Rockingham is a historic house, the home of John Berrien and George Washington's final headquarters of the Revolutionary War. It is located at Franklin Township in Somerset County, New Jersey; the house was located on the hillside east of the Millstone River at Rocky Hill. It has been moved within southern Franklin Township several times, is now closer to Kingston than to Rocky Hill; the residence is a featured part of the Millstone River Valley Scenic Byway. The oldest portion of the house was built as a two-room, two-story saltbox style house c. 1710. The first reference to the house as "Rockingham" does not appear until a 1783 newspaper advertisement to sell the house, a name given most in honor of the Marquess of Rockingham, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 18, 1970 for its significance in military and social history. Additional documentation was approved on January 11, 2010, after the house was moved in 2001. John Berrien was a surveyor and land agent from Long Island whose business brought him into the Millstone River valley in the 1730s.
In 1735, he purchased the small house. Berrien became a judge, first in Somerset County before being named to the Supreme Court of New Jersey, his first wife, Mary Leonard of Perth Amboy died in 1758 without bearing children. Together John and Margaret had four boys and two girls. John Berrien drowned in the Millstone River in 1772, he is buried in Princeton Cemetery. General George Washington stayed at Rockingham from August 23, 1783 to November 10, 1783, he was invited to the area by Congress, who were headquartered in Nassau Hall in Princeton while awaiting the news of the signing of the Treaty of Paris to end the Revolutionary War. Washington was accompanied by three aides-de-camp, a troop of between twelve and twenty-four life guards, his servants and, until early October, his wife Martha Washington, he spent his time at Rockingham entertaining Congress and other local figures until word of the end of the War reached him on October 31. On November 2, Washington composed his Farewell Orders to the Armies of the United States at Rockingham, a document dismissing his troops and announcing his retirement from the Army.
In 1802, Margaret Berrien sold the house to Frederick Cruser, who continued the expansion of the house. Storage space and servants sleeping quarters were added to the kitchen wing, a second-story balcony added to the front of the house, the roofline raised to accommodate a third-story attic; the Cruser family occupied Rockingham until 1841. The house changed hands many times until the 1890s when the property was bought by the Rocky Hill Quarry Company; the first move of the house was in 1897 to remove it from the Rocky Hill Quarry Company property in Rocky Hill. Kate McFarlane and Josephine Swann helped create the Washington Headquarters Association of Rocky Hill, which raised the money to purchase the structure and move it away from the quarry. In August 1897, the house was opened to the public. In 1935, ownership was turned over to the state of New Jersey. By 1956, the quarry had expanded and the house again was too close to active quarrying. Rockingham was moved a half mile eastward along County Route 518.
The house made its final move in 2001. It now sits on a 27-acre lot on Kingston-Rocky Hill Road, adjacent to the Delaware and Raritan Canal, on the outskirts of Kingston; the site is open year-round. Rockingham has been owned by many individuals and moved three times since it was built: c. 1710 House built on the hillside east of the Millstone River at Rocky Hill: 40°23′54″N 74°37′32″W 1735 John Berrien buys house and property 1783 George Washington uses Rockingham as headquarters 1802 House sold to Frederick Cruser 1841 House sold to Henry Duryee 1847 House sold to James Stryker Van Pelt 1869 House sold to David H. Mount 1872 House sold to Martin A. Howell c. 1890 House and property sold to Rocky Hill Quarry Company 1897 House moved away from quarry, first move: 40°23′52″N 74°37′15″W 1956 House moved farther away from quarry, second move: 40°24′10″N 74°36′50″W 2001 House moved near Kingston, third move: 40°23′3″N 74°37′8″W List of the oldest buildings in New Jersey List of Washington's Headquarters during the Revolutionary War Media related to Rockingham at Wikimedia Commons Official homepage Historic American Buildings Survey No.
