Georges Braque was a major 20th-century French painter, draughtsman and sculptor. His most important contributions to the history of art were in his alliance with Fauvism from 1905, the role he played in the development of Cubism. Braque's work between 1908 and 1912 is associated with that of his colleague Pablo Picasso, their respective Cubist works were indistinguishable for many years, yet the quiet nature of Braque was eclipsed by the fame and notoriety of Picasso. Georges Braque was born on 13 May 1882 in Val-d'Oise, he grew up in Le Havre and trained to be a house painter and decorator like his father and grandfather. However, he studied artistic painting during evenings at the École des Beaux-Arts, in Le Havre, from about 1897 to 1899. In Paris, he apprenticed with a decorator and was awarded his certificate in 1902; the next year, he attended the Académie Humbert in Paris, painted there until 1904. It was here that he met Francis Picabia. Braque's earliest works were impressionistic, but after seeing the work exhibited by the artistic group known as the "Fauves" in 1905, he adopted a Fauvist style.
The Fauves, a group that included Henri Matisse and André Derain among others, used brilliant colors to represent emotional response. Braque worked most with the artists Raoul Dufy and Othon Friesz, who shared Braque's hometown of Le Havre, to develop a somewhat more subdued Fauvist style. In 1906, Braque traveled with Friesz to L'Estaque, to Antwerp, home to Le Havre to paint. In May 1907, he exhibited works of the Fauve style in the Salon des Indépendants; the same year, Braque's style began a slow evolution as he became influenced by Paul Cézanne who had died in 1906 and whose works were exhibited in Paris for the first time in a large-scale, museum-like retrospective in September 1907. The 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne affected the avant-garde artists of Paris, resulting in the advent of Cubism. Braque's paintings of 1908–1912 reflected his new interest in geometry and simultaneous perspective, he conducted an intense study of the effects of light and perspective and the technical means that painters use to represent these effects, seeming to question the most standard of artistic conventions.
In his village scenes, for example, Braque reduced an architectural structure to a geometric form approximating a cube, yet rendered its shading so that it looked both flat and three-dimensional by fragmenting the image. He showed this in the painting Houses at l'Estaque. Beginning in 1909, Braque began to work with Pablo Picasso, developing a similar proto-Cubist style of painting. At the time, Pablo Picasso was influenced by Gauguin, Cézanne, African masks and Iberian sculpture while Braque was interested in developing Cézanne's ideas of multiple perspectives. “A comparison of the works of Picasso and Braque during 1908 reveals that the effect of his encounter with Picasso was more to accelerate and intensify Braque’s exploration of Cézanne’s ideas, rather than to divert his thinking in any essential way.” Braque's essential subject is the ordinary objects he has known forever. Picasso celebrates animation. Thus, the invention of Cubism was a joint effort between Picasso and Braque residents of Montmartre, Paris.
These artists were the style's main innovators. After meeting in October or November 1907, Braque and Picasso, in particular, began working on the development of Cubism in 1908. Both artists produced paintings of monochromatic color and complex patterns of faceted form, now termed Analytic Cubism. A decisive time of its development occurred during the summer of 1911, when Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso painted side by side in Céret in the French Pyrenees, each artist producing paintings that are difficult—sometimes impossible—to distinguish from those of the other. In 1912, they began to experiment with collage and Braque invented the papier collé technique. On 14 November 1908, the French art critic Louis Vauxcelles, in his review of Georges Braque's exhibition at Kahnweiler's gallery called Braque a daring man who despises form, "reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes". Vauxcelles, on 25 March 1909, used the terms "bizarreries cubiques" after seeing a painting by Braque at the Salon des Indépendants.
The term'Cubism', first pronounced in 1911 with reference to artists exhibiting at the Salon des Indépendants gained wide use but Picasso and Braque did not adopt it initially. Art historian Ernst Gombrich described Cubism as "the most radical attempt to stamp out ambiguity and to enforce one reading of the picture—that of a man-made construction, a colored canvas." The Cubist style spread throughout Paris and Europe. The two artists' productive collaboration continued and they worked together until the beginning of World War I in 1914, when Braque enlisted with the French Army. In May 1915, Braque received a severe head injury in battle at Carency and suffered temporary blindness, he was trepanned, required a long period of recuperation. The things that Picasso and I said to one another during those years will never be said again, if they were, no one would understand them anymore, it was like being roped together on a mountain. Braque resumed painting in late 1916. Working alone, he began to moderate the harsh abstraction of cubism.
