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and land surveying.

He was map-maker. By early adulthood he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision", however his writing displayed little wit or humor. In pursuit of admiration and power, he tended to attribute his shortcomings and failures to someone else's ineffectuality. Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property, he received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. By 1752 he had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley and owned 2,315 acres. In 1751 Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence Washington's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired George to seek a commission.

Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major and as commander of one of the four militia districts. The British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between the river and Lake Erie. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed. Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but t

Simone Tata

Simone Naval Tata, née Dunoyer is a Swiss-born Indian Business woman belonging to the Tata family. Simone Tata was born and brought up in Geneva and graduated from Geneva University, she visited India as a tourist in 1953. They got married in 1955 and Simone settled permanently in Mumbai. Simone and Naval are the parents of Noel Tata. Simone is the stepmother of the Tata group chairman, Ratan Tata, from Naval's former marriage. Simone Tata joined the Lakme Board in 1962 when it was a minor subsidiary of Tata Oil Mills, as managing director in 1961, rising to become its chairperson in 1982 and served as Non-Executive Chairman of Trent Ltd. until 30 October 2006. She was appointed to the board of Tata Industries in 1989. Seeing growth in the retail sector, in 1996 Tata sold Lakmé to Hindustan Lever Limited, created Trent from the money it made through the sale. All shareholders of Lakmé were given equivalent shares in Trent; the Westside brand and stores belong to Trent


The boobam is a percussion instrument of the membranophone family consisting of an array of tubes with membranes stretched on one end, the other end open. The tuning depends on the tension on the membrane and on the length of the tube. In 1948 Harry Partch, an American composer, developed a system of music that depended on the building of various instruments that could play non-tempered scales; some of them were based on some on more primitive instruments like marimbas. Musician David "Buck" Wheat and his roommate in Sausalito, Bill Loughborough, a musician and electronic engineer, assisted Partch in the development of his instruments. Around 1955-1956 Partch designed and built an instrument he called the "boo", short for "bamboo marimba"; this instrument consisted of sections of bamboo with one end closed, a tongue cut in the side, tuned to the same pitch as the resonating chamber of the stopped bamboo section. The instrument is played with felt-covered sticks, has a dry, short duration percussive tone, but with a particular pitch.

Buck Wheat and Loughborough moved onto a Sausalito barge with Jak Simpson who in 1954 had founded a business named the "BooBam Bamboo Drum Company". Experimenting further with Partch's boo concept, they hit on the idea of covering the closed section of the bamboo tube with a small drum head, dispensing with the tongue, playing on the membrane of the head, instead; the specific pitch of the drum could be tuned by changing the tension on the drum head, adjusting the length of the bamboo tube until a resonator of the desired pitch was obtained. The name boobam was coined in Mill Valley, California in 1954 and was described as "bamboo spelled sideways". Buck Wheat was as a bass player on a cruise liner at the time, he would buy large diameter giant bamboo while in the Philippines, bring back it back to the states. While the resonating the tubes were made from lengths of giant bamboo, pipes of wood, plastic and cardboard have since been used; the membranes were goat or calfskin but most are now synthetic drumheads.

Jazz groups added the boobams to their percussion sections. In 1956 Chet Baker's Ensemble used them on the Today Show, their unique sound inspired Nick Reynolds of the Kingston Trio who eagerly included them on their tour with his percussion solo being featured on "O Ken Karanga" on the album College Concert recorded at UCLA in 1962. Boobams are tuned bongos constructed with a shell of natural bamboo, ABS, plywood, or other suitable material; the available width and depth of the shell, which contributes to the desired pitch limited by the size of available bamboo found in the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean. With the adoption of wood and other synthetic materials, a modern boobam can be made to produce any desired pitch. Sets featuring the pitches of one, two, or three octaves of the common 12-tet scale have become common, are available from several makers. Similar instruments appear as ethnic drums in the Pacific Islands, but the modern instrument found its way into current use through its appearance on numerous recordings in Hollywood beginning in the 1950s.

Two sets of boobams were owned and used by West Coast jazz drummer Shelly Manne for numerous recording sessions in the Los Angeles studios. Bongo Harry Partch Octoban Rototom Boobams - Percussive Art Society Museum at the Wayback Machine Boobams played on a Kingston Trio recording by Nick Reynolds at the Wayback Machine