NJ-18, "Judge John Berrien House, Rocky Hill Road, Rocky Hill, Somerset County, NJ", 7 photos, 30 measured drawings, 6 data pages "Kate McFarlane and Josephine Swann, Women's Heritage Trail". The Historical Marker Database
James McHenry was a Scotch-Irish American military surgeon and statesman. McHenry was a signer of the eponym of Fort McHenry, he was a delegate to the Continental Congress from Maryland, the third United States Secretary of War, under the first and second presidents, George Washington and John Adams. He married his wife, Peggy Caldwell, on January 8, 1784. McHenry was born into a Scots-Irish family in Ballymena, County Antrim, Ireland in 1753. Alarmed that he was becoming sick from excessive studying, his family in 1771 sent him at 17 to North America to recuperate. Recent scholarship suggests that the family may have sent him to the colonies as an "advanced scout" to see if the entire family would wish to relocate, which they did a year later. Upon arrival, McHenry lived with a family friend in Philadelphia before deciding to finish his preparatory education at Newark Academy. Returning to Philadelphia, McHenry apprenticed under Benjamin Rush and became a physician. McHenry became a surgeon. McHenry served as a dedicated surgeon during the American Revolutionary War.
On August 10, 1776 he was appointed surgeon at the age of 23 of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion stationed at Fort Washington. He was taken prisoner the following November. While there, he observed that prisoners were given poor medical attention and initiated reports to that effect, to no avail, he was paroled in January 1777, released from parole in March 1778. Having sufficiently impressed George Washington, he was appointed aide as secretary to the commander-in-chief in May 1779. McHenry was present at the Battle of Monmouth. In August 1780 he was transferred to major-general Lafayette's staff, where he remained until he retired from the army in the autumn of 1781. Following the war, McHenry was one of three physicians who participated in the Constitutional Convention to create the new Constitution of the United States, he was elected by the legislature to the Maryland Senate on September 17, 1781 and as delegate to congress by the Maryland legislature on December 2, 1784. After a controversial campaign, he was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates on October 10, 1788.
Two years he retired from public life and spent a year engaged in mercantile business. On November 15, 1791 he served five years. Washington had considerable difficulties with his second administration, as his cabinet officers Hamilton and General Knox resigned. In addition, he had a vacancy after appointing Timothy Pickering to the State Department. After a few of Washington's preferred choices declined the position, the name of his friend, McHenry, surfaced. Washington appointed McHenry Secretary of War in 1796 and assigned him the task of facilitating the transition of Western military posts from Great Britain's control to that of the United States, under the terms of the Jay Treaty. McHenry advised the Senate committee against reducing military forces, he was instrumental in reorganizing the United States Army into one of four regiments of infantry, a troop of dragoons, a battery of artillery. He is credited with establishing the United States Department of the Navy, based on his recommendation that the "War Department should be assisted by a commissioner of marine."
On March 8, 1798. During President John Adams's administration, he appointed McHenry as his Secretary of War, as he had decided to keep the newly established institution of the presidential cabinet intact. There was no precedent to follow in the new constitutional government. Adams found that three members of the cabinet opposed him, they appeared to listen more to Alexander Hamilton than to the president and publicly disagreed with Adams about his foreign policy with regard to France. Instead of resigning, they stayed in office to work against his official policy, it is unknown. Although many liked McHenry Washington and Wolcott were said to have complained of his incompetence as an administrator. McHenry attributed Adams's troubles as chief executive to the president's long and frequent absences from the capital, leaving business in the hands of secretaries, who bore responsibility without the power to properly conduct it. After a stormy meeting with his cabinet in May 1800, Adams requested McHenry's resignation, which he submitted on May 13.