He developed a more personal style characterized by brilliant color, textured surfaces, and—after his relocation to the Normandy seacoast—the reappearance of the human figure. He painted many still life subjects during this time, maintaining his e
The Holy Transfiguration Orthodox Church is a western rite Orthodox parish, located in Mountain Home, Arkansas. Since February 2017 the parish is affiliated with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia; the church was founded on August 8, 2004 and became a parish in the United Episcopal Church of North America, a jurisdiction of the Continuing Anglican movement, but voted to align with the Reformed Episcopal Church in 2009. In the same year, with the Anglican realignment movement, in which the REC took part, the church joined the Anglican Church in North America; the church's current building was finished in late 2007 and early 2008. The parish became Orthodox in 2015. In August of 2019, on the feast day of Holy Transfiguration, Saint Thomas Orthodox Church was elevated by his Eminence Metropolitan Hilarion Kapral to be renamed to Holy Transfiguration Orthodox Church. In March 2009 three parishes, a bishop and archdeacon departed from the UECNA. One month on April 19, 2009, St. Thomas Anglican Church's congregation voted to align with the Reformed Episcopal Church, who would be a founding jurisdiction of the Anglican Church in North America.
Seamans continues to serve at his church in Mountain Home. On November 22, 2015 in a Parish Meeting, St. Thomas voted to leave the Anglican Church in North America and the REC and voted to become a Western Rite Parish of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. In February 2017 the parish voted to affiliate with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia. Saint Thomas Orthodox Mission - official site
The African Volleyball Confederation is the continental governing body for the sport of volleyball in Africa. Its headquarters are located in Egypt; the CAVB was the last confederation to be created: it was established in 1972, when the FIVB turned its five Volleyball Zone Commissions into continental confederations. The African Volleyball Commission had been founded in 1967. Although the national federation of Egypt was involved in the founding of the FIVB in 1947, the sport of volleyball remains amateur in Africa in countries which maintain consistent Olympic programmes, such as South Africa or Kenya. There has been considerable effort by the international federation to increase competitivity in the continent through special development actions; the results of these measures are, As of 2005, still timid. The CAVB's headquarters are located in Egypt; the CAVB is responsible for national volleyball federations located in Africa and organizes continental competitions such as the African Volleyball Championship.
It takes part in the organization of qualification tournaments for major events such as the Olympic Games or the men's and women's World Championships, of international competitions hosted by one of its affiliated federations. As of 2004, no African team has been able to obtain impressive results in international competitions, neither in women's nor in men's events, it could be argued that Egypt has some tradition in the sport, since it is the oldest of all the national federations affiliated to the CAVB. Judging from participation in international events, granted through continental qualification procedures, one may attribute predominance in the continent to the teams of Egypt and Tunisia, in men's, & Kenya and Tunisia, in women's volleyball; as of 2020, the following 54 national federations were affiliated to the CAVB, divided to 5 subregions and 7 zones. Men's. Men's African Volleyball Championship Men's African Volleyball Championship U23 Men's African Volleyball Championship U21 Boy's African Volleyball Championship U19Women's.
Women's African Volleyball Championship Women's African Volleyball Championship U23 Women's Africa Volleyball Championship U20 Girl's Africa Volleyball Championship U18 African Clubs Championship African Volleyball Cup Winners' Cup Women's African Clubs Championship Women's African Cup Winners' Cup Africa Beach Volleyball Championship Africa Women's Beach Volleyball Championship African Zone 1 Volleyball Championship African Zone 2 Volleyball Championship African Zone 3 Volleyball Championship African Zone 4 Volleyball Championship African Zone 5 Volleyball Championship African Zone 6 Volleyball Championship African Zone 7 Volleyball Championship CAVB Homepage NCAA list of African volleyball federations National Volleyball Federation of The Central African Republic National Volleyball Federation of Morocco