1.
Geneva
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Geneva is the second most populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic, the municipality has a population of 198,072, and the canton has 484,736 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France, within Swiss territory, the commuter area named Métropole lémanique contains a population of 1.25 million. This area is essentially spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, Geneva is the city that hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world. It is also the place where the Geneva Conventions were signed, Geneva was ranked as the worlds ninth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, ahead of Frankfurt, and third in Europe behind London and Zürich. A2009 survey by Mercer found that Geneva has the third-highest quality of life of any city in the world, the city has been referred to as the worlds most compact metropolis and the Peace Capital. In 2009 and 2011, Geneva was ranked as, respectively, the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava, probably from a Celtic toponym *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis, the name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva /dʒᵻˈniːvə/ in English, French, Genève, German, Genf, Italian, Ginevra, and Romansh, Genevra. The city in origin shares its name, *genawa estuary, with the Italian port city of Genoa, Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC. It became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, and acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, around this time the House of Savoy came to dominate the city. In the 15th century, a republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In 1541, with Protestantism in the ascendancy, John Calvin, by the 18th century, however, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France also tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, in 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, in 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12 North, 6°09 East, at the end of Lake Geneva. It is surrounded by two chains, the Alps and the Jura
2.
Canton of Geneva
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The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France. As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation, the canton of Geneva is located in the southwestern corner of Switzerland, and is considered one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a influence on the canton. The Republic of Geneva was proclaimed in 1541, under John Calvin, the Republic of Geneva reinforced its alliance to the Protestant cantons of the Swiss Confederacy, becoming an everlasting ally in 1584. The French Revolution reached Geneva in 1792, and in February 1794, after the death of Robespierre in July of the same year, there was a counter-revolution, which gained the upper hand by 1796. This prompted the French invasion of 1798, and the annexation of Geneva as part of the French département du Léman, Geneva finally joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nd canton, having been enlarged by French and Savoyard territories at the Vienna Congress. The area of the canton of Geneva is 282 square kilometers, the canton is surrounded on almost all sides by France and bordered by the Swiss canton of Vaud on northeast. The adjoining French départements are Ain and Haute-Savoie, the current boundaries of the canton were established in 1815. There are 45 municipalities in the canton, Geneva does not have any administrative districts. There are 10 cities with a population of over 10,000 as of 2007, Genève, Vernier, Lancy, Meyrin, Carouge, Onex, Thônex, Versoix, Grand-Saconnex, Chêne-Bougeries. The constitution of the canton was established in 1847, and has, the cantonal government has seven members who are elected for four years. The legislature, the Grand Council, has 100 seats, with deputies elected for four years at a time, the last elecation was held on 7 October 2013. In a similar way to what happens at the Federal level, in addition, any law can be subject to a referendum if it is demanded by 7,000 persons entitled to vote, and 10,000 persons may also propose a new law. The republique and canton of Geneva has 11 seats in the National Council, on 18 October 2015, in the federal election the most popular party was the The Liberals which received three seats with 20. 5% of the votes. In the federal election, a total of 106,852 votes were cast, and she is part of the Council of States since 2007. Councilor Robert Cramer, member of the Green Party, was re-elected in the round with a majority of 42,075 votes. He is part of the Council of States since 2007, ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^b * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton. ^c Part of the FDP for this election ^d Part of the SD for this election The population of the canton is 484,736, as of 2013, the population included 194,623 foreigners from 187 different nations, or about 40. 1% of the total population
3.
Physicist
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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, the exploration of the interactions of matter and energy across the physical universe. A physicist is a scientist who specializes or works in the field of physics, physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists can also apply their knowledge towards solving real-world problems or developing new technologies, some physicists specialize in sectors outside the science of physics itself, such as engineering. The study and practice of physics is based on a ladder of discoveries. Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in ancient Greek culture and Asian culture, the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo and Kepler in the early 1600s. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes an increase in understanding physical cosmology. The term physicist was coined by William Whewell in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, many physicist positions require an undergraduate degree in applied physics or a related science or a Masters degree like MSc, MPhil, MPhys or MSci. In a research oriented level, students tend to specialize in a particular field, Physics students also need training in mathematics, and also in computer science and programming. For being employed as a physicist a doctoral background may be required for certain positions, undergraduate students like BSc Mechanical Engineering, BSc Electrical and Computer Engineering, BSc Applied Physics. etc. With physics orientation are chosen as research assistants with faculty members, the highest honor awarded to physicists is the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The three major employers of career physicists are academic institutions, laboratories, and private industries, with the largest employer being the last, physicists in academia or government labs tend to have titles such as Assistants, Professors, Sr. /Jr. As per the American Institute for Physics, some 20% of new physics Ph. D. s holds jobs in engineering development programs, while 14% turn to computer software, a majority of physicists employed apply their skills and training to interdisciplinary sectors. For industry or self-employment. and also in science and programming. Hence a majority of Physics bachelors degree holders are employed in the private sector, other fields are academia, government and military service, nonprofit entities, labs and teaching
4.
Le Sage's theory of gravitation
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Le Sages theory of gravitation is a kinetic theory of gravity originally proposed by Nicolas Fatio de Duillier in 1690 and later by Georges-Louis Le Sage in 1748. The theory proposed an explanation for Newtons gravitational force in terms of streams of tiny unseen particles impacting all material objects from all directions. The theory posits that the force of gravity is the result of particles moving at high speed in all directions. Likewise B will be struck by particles from the direction of A than from the opposite direction. One can say that A and B are shadowing each other, the same is true if a second body B is introduced, where B acts as a shield against gravific particles in the direction of A. Thus if the collisions are elastic, the reflected particles between A and B would fully compensate any shadowing effect. This would result in streams with diminished momentum departing from A, under this assumption, the reflected particles in the two-body case will not fully compensate the shadowing effect, because the reflected flux is weaker than the incident flux. We can imagine this imbalance of momentum flow - and therefore of the force exerted on any body in the vicinity - distributed over a spherical surface centered on the object. Therefore, the momentum imbalance per unit area decreases inversely as the square of the distance, mass proportionality From the premises outlined so far, there arises only a force which is proportional to the surface of the bodies. But gravity is proportional to the masses, the result is, that the shadow of each body is proportional to the surface of every single element of matter. If it is assumed that the elementary opaque elements of all matter are identical, it will follow that the shadow effect is, at least approximately. Nicolas Fatio presented the first formulation of his thoughts on gravitation in a letter to Christiaan Huygens in the spring of 1690, two days later Fatio read the content of the letter before the Royal Society in London. In the following years Fatio composed several draft manuscripts of his major work De la Cause de la Pesanteur, in 1731 Fatio also sent his theory as a Latin poem, in the style of Lucretius, to the Paris Academy of Science, but it was dismissed. Some fragments of manuscripts and copies of the poem were later acquired by Le Sage who failed to find a publisher for Fatios papers. The Gagnebin edition includes revisions made by Fatio as late as 1743, however, the second half of the Bopp edition contains the mathematically most advanced parts of Fatios theory, and were not included by Gagnebin in his edition. For a detailed analysis of Fatios work, and a comparison between the Bopp and the Gagnebin editions, see Zehe The following description is based on the Bopp edition. Fatios pyramid Fatio assumed that the universe is filled with minute particles, to illustrate his thoughts he used the following example, Suppose an object C, on which an infinite small plane zz and a sphere centered about zz is drawn. Into this sphere Fatio placed the pyramid PzzQ, in which particles are streaming in the direction of zz and also some particles
5.
Electrical telegraph
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An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication lines or radio. From early studies of electricity, electrical phenomena were known to travel with great speed, in 1753 an anonymous writer in the Scots Magazine suggested an electrostatic telegraph. In 1774 Georges-Louis Le Sage realised an early electric telegraph, the telegraph had a separate wire for each of the 26 letters of the alphabet and its range was only between two rooms of his home. In 1800 Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile, allowing for a current of electricity for experimentation. Both their designs employed multiple wires to represent almost all Latin letters, thus, messages could be conveyed electrically up to a few kilometers, with each of the telegraph receivers wires immersed in a separate glass tube of acid. The telegraph receivers operator would watch the bubbles and could record the transmitted message. This is in contrast to later telegraphs that used a single wire, hans Christian Ørsted discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field which will deflect a compass needle. In the same year Johann Schweigger invented the galvanometer, with a coil of wire around a compass, in 1824, Peter Barlow said that such a system only worked to a distance of about 200 feet, and so was impractical. In 1825 William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet, with a winding of uninsulated wire on a piece of varnished iron. During his tenure at The Albany Academy from 1826 to 1832, in 1835 Joseph Henry and Edward Davy invented the critical electrical relay. Davys relay used a needle which dipped into a mercury contact when an electric current passed through the surrounding coil. This allowed a weak current to switch a larger current to operate a powerful local electromagnet over very long distances, Davy demonstrated his telegraph system in Regents Park in 1837 and was granted a patent on 4 July 1838. He also developed an electric relay, the first working telegraph was built by the English inventor Francis Ronalds in 1816 and used static electricity. At the family home on Hammersmith Mall, he set up a subterranean system in a 175 yard long trench as well as an eight mile long overhead telegraph. The lines were connected at both ends to revolving dials marked with the letters of the alphabet and electrical impulses sent along the wire were used to transmit messages, offering his invention to the Admiralty in July 1816, it was rejected as “wholly unnecessary”. Elements of Ronalds’ design were utilised in the subsequent commercialisation of the telegraph over 20 years later, the telegraph invented by Baron Schilling von Canstatt in 1832 had a transmitting device which consisted of a keyboard with 16 black-and-white keys. These served for switching the electric current, the receiving instrument consisted of six galvanometers with magnetic needles, suspended from silk threads. Both stations of Shillings telegraph were connected by eight wires, six were connected with the galvanometers, one served for the return current, when at the starting station the operator pressed a key, the corresponding pointer was deflected at the receiving station
6.
Kinetic theory of gases
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Kinetic theory explains macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion. The theory posits that gas pressure is due to the impacts, on the walls of a container, Kinetic theory defines temperature in its own way, not identical with the thermodynamic definition. Under a microscope, the making up a liquid are too small to be visible. Known as Brownian motion, it directly from collisions between the grains or particles and liquid molecules. As analyzed by Albert Einstein in 1907, this evidence for kinetic theory is generally seen as having confirmed the concrete material existence of atoms. The theory for ideal gases makes the assumptions, The gas consists of very small particles known as molecules. This smallness of their size is such that the volume of the individual gas molecules added up is negligible compared to the volume of the smallest open ball containing all the molecules. This is equivalent to stating that the distance separating the gas particles is large compared to their size. These particles have the same mass, the number of molecules is so large that statistical treatment can be applied. These molecules are in constant, random, and rapid motion, the rapidly moving particles constantly collide among themselves and with the walls of the container. All these collisions are perfectly elastic and this means, the molecules are considered to be perfectly spherical in shape, and elastic in nature. Except during collisions, the interactions among molecules are negligible and this means that the inter-particle distance is much larger than the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the molecules are treated as classical objects. Because of the two, their dynamics can be treated classically. This means that the equations of motion of the molecules are time-reversible, the average kinetic energy of the gas particles depends only on the absolute temperature of the system. The kinetic theory has its own definition of temperature, not identical with the thermodynamic definition, the elapsed time of a collision between a molecule and the containers wall is negligible when compared to the time between successive collisions. Because they have mass, the gas molecules will be affected by gravity, more modern developments relax these assumptions and are based on the Boltzmann equation. These can accurately describe the properties of gases, because they include the volume of the molecules. The necessary assumptions are the absence of quantum effects, molecular chaos, expansions to higher orders in the density are known as virial expansions
7.
Lucretius
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Titus Lucretius Carus was a Roman poet and philosopher. His only known work is the philosophical poem De rerum natura about the tenets and philosophy of Epicureanism. Lucretius has been credited with originating the concept of the system which was formalised from 1834 by C. J. Thomsen. Very little is known about Lucretiuss life, the certain fact is that he was either a friend or client of Gaius Memmius. De rerum natura was an influence on the Augustan poets, particularly Virgil. Virtually nothing is known about the life of Lucretius and he was probably a member of the aristocratic gens Lucretia, and his work shows an intimate knowledge of the luxurious lifestyle in Rome. In a letter by Cicero to his brother Quintus in February 54 BC, Cicero said, The poems of Lucretius are as you write, they exhibit many flashes of genius, and yet show great mastership. By this time, both Cicero and his brother had read De rerum natura, and so might have many other Romans, a literary evaluation of Lucretiuss work, however, reveals some repetition and a sudden end to Book 6 during a description of the plague at Athens. The poem appears to have been published without a final revision, if this is true, Lucretius must have been dead by 54 BC. A brief biographical note is found in Aelius Donatuss Life of Virgil, the two consuls of 70 BC, Pompey and Crassus, stood together as consuls again in 55, not 53. There is insufficient basis for a confident assertion of the date of Lucretiuss birth or death in other sources, another yet briefer note is found in the Chronicon of Donatuss pupil, Jerome. Writing four centuries after Lucretiuss death, he enters under the 171st Olympiad the following line, Titus Lucretius the poet is born. The claim that he was driven mad by a potion, although defended by such scholars as Reale and Catan, often is dismissed as the result of historical confusion. In some accounts the administration of the toxic aphrodisiac is attributed to his wife Lucilia, jeromes image of Lucretius as a lovesick, mad poet continued to have significant influence on modern scholarship until quite recently, although it now is accepted that such a report is inaccurate. Similarly, the statement that Cicero emended the work prior to publication is doubtful, the exact date of his birth varies by manuscript, in most it is recorded under 94 BC, but in others under 93 or 96. Lucretius and Jerome wrote for opposing purposes, and whether or not Jerome attempted to disparage Lucretiuss work as the work of a madman is an open question. If 55 BC is Lucretiuss most likely year of death, however and his poem De rerum natura transmits the ideas of Epicureanism, which includes Atomism, and psychology. Lucretius was the first writer to introduce Roman readers to Epicurean philosophy, the poem, written in some 7,400 dactylic hexameters, is divided into six untitled books, and explores Epicurean physics through richly poetic language and metaphors
8.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
9.
Gabriel Cramer
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Gabriel Cramer was a Swiss mathematician, born in Geneva. He was the son of physician Jean Cramer and Anne Mallet Cramer, Cramer showed promise in mathematics from an early age. At 18 he received his doctorate and at 20 he was co-chair of mathematics at the University of Geneva, in 1728 he proposed a solution to the St. Petersburg Paradox that came very close to the concept of expected utility theory given ten years later by Daniel Bernoulli. He published his work in his forties. This included his treatise on algebraic curves and it contains the earliest demonstration that a curve of the n-th degree is determined by n/2 points on it, in general position. This led to the misconception that is Cramers paradox, concerning the number of intersections of two compared to the number of points that determine a curve. He edited the works of the two elder Bernoullis, and wrote on the cause of the spheroidal shape of the planets and the motion of their apsides. In 1750 he published Cramers rule, giving a formula for the solution for any unknown in a linear equation system having a unique solution. He did extensive travel throughout Europe in the late 1730s, which influenced his works in mathematics. He died in 1752 at Bagnols-sur-Cèze while traveling in southern France to restore his health, quelle est la cause de la figure elliptique des planètes et de la mobilité de leur aphélies. Geneva,1730 Introduction à lanalyse des lignes courbes algébriques at Google Books
10.
Jean-Louis Calandrini
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Jean-Louis Calandrini was a Swiss scientist. He was a professor of mathematics and philosophy and he was the author of some studies on the aurora borealis, comets, and the effects of lightning, as well as of an important but unpublished work on flat and spherical trigonometry. He also wrote a commentary on the Principia of Isaac Newton, the genus Calandrinia was named after him. His father was a pastor, also named Jean-Louis, and his mother was Michée Du Pan and he is the grandnephew of Bénédict Calandrini. In 1729, he married Renée Lullin, at the Academy of Geneva, he obtained his thesis in physics. In 1724, Calandrini was named professor at the same time as Gabriel Cramer. He was appointed professor of philosophy from 1734 to 1750 and he also played an active role on the political scene of Geneva. Jean-Louis Calandrini in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
11.
Basel
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Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerlands third-most-populous city with about 175,000 inhabitants, located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany. In 2014, the Basel agglomeration was the third largest in Switzerland with a population of 537,100 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland, the official language of Basel is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, the city has been a commercial hub and important cultural centre since the Renaissance, and has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in the 20th century. It hosts the oldest university of the Swiss Confederation, There are settlement traces on the Rhine knee from the early La Tène period. The unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an Oppidum on the site of Basel Minster, probably in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul. In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the administrative centre. The city of Basel eventually grew around the castle, the name of Basel is derived from the Roman-era toponym Basilia, first recorded in the 3rd century. It is presumably derived from the personal name Basilius, the Old French form Basle was adopted into English, and developed into the modern French Bâle. The Icelandic name Buslaraborg goes back to the 12th century Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan, Basel was incorporated into Germania Superior in AD83. Roman control over the area deteriorated in 3rd century, and Basel became an outpost of the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum formed by Diocletian, the Alamanni attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled. In a great invasion of AD406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time, conquering and then settling what is today Alsace, from this time, Basel has been an Alemannic settlement. The Duchy of Alemannia fell under Frankish rule in the 6th century, and by the 7th century, based on the evidence of a third solidus with the inscription Basilia fit, Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century. Under bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle, at the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Basel was first given to West Francia, but passed to East Francia with the treaty of Meerssen of 870. The city was plundered and destroyed by a Magyar invasion of 917, the rebuilt city became part of Upper Burgundy, and as such was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in 1032. Since the donation by Rudolph III of Burgundy of the Moutier-Grandval Abbey and all its possessions to Bishop Adalbero II in 999 till the Reformation, in 1019, the construction of the cathedral of Basel began under German Emperor Heinrich II. In 1225–1226, the Bridge over the Rhine was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun, the bridge was largely funded by Basels Jewish community which had settled there a century earlier. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river between Lake Constance and the sea, the Bishop also allowed the furriers to found a guild in 1226
12.
Charles Bonnet
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Charles Bonnet, Genevan naturalist and philosophical writer, was born at Geneva, of a French family driven into the region by the religious persecution in the 16th century. The last twenty five years of his life he spent quietly in the country, at Genthod, near Geneva and his wife was a lady of the family of De la Rive. They had no children, but Madame Bonnets nephew, the celebrated Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, was brought up as their son and he made law his profession, but his favourite pursuit was the study of natural science. The account of the ant-lion in Noël-Antoine Pluches Spectacle de la nature and he procured RAF de Réaumurs work on insects, and with the help of live specimens succeeded in adding many observations to those of Réaumur and Pluche. During that year he had been in correspondence with his uncle Abraham Trembley who had discovered the hydra. This little creature became the hit of all the salons across Europe once philosophers and natural scientists saw its amazing regenerative capabilities. In 1743, he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, in 1753, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and on 15 December 1769 a foreign member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. But Bonnets eyesight, which threatened to fail altogether, caused him to turn to philosophy, in 1754 his Essai de psychologie was published anonymously in London. This was followed by the Essai analytique sur les facultés de lâme, in 1760 he described a condition now called Charles Bonnet Syndrome, in which vivid, complex visual hallucinations occur in psychologically normal people. Bonnets philosophical system may be outlined as follows, man is a compound of two distinct substances, mind and body, the one immaterial and the other material. All knowledge originates in sensations, sensations follow vibrations in the nerves appropriate to each, and lastly, the nerves are made to vibrate by external physical stimulus. A nerve once set in motion by a particular object tends to reproduce that motion, the sensation accompanying this increased flexibility in the nerve is, according to Bonnet, the condition of memory. That which puts the mind into activity is pleasure or pain, the divine Being originally created a multitude of germs in a graduated scale, each with an inherent power of self-development. Thus not man only but all forms of existence are immortal. Nor is mans mind alone immortal, his also will pass into the higher stage, not, indeed, the body he now possesses. It is impossible, however, to absolute perfection, because the distance is infinite. In this final proposition, Bonnet violates his own principle of continuity and it is also difficult to understand whether the constant advance to perfection is performed by each individual, or only by each race of beings as a whole. In Philosophical Palingesis, or Ideas on the Past and Future States of Living Beings, Bonnets complete works appeared at Neuchâtel in 1779–1783, partly revised by himself
13.
Gravity
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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward one another, including planets, stars and galaxies. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy, including light, on Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects and causes the ocean tides. Gravity has a range, although its effects become increasingly weaker on farther objects. The most extreme example of this curvature of spacetime is a hole, from which nothing can escape once past its event horizon. More gravity results in time dilation, where time lapses more slowly at a lower gravitational potential. Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the gravitational attraction is approximately 1038 times weaker than the strong force,1036 times weaker than the electromagnetic force and 1029 times weaker than the weak force. As a consequence, gravity has an influence on the behavior of subatomic particles. On the other hand, gravity is the dominant interaction at the macroscopic scale, for this reason, in part, pursuit of a theory of everything, the merging of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics into quantum gravity, has become an area of research. While the modern European thinkers are credited with development of gravitational theory, some of the earliest descriptions came from early mathematician-astronomers, such as Aryabhata, who had identified the force of gravity to explain why objects do not fall out when the Earth rotates. Later, the works of Brahmagupta referred to the presence of force, described it as an attractive force. Modern work on gravitational theory began with the work of Galileo Galilei in the late 16th and this was a major departure from Aristotles belief that heavier objects have a higher gravitational acceleration. Galileo postulated air resistance as the reason that objects with less mass may fall slower in an atmosphere, galileos work set the stage for the formulation of Newtons theory of gravity. In 1687, English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton published Principia, which hypothesizes the inverse-square law of universal gravitation. Newtons theory enjoyed its greatest success when it was used to predict the existence of Neptune based on motions of Uranus that could not be accounted for by the actions of the other planets. Calculations by both John Couch Adams and Urbain Le Verrier predicted the position of the planet. A discrepancy in Mercurys orbit pointed out flaws in Newtons theory, the issue was resolved in 1915 by Albert Einsteins new theory of general relativity, which accounted for the small discrepancy in Mercurys orbit. The simplest way to test the equivalence principle is to drop two objects of different masses or compositions in a vacuum and see whether they hit the ground at the same time. Such experiments demonstrate that all objects fall at the rate when other forces are negligible
14.
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
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Jean-Baptiste le Rond dAlembert was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist. Until 1759 he was also co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie, DAlemberts formula for obtaining solutions to the wave equation is named after him. The wave equation is referred to as dAlemberts equation. Born in Paris, dAlembert was the son of the writer Claudine Guérin de Tencin and the chevalier Louis-Camus Destouches. Destouches was abroad at the time of dAlemberts birth, days after birth his mother left him on the steps of the Saint-Jean-le-Rond de Paris church. According to custom, he was named after the saint of the church. DAlembert was placed in an orphanage for foundling children, but his father found him and placed him with the wife of a glazier, Madame Rousseau, Destouches secretly paid for the education of Jean le Rond, but did not want his paternity officially recognized. DAlembert first attended a private school, the chevalier Destouches left dAlembert an annuity of 1200 livres on his death in 1726. Under the influence of the Destouches family, at the age of twelve entered the Jansenist Collège des Quatre-Nations. Here he studied philosophy, law, and the arts, graduating as baccalauréat en arts in 1735, in his later life, DAlembert scorned the Cartesian principles he had been taught by the Jansenists, physical promotion, innate ideas and the vortices. The Jansenists steered DAlembert toward a career, attempting to deter him from pursuits such as poetry. Theology was, however, rather unsubstantial fodder for dAlembert and he entered law school for two years, and was nominated avocat in 1738. He was also interested in medicine and mathematics, Jean was first registered under the name Daremberg, but later changed it to dAlembert. The name dAlembert was proposed by Johann Heinrich Lambert for a moon of Venus. In July 1739 he made his first contribution to the field of mathematics, at the time Lanalyse démontrée was a standard work, which dAlembert himself had used to study the foundations of mathematics. DAlembert was also a Latin scholar of note and worked in the latter part of his life on a superb translation of Tacitus. In 1740, he submitted his second scientific work from the field of fluid mechanics Mémoire sur la réfraction des corps solides, in this work dAlembert theoretically explained refraction. In 1741, after failed attempts, dAlembert was elected into the Académie des Sciences
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Leonhard Euler
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He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, Euler was one of the most eminent mathematicians of the 18th century, and is held to be one of the greatest in history. He is also considered to be the most prolific mathematician of all time. His collected works fill 60 to 80 quarto volumes, more than anybody in the field and he spent most of his adult life in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, then the capital of Prussia. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Eulers influence on mathematics, Read Euler, read Euler, Leonhard Euler was born on 15 April 1707, in Basel, Switzerland to Paul III Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite née Brucker, a pastors daughter. He had two sisters, Anna Maria and Maria Magdalena, and a younger brother Johann Heinrich. Soon after the birth of Leonhard, the Eulers moved from Basel to the town of Riehen, Paul Euler was a friend of the Bernoulli family, Johann Bernoulli was then regarded as Europes foremost mathematician, and would eventually be the most important influence on young Leonhard. Eulers formal education started in Basel, where he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother. In 1720, aged thirteen, he enrolled at the University of Basel, during that time, he was receiving Saturday afternoon lessons from Johann Bernoulli, who quickly discovered his new pupils incredible talent for mathematics. In 1726, Euler completed a dissertation on the propagation of sound with the title De Sono, at that time, he was unsuccessfully attempting to obtain a position at the University of Basel. In 1727, he first entered the Paris Academy Prize Problem competition, Pierre Bouguer, who became known as the father of naval architecture, won and Euler took second place. Euler later won this annual prize twelve times, around this time Johann Bernoullis two sons, Daniel and Nicolaus, were working at the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. In November 1726 Euler eagerly accepted the offer, but delayed making the trip to Saint Petersburg while he applied for a physics professorship at the University of Basel. Euler arrived in Saint Petersburg on 17 May 1727 and he was promoted from his junior post in the medical department of the academy to a position in the mathematics department. He lodged with Daniel Bernoulli with whom he worked in close collaboration. Euler mastered Russian and settled life in Saint Petersburg. He also took on a job as a medic in the Russian Navy. The Academy at Saint Petersburg, established by Peter the Great, was intended to improve education in Russia, as a result, it was made especially attractive to foreign scholars like Euler
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Paolo Frisi
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Paolo Frisi was an Italian mathematician and astronomer. Frisi was born in Melegnano in 1728, his sibling Antonio Francesco, born in 1735, Frisi was educated at the local Barnabite monastery and afterwards in that of Padua. His friendship with Radicati, a man of liberal opinions, occasioned Frisis removal by his superiors to Novara. In 1753 he was elected a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. A. N. Condorcet and other Encyclopedists, he closely associated himself. In 1756 he was appointed by Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, to the professorship of mathematics in the university of Pisa, a post which he held for eight years. From several European crowned heads he received, at times, marks of special distinction. In 1766 he visited France and England, and in 1768 Vienna and his knowledge of hydraulics caused him to be frequently consulted with respect to the management of canals and other watercourses in various parts of Europe. It was through his means that lightning conductors were first introduced into Italy for the protection of buildings, in 1766, Frisi was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He died in Milan in 1784, there is a street named after him in Melegnano and a high school in Monza. List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Frisi
17.
Roger Joseph Boscovich
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He was nicknamed the Croatian Leibniz by Werner Heisenberg. In 1753 he also discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon, Boscovich was born on 18 May 1711 in Dubrovnik to Nikola Bošković, a Ragusan merchant, and Paola Bettera, daughter of a local noble of Italian origin. He was baptized on 26 May 1711 by Marinus Carolis, curatus et sacristia, the name Ruđer/Ruggiero may have been given to him because both his great-grandfather Agostino Bettera and his mothers brother were called Ruggiero, the godparent was his uncle Ruggiero Bettera. He was the child of the family and the second youngest. His father was a merchant born in 1642, at Orahov Do near Ravno in what was then the Ottoman Empire and is now Bosnia and she was a robust and active woman with a happy temperament who lived to 103. Paola Bettera left nothing in writing, but Boscovichs aunt, her sister and their sons, Ruđers cousins and playmates, Antun Bošković and Franjo Bošković, grew up into good Latinists. His own brothers and sisters were all older than himself, except his sister Anica Bošković, two years his junior. His eldest sister Mare Bošković, nineteen years his senior, was the member of the family to marry. His eldest brother Božo Bošković, thirteen years older, joined the service of the Ragusa Republic and his brother Bartolomej Bošković, born in 1700 and educated at the Jesuit school in Dubrovnik, left home when Ruđer was 3 to become a scholar and a Jesuit priest in Rome. He also wrote verse in both Latin and Illyrian, but eventually burnt some of his manuscripts out of a scrupulous modesty. His brother Petar Bošković, six years his senior, became a poet like his grandfather and he too was schooled by the Jesuits, then served as an official of the Republic and made his reputation as a translator of Ovid, Corneilles Cid and of Molière. A volume of his religious verse, Hvale Duhovne, was published in Venice in 1729, during his early studies Roger Boscovich showed a distinct propensity for further intellectual development. He gained a reputation at school for having an easy memory, on 16 September 1725, Ruđer Bošković left Dubrovnik for Rome. There, he studied mathematics and physics, and so brilliant was his progress in sciences that in 1740 he was appointed professor of mathematics in the college. In 1742 he was consulted, with men of science, by Pope Benedict XIV, as to the best means of securing the stability of the dome of St. Peters, Rome. His suggestion of placing five concentric iron bands was adopted, in 1744 he was ordained to the Roman Catholic priesthood. In 1745 Bošković published De Viribus Vivis in which he tried to find a way between Isaac Newtons gravitational theory and Gottfried Leibnizs metaphysical theory of monad-points. He developed a concept of impenetrability as a property of hard bodies which explained their behavior in terms of force rather than matter, stripping atoms of their matter, impenetrability is disassociated from hardness and then put in an arbitrary relationship to elasticity
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Johann Heinrich Lambert
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Johann Heinrich Lambert was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics, philosophy, astronomy and map projections. Lambert was born in 1728 into a Huguenot family in the city of Mulhouse, leaving school at 12, he continued to study in his free time whilst undertaking a series of jobs. Travelling Europe with his charges allowed him to meet established mathematicians in the German states, The Netherlands, France, on his return to Chur he published his first books and began to seek an academic post. In this stimulating and financially stable environment, he worked prodigiously until his death in 1777, Lambert was the first to introduce hyperbolic functions into trigonometry. Also, he made conjectures regarding non-Euclidean space, Lambert is credited with the first proof that π is irrational. He used a generalized continued fraction for the function tan x, euler believed but could not prove that π was irrational, and it is speculated that Aryabhata also believed this, in 500 CE. Lambert also devised theorems regarding conic sections that made the calculation of the orbits of comets simpler, Lambert devised a formula for the relationship between the angles and the area of hyperbolic triangles. These are triangles drawn on a surface, as on a saddle. Lambert showed that the angles added up to less than π, the amount of shortfall, called the defect, increases with the area. The larger the area, the smaller the sum of the angles. That is, the area of a triangle is equal to π, or 180°, minus the sum of the angles α, β. Here C denotes, in the present sense, the negative of the curvature of the surface. As the triangle gets larger or smaller, the change in a way that forbids the existence of similar hyperbolic triangles. Hence, instead of expressing the area of the triangle in terms of the lengths of its sides, as in Euclids geometry, Lambert was the first mathematician to address the general properties of map projections. In particular he was the first to discuss the properties of conformality and equal area preservation, in 1772, Lambert published seven new map projections under the title Anmerkungen und Zusätze zur Entwerfung der Land- und Himmelscharten. Further details may be found at map projections and in several texts, Lambert invented the first practical hygrometer. In 1760, he published a book on photometry, the Photometria and these results were supported by experiments involving the visual comparison of illuminations and used for the calculation of illumination. In Photometria Lambert also formulated the law of light absorption—the Beer–Lambert law) and he wrote a classic work on perspective and contributed to geometrical optics
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Pierre-Simon Laplace
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Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace was an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste and this work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace, Laplace formulated Laplaces equation, and pioneered the Laplace transform which appears in many branches of mathematical physics, a field that he took a leading role in forming. The Laplacian differential operator, widely used in mathematics, is named after him. Laplace is remembered as one of the greatest scientists of all time, sometimes referred to as the French Newton or Newton of France, he has been described as possessing a phenomenal natural mathematical faculty superior to that of any of his contemporaries. Laplace became a count of the Empire in 1806 and was named a marquis in 1817, Laplace was born in Beaumont-en-Auge, Normandy on 23 March 1749, a village four miles west of Pont lEveque in Normandy. According to W. W. Rouse Ball, His father, Pierre de Laplace and his great-uncle, Maitre Oliver de Laplace, had held the title of Chirurgien Royal. It would seem that from a pupil he became an usher in the school at Beaumont, however, Karl Pearson is scathing about the inaccuracies in Rouse Balls account and states, Indeed Caen was probably in Laplaces day the most intellectually active of all the towns of Normandy. It was here that Laplace was educated and was provisionally a professor and it was here he wrote his first paper published in the Mélanges of the Royal Society of Turin, Tome iv. 1766–1769, at least two years before he went at 22 or 23 to Paris in 1771, thus before he was 20 he was in touch with Lagrange in Turin. He did not go to Paris a raw self-taught country lad with only a peasant background, the École Militaire of Beaumont did not replace the old school until 1776. His parents were from comfortable families and his father was Pierre Laplace, and his mother was Marie-Anne Sochon. The Laplace family was involved in agriculture until at least 1750, Pierre Simon Laplace attended a school in the village run at a Benedictine priory, his father intending that he be ordained in the Roman Catholic Church. At sixteen, to further his fathers intention, he was sent to the University of Caen to read theology, at the university, he was mentored by two enthusiastic teachers of mathematics, Christophe Gadbled and Pierre Le Canu, who awoke his zeal for the subject. Here Laplaces brilliance as a mathematician was recognised and while still at Caen he wrote a memoir Sur le Calcul integral aux differences infiniment petites et aux differences finies. About this time, recognizing that he had no vocation for the priesthood, in this connection reference may perhaps be made to the statement, which has appeared in some notices of him, that he broke altogether with the church and became an atheist. Laplace did not graduate in theology but left for Paris with a letter of introduction from Le Canu to Jean le Rond dAlembert who at time was supreme in scientific circles. According to his great-great-grandson, dAlembert received him rather poorly, and to get rid of him gave him a mathematics book