To replace McHenry, Adams first considered John Marshall, but when Pickering's departure left a vacancy in the office of Secretary of State, Adams named Marshall to that post. To succeed McHenry, Adams named Samuel Dexter; when Pickering refused to resign, Adams dismissed him. During the election of 1800, McHenry goaded Hamilton into releasing his indictment against the President, which questioned Adams's loyalty and patriotism, sparking public quarrels over the major candidates and paving the way for Thomas Jefferson to be elected as the next President; the pamphlet leaked past its intended audience, giving the people reason to oppose the Federalists since that group seemed to be dividing into bitter factions. Thus, Adams lost re-election to Thomas Jefferson. In 1792, McHenry had purchased a 95-acre tract from Ridgely's Delight and named it Fayetteville in honor of his friend, the Marquis de Lafayette. During that time, McHenry continued frequent correspondence with his friends and ass
Antonio Canova was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures. Regarded as the greatest of the Neoclassical artists, his artwork was inspired by the Baroque and the classical revival, but avoided the melodramatics of the former, the cold artificiality of the latter. In 1757, Antonio Canova was born in the Venetian Republic city of Possagno to Pietro Canova, a stonecutter. In 1761, his father died. A year his mother remarried; as such, in 1762, he was put into the care of his paternal grandfather Pasino Canova, a stonemason, owner of a quarry, was a "sculptor who specialized in altars with statues and low reliefs in late Baroque style". He led Antonio into the art of sculpting. Before the age of ten, Canova began making models in clay, carving marble. Indeed, at the age of nine, he executed two small shrines of Carrara marble. After these works, he appears to have been employed under his grandfather. In 1770, he was an apprentice for two years to Giuseppe Bernardi, known as'Torretto'.
Afterwards, he was under the tutelage of Giovanni Ferrari until he began his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia. At the Academy, he won several prizes. During this time, he was given his first workshop within a monastery by some local monks; the Senator Giovanni Falier commissioned Canova to produce statues of Orpheus and Eurydice for his garden – the Villa Falier at Asolo. The statues were begun in 1775, both were completed by 1777; the pieces exemplify the late Rococo style. On the year of its completion, both works were exhibited for the Feast of the Ascension in Piazza S. Marco. Praised, the works won Canova his first renown among the Venetian elite. Another Venetian, said to have commissioned early works from Canova was the abate Filippo Farsetti, whose collection at Ca' Farsetti on the Grand Canal he frequented. In 1779, Canova opened his own studio at Calle Del Traghetto at S. Maurizio. At this time, Procurator Pietro Vettor Pisani commissioned Canova's first marble statue: a depiction of Daedalus and Icarus.
The statue inspired great admiration for his work at the annual art fair. At the base of the statue, Daedalus' tools are scattered about. With such an intention, there is suggestion that Daedalus is a portrait of Canova's grandfather Pasino. Canova arrived in Rome, on 28 December 1780. Prior to his departure, his friends had applied to the Venetian senate for a pension. Successful in the application, the stipend allotted amounted to three hundred ducats, limited to three years. While in Rome, Canova spent time sketching the works of Michelangelo. In 1781, Girolamo Zulian – the Venetian ambassador to Rome – hired Canova to sculpt Theseus and the Minotaur; the statue depicts the victorious Theseus seated on the lifeless body of a Minotaur. The initial spectators were certain that the work was a copy of a Greek original, were shocked to learn it was a contemporary work; the regarded work is now in the collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum, in London. Between 1783 – 1785, Canova arranged and designed a funerary monument dedicated to Clement XIV for the Church of Santi Apostoli.
After another two years, the work met completion in 1787. The monument secured Canova's reputation as the pre-eminent living artist. In 1792, he completed another cenotaph, this time commemorating Clement XIII for St. Peter's Basilica. Canova harmonized its design with the older Baroque funerary monuments in the basilica. In 1790, he began to work on a funerary monument for Titian, abandoned by 1795. During the same year, he increased his activity as a painter; the following decade was productive, beginning works such as Hercules and Lichas and Psyche, Tomb of Duchess Maria Christina of Saxony-Teschen, The Penitent Magdalene. In 1797, he went to Vienna, but only a year in 1798, he returned to Possagno for a year. By 1800, Canova was the most celebrated artist in Europe, he systematically promoted his reputation by publishing engravings of his works and having marble versions of plaster casts made in his workshop. He became so successful that he had acquired patrons from across Europe including France, Russia, Poland and Holland, as well as several members from different royal lineages, prominent individuals.
Among his patrons were Napoleon and his family, for whom Canova produced much work, including several depictions between 1803 and 1809. The most notable representations were that of Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker, Venus Victrix, portrayal of Pauline Bonaparte. Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker had its inception after Canova was hired to make a bust of Napoleon in 1802; the statue was begun in 1803, with Napoleon requesting to be shown in a French General's uniform, Canova rejected this, insisting on an allusion to Mars, the Roman god of War. It was completed in 1806. In 1811, the statue arrived in Paris, but not installed. In 1815, the original went to the Duke of Wellington, after his victory at Waterloo against Napoleon. Venus Victrix was conceived as a robed and recumbent sculpture of Pauline Borghese in the guise of Diana. Instead, Pauline ordered Canova to make the statue a nude Venus; the work was not intended for public viewing. Other works for the Napoleon family include, a bust of Napoleon, a statue of Napoleon's mother, Marie Louise as Concordia.
In 1802, Canova was assigned the post of'Inspector-General of Antiquities and Fine Art of the Papal State', a
Evacuation Day (New York)
Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when the British Army departed from New York City on Manhattan Island, after the end of the American Revolutionary War. In their wake, General George Washington triumphantly led the Continental Army from his headquarters north of the city across the Harlem River, south through Manhattan to The Battery at its southern tip, it is claimed a British gunner fired the last shot of the Revolution this day, loosing a cannon at jeering crowds gathered on the shore of Staten Island as his ship passed through the Narrows at the mouth of New York Harbor. The shot fell well short of the shore. Following the devastating losses at the Battle of Long Island on August 27, 1776, General George Washington and the Continental Army retreated across the East River by benefit of both a retreat and holding action by well-trained Maryland Line troops at Gowanus Creek and Canal and a night fog which obscured the barges and boats evacuating troops to Manhattan Island.
On September 15, 1776, the British flag replaced the American atop Fort George, where it was to remain until Evacuation Day. Washington's Continentals subsequently withdrew north and west out of the town and following the Battle of Harlem Heights and action at the river forts of Fort Washington and Fort Lee on the northwest corner of the island along the Hudson River on November 16, 1776, evacuated Manhattan Island, they headed north for Westchester County, fought a delaying action at White Plains, retreated across New Jersey in the New York and New Jersey campaign. For the remainder of the American Revolutionary War, much of what is now Greater New York was under British control. New York City, under Admiral of the Fleet Richard Howe, Lord Howe and his brother Sir William Howe, General of the British Army, the British political and military center of operations in British North America. David Mathews was Mayor of New York during the British occupation. Many of the civilians who continued to reside in town were Loyalists.
On September 21, 1776, the city suffered a devastating fire of uncertain origin after the evacuation of Washington's Continental Army at the beginning of the British Army occupation. With hundreds of houses destroyed, many residents had to live in makeshift housing built from old ships. In addition, over 10,000 Patriot soldiers and sailors died through deliberate neglect on prison ships in New York waters during the British occupation—more Patriots died on these ships than died in every single battle of the war, combined; these men are memorialized, many of their remains are interred, at the Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument in Fort Greene Park, Brooklyn. In mid-August 1783, Sir Guy Carleton the last British Army and Royal Navy commander in the former British North America, received orders from his superiors in London for the evacuation of New York, he informed the President of the Confederation Congress that he was proceeding with the subsequent withdrawal of refugees, liberated slaves, military personnel as fast as possible, but that it was not possible to give an exact date because the number of refugees entering the city had increased dramatically.
The British evacuated over 3,000 Black Loyalists, former slaves they had liberated from the Americans, to Nova Scotia, East Florida, the Caribbean, London, refused to return them to their American slaveholders and overseers as the provisions of the Treaty of Paris had required them to do. The Black Brigade were among the last to depart. Carleton gave a final evacuation date of 12:00 noon on November 25, 1783. An anecdote by New York physician Alexander Anderson told of a scuffle between a British officer and the proprietress of a boarding house, as she defiantly raised her own American flag before noon. Following the departure of the British, the city was secured by American troops under the command of General Henry Knox. Entry into the city under General George Washington was delayed until a still flying British Union Flag could be removed: It had been nailed to a flagpole at Fort George on the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan as a final act of defiance, the pole was greased. After a number of men attempted to tear down the British colors, wooden cleats were cut and nailed to the pole and, with the help of a ladder, an army veteran, John Van Arsdale, was able to ascend the pole, remove the flag, replace it with the Stars and Stripes before the British fleet had sailed out of sight.
That same day, a liberty pole with a flag was erected at New Utrecht Reformed Church. Another liberty pole was raised in Queens, in a celebration that December. Seven years after the retreat from Manhattan on November 16, 1776, General George Washington and Governor of New York George Clinton reclaimed Fort Washington on the northwest corner of Manhattan Island and led the Continental Army in a triumphal precision march down the road through the center of the island onto Broadway in the Town to the Battery. During his stay, Washington had a meeting with Hercules Mulligan, which helped dispel suspicions about the tailor and spy. A week on December 4, at Fraunces Tavern, at Pearl and Broad Streets, General Washington formally said farewell to his officers with a short statement, taking each one of his officers and official family by the hand. Washington headed south, being cheered and fêted on his way at many stops in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. By December 23, he arrived in Annapolis, where the Confederation Congress was meeting at the Maryland State House to consider the terms of the Treaty of Paris.
At their s
Martha Washington was the wife of George Washington, the first President of the United States. Although the title was not coined until after her death, Martha Washington served as the inaugural First Lady of the United States. During her lifetime she was referred to as "Lady Washington", she had first married Daniel Parke Custis, with whom she had four children, was widowed by the age of 25. Two of her children by Custis survived to young adulthood, she brought her vast wealth to her marriage to Washington, which enabled him to buy land to add to his personal estate. She brought nearly 100 dower slaves for her use during her lifetime, they and their descendants reverted to her first husband's estate at her death and were inherited by his heirs. She and Washington did not have children together but they did rear her two children by Daniel Parke Custis, including son John "Jacky" Parke Custis, they helped both of their extended families. Martha Dandridge was born on June 2, 1731 on her parents' plantation Chestnut Grove in the British colony, Province of Virginia.
She was the oldest daughter of John Dandridge, a Virginia planter and immigrant from England, by his wife Frances Jones, of American birth and English and French descent. Martha had three brothers and four sisters: John, Bartholomew, Anna Maria "Fanny" Bassett, Frances Dandridge, Elizabeth Aylett Henley and Mary Dandridge. Martha may have had an illegitimate half-sister, Ann Dandridge Costin, born into slavery. Costin's enslaved mother was of African and Cherokee descent, her father was believed to be John Dandridge. Martha's father may have fathered an out-of-wedlock half-brother to Martha named Ralph Dandridge, white. On May 15, 1750, at age 18, Martha married Daniel Parke Custis, a rich planter two decades her senior, moved to his residence, White House Plantation, located on the south shore of the Pamunkey River, a few miles upriver from Chestnut Grove, they had four children together: Daniel, Frances and Martha. Daniel and Frances died in childhood; the other two children, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis, survived to young adulthood.
Her husband's death in 1757 left Martha a rich young widow at age 25, with independent control over a dower inheritance for her lifetime, trustee control over the inheritance of her minor children. In all, she was left in custody of some 17,500 acres of land and 300 slaves, apart from other investments and cash. According to her biographer, "she capably ran the five plantations left to her when her first husband died, bargaining with London merchants for the best tobacco prices." Martha Custis, age 27, George Washington, age 27, married on January 6, 1759, at the White House plantation. As a man who lived and owned property in the area, Washington knew both Martha and Daniel Parke Custis for some time before Daniel's death. During March 1758 he visited her twice at the White House. At the time, she was being courted by the planter Charles Carter, wealthier than Washington; the wedding was grand. Washington's suit was of silver cloth with red trimming and gold knee buckles; the bride wore purple silk shoes with spangled buckles.
The couple honeymooned at the White House for several weeks before setting up house at Washington's Mount Vernon estate. They appeared to have had a solid marriage. Martha and George Washington had no children together, but they raised Martha's two surviving children, her daughter, nicknamed Patsy, died as a teenager during an epileptic seizure. John Parke "Jacky" Custis returned from college to comfort his mother. Custis married and had children, he died of "camp fever". After his death, the Washingtons raised the youngest two of John's four children, Eleanor Parke Custis, George Washington Parke Custis; the two older girls remained with their mother. The Washingtons provided personal and financial support to nieces and other family members in both the Dandridge and Washington families. Content to live a private life at Mount Vernon and her homes from the Custis estate, Martha Washington followed Washington to his winter encampments for each of eight years, she helped keep up morale among the officers.
By tradition, Washington was described as spending her days at the Revolutionary War winter encampments visiting with the common soldiers in their huts. But Nancy Loane, author of Following the Drum: Women at the Valley Forge Encampment, says there is no evidence that Washington visited with the common soldiers, noting that Martha Washington was fashionably dressed, a woman of great wealth and independent means. Mrs. Washington joined her husband during the Revolution for all the Continental Army's winter encampments. Before the revolution began, she had kept close to home. General Lafayette observed that she loved "her husband madly"; the Continental Army settled in Valley Forge, the third of the eight winter encampments of the Revolution, on December 19, 1777. Martha W
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts raised; the technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point in stone. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the sculpted form from the field, for which the Italian and French terms are still sometimes used in English.
The full range includes high relief, where more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas, mid-relief, low-relief, shallow-relief or rilievo schiacciato, where the plane is only slightly lower than the sculpted elements. There is sunk relief, restricted to Ancient Egypt. However, the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, these two are the only terms used to discuss most work; the definition of these terms is somewhat variable, many works combine areas in more than one of them, sometimes sliding between them in a single figure. The opposite of relief sculpture is counter-relief, intaglio, or cavo-rilievo, where the form is cut into the field or background rather than rising from it. Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, though they are seen in "sunk relief" and are usual in "bas-relief" and "counter-relief". Works in the technique are described as "in relief", in monumental sculpture, the work itself is "a relief".
Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of smaller settings, a sequence of several panels or sections of relief may represent an extended narrative. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with many figures and active poses, such as battles, than free-standing "sculpture in the round". Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief; the subject of reliefs is for convenient reference assumed in this article to be figures, but sculpture in relief depicts decorative geometrical or foliage patterns, as in the arabesques of Islamic art, may be of any subject. Rock reliefs are those carved into solid rock in the open air; this type is found in many cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a single standing stone; the distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most "high reliefs" contain sections in low relief in the background.
From the Parthenon Frieze onwards, many single figures in large monumental sculpture have heads in high relief, but their lower legs are in low relief. The projecting figures created in this way work well in reliefs that are seen from below, reflect that the heads of figures are of more interest to both artist and viewer than the legs or feet; as unfinished examples from various periods show, raised reliefs, whether high or low, were "blocked out" by marking the outline of the figure and reducing the background areas to the new background level, work no doubt performed by apprentices. A low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief. In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is distorted, if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image. Other versions distort depth much less, it is a technique which requires less work, is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required.
In the art of Ancient Egypt, Assyrian palace reliefs, other ancient Near Eastern and Asian cultures, Meso-America, a consistent low relief was used for the whole composition. These images would be painted after carving, which helped define the forms; the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now in Berlin, has low reliefs of large animals formed from moulded bricks, glazed in colour. Plaster, which made the technique far easier, was used in Egypt and the Near East from antiquity into Islamic times and Europe from at least the Renaissance, as well as elsewhere. However, it needs